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HMW Brf©ILAHin) 







B Y J O II N H A Y W A R D , 

Author of the. Columbian Traveller, Religious Creeds, dec. &c. 




B () S TON: 

J O IT N II A Y W A 11 D . 

18 3 0. 

Us /dn5?»T'^ 

Entered according to Act of Congress, m the year 1839, by 


in the Clerk's Office of the District Court in Massachusetts 

*. V 

{ . * > f * n /I • ♦ 





The preparation of a Gazetteer ot New England, worthy the 
patronage of its enlightened citizens, is no easy task : those only who 
have attempted it can form a just conception of its difficulties. Long 
and wearisome journeys must be performed ; hundreds of volumes and 
local histories must be consulted, and thousands of letters must be written. 

Although a kind Providence has blessed the editor with health, and 
^ith numerous friends, in all parts of New England ; yet, afler a long 
period of devotedness, he is mortified that his work is not more complete. 

It will be perceived that there are many towns, particularly in the 
eastern section of New England, whose names are merely mentioned ; 
and that notices of others, in many cases, are exceedingly deficient. Had 
our means permitted, fair representations of the character and resources 
of those towns might have promoted individual and public interests ; and 
enhanced the value of our volume. There are lakes and rivers in the 
northern and eastern parts of New England, whose beauty, volume of 
water, and hydraulic power, might vie with the Winnepisiogee and Mer- 
rimack ; but whose locations and even names are but indistinctly known. 

But we have the consolation to believe that a Gazetteer of New Eng- 
land, perfect in all its parts, is rather desired than expected. Our coun- 
try is new : large portions of the territory of the New England States, 
are yet a wilderness, and new counties and towns are very frequently 

The progress of agricultural science, and of the mechanic arts; the 
advancement of commerce, both at home and abroad, and the increasing 
success of the fisheries, united with the determination of the people ot 
New England to connect the trade of the western oceans with their 
Atlantic borders, by roads of iron, which frosts cannot impede, are so 
great and strong, that the most devoted geographical and statistical writers 
niust be satisfied with following at a distance, rather than keeping pace 
with the rapid car of improvement in New England. 



In the performance of our work we hare derived assistance from many 
yaluable maps and books on New England. Among the number a re- 
spectful tribute is due, particularly, to Belknap's History of New 
Hampshire; Williamson's Maine; Dwight's Letters; Savage's 
Winthrop; Thatcher's Plymouth; Folsom's Saco and Biddeford; 
Benton and Barret's Statistics : — Hale's Map of New England ; 
Stevens' Rhode Island; Carrioain's New Hampshire ; and Green- 
leaf's Maine: — to Worcester's Gazetteer; Thompson's VermoRt; 
Pbase and N I les' Rhode Island and Connecticut; Spofford's Mas- 
sachusetts, and Farmer and Moore's Gazetteer of New Hampshire. 

From the latter work, and from its authors, the lamented John Far- 
mer, Esq., a celebrated antiquarian and writer, and Jacob B. Moore, 
Esq., of Concord, N. H., author of several valuable historical and mis- 
cellaneous works, we are indebted lor much of that which is valuable 
in regard to New Hampshire. 

From a beautiful volume, entitled "Connecticut Historical Collec- 
tions," by John Warner Barber, Esq., we have been permitted to 
enrich our pages with some of their most valuable and interesting ar- 

To Heads of Departments at Washington, and to the Secretaries of the 
several States to which the work refers, for valuable public documents ; 
to Postmasters ; and to numerous other friends who have kindly assisted 
us in our labors ; whose names we should feel proud to mention, were it 
in accordance with their wishes ; we tender the acknowledgments of a 
grateful heart. 

For the purpose of enlarging our work, as well as for its correction, 
our editions will be designedly small : contributions are therefore respect- 
fully solicited. 

While it is our determination to devote our time and humble talents to 
render our publications worthy of general approbation ; we are gratified 
with the assurance of eo-'Operation from eminent men in all parts of the 
country ; and we trust with confidence to receive that patronage, which 
Yankees, both aft home and abroad, invariably bestow on every effort 
whose obvious design is usefulness. 

Boston, May, 1839. 



It was our intention to have connected this publication with the Gaz' 
ETTESR ; but it was found that by compressing the matter, sufficiently to 
unite them in one volume, both would fail of the object contemplated. 

A great mass of materials for the Register is already received ; indeed, 
a considerable portion is now ready for the press ; but as we have extend- 
ed our plan, some months will elapse before its appearance. 

The work will comprise the rise and progress of all the important lit- 
erary, religious, moral and charitable institutions in New Enolaxd :— • 
an account of the Churches and Ministers in the several towns, from 
their origin, and settlement to the present time : — the rise and extent of 
internal improvements : — statistics of varioui kinds : lists of Courts, At- 
torneys at law, Physicians, Literary and Religious Journals, Newspa- 
pers, Banks, Postmasters, &c. &c. : to which will be added brief notices 
of distinguished men. In short, the Registeb is designed to comprise 
all that may be considered important and usefuMn a work of this kind, in 
relation to New, and which is not contained in the Gazetteer. 
The number of eminent men, of every profession, who have kindly 
tendered the Editor their co-operation, is so great, that we feel coniident 
that the Register will be entitled to a share of public favor. 

OX -^W letters and papers for the Editor, are requested to be Irft ai 
the Boston Post Office, 


Ik presenting the public with a Gazetteer of New England, it has seemed 
proper to make a few introductory remarks of a general nature, on the 
character of its inhabitants. They may with great propriety be called 
a peciUiar people : and perhaps New England and Pennsylvania are the 
only parts of the new world, which have been colonized by a class of 
men, who can be regarded in that light. The whole of Spanish and Por- 
tuguese America was organized, under the direct patronage of the mother 
countries, into various colonial governments, as nearly resembling those at 
home as the nature of the case admitted. The adventurers who sought 
their fortunes beyond the sea, in those golden tropical regions, carried the 
vices and the virtues with the laws and the manners of their native land, 
along with them, and underwent no farther change than was unavoidably 
incident to the new physical and political condition in which they were 
placed in America. The same remark, with nearly the same force, may 
be made of the Virginia colonists : they dilTered from Englishmen at 
home in no other way, than a remote and feeble colony must of necessity 
diflfer from a powerful metropolitan state. Pennsylvania was settled by 
a peculiar race ; but its peculiarity was of that character which eventu* 
ally exhausts itself; and would speedily perish but for an amalgamation, 
necessary though uncongenial, with the laws, the manners, and institu- 
tions of the world. If all mankind were Friends they might subsist and 
prosper. A colony of Friends, thrown upon a savage shore and environed 
by hostile influences from foreign colonial establishments, would perish, 
if not upheld by forces and principles different from its own. In the set- 
tlers of New England alone we find a peculiar people ; — ^but at the same 
time a people whose peculiarity was founded on safe practical principles ; 
reconcileable with the duties of life ; capable of improvement in the pro- 
gress of civilization, and of expanding into a powerful state, as well as of 
animating a poor and persecuted colony. 


Had not America been discovered and a tract upon our continent reserv- 
ed for English cplonization ; — nay, further, had it not been precisely 
such an uninviting spot as furnished no temptation to men of prosperous 
fortunes, the world would have lost that noble developcment of character 
which the fathers of New England exhibit. A tropical climate would 
have made it uninhabitable to Puritans ; or rather would have filled it up 
with adventurers of a different class. A gold mine would have been a curse 
to the latest generation. Had the fields produced cotton and sugar, they 
would not have produced the men whom we venerate as the founders of 
the liber^s of New England. 

Puritanism sprang up in England, but there it could not develope itself 
with vigor or consist with happiness. The conflict with the hostile in- 
stitutions of society was too sharp, and admitted of the cultivation of none 
but the militant or patient elements of character. To struggle with 
temporary success and to bow in permanent subjection was the necessary 
fate of the persecuted sect. So it was wisely ordained. Had Puritan- 
ism permanently mastered the church and the throne in England, it 
would have been corrupted. It would have picked up and worn the 
trampled diadem : it would have installed itself in the subjected church. 
Regarding Cromwell and the Rump Parliament as the gift of Puritanism 
to English liberty, it is a bequest at which we know not whether 
most to sigh or smile. The seed sown in England fell by the way side 
and the fowls came and devoured it up. The cause of political and social 
reform, which was conducted with self-denying wisdom and moderation 
in the outset, by single-hearted, honest men, degenerated as it prospered. 
In the moment of its triumph it sunk under the corruptions of selfish- 
ness, as a noble vessel which has braved the tempest in mid-ocean some- 
times goes to pieces on the rocks as it approaches land. 

But the precious seeds of libeKy, civil and religious, which were sown 
Ip New England, fell upon a genial soil, and brought forth worthy and 
abidipg fruit. Undertaking the same work which was undertal^en by 
their brethren in England, our fathers conducted it through the days of 
small things, through hardships, trial, and disasters, to a triumphant issue. 
It is true there were greater obstacles to be encountered in England, in 
the resistance of established institutions. Deep rooted errors were to be 
torn up; the towers of feudal oppression, which had^stood for centuries, 
were to be overthrown. But the influence of these formidable institutions 
was not limited to Old England. The rod of arbitrary power reached 
across the Atlantic. The little colonies had to struggle with the crown 
and the hierarchy, with the privy council and with special commissions, 
with Wilts and acts of parliament ; and they had besides to struggle with the 


Hardships of the 'wilderness, the dangers of the savage foe, of a sterner 
climate than that of their native land, the privations of a settler's life, 
the alternating neglect and oppression of the mother country ; — hut they 
struggled successfully with all. The reformers of abuses in England, as 
they claimed to be called, brought a king to the block, scattered a house 
of lords, and saw their great military leader clothed with all the powers 
of state; and in twelve years the son of that king returned to the throne, 
not merely by an unconditional restoration, but amidst a jubilee of na- 
tional rejoicing and without one security for liberty. All the while the 
fathers of New England held on their even way; not betrayed into 
extravagance when their cause at home (as they fondly called Old Eng- 
land) was triumphant ; nor in despair at the miserable relapse which en- 
sued. They did not indeed live to reap the fruit of their principles and 
their sacrifices ; and it reflects but the greater honor upon them that they 
persevered in their great work from a sense of duty, deep-seated, con- 
trolling, fearless, and not the less so although, while they lived, unre- 
warded by workfly success. 

In fact the founders of New England were actuated by the only prin- 
ciple sufficient to produce this result. It need not be said that this was 
religious principle. How easily it is uttered of our Pilgrim fathers that 
they were actuated by religious principle ; how little in these prosper- 
ous days do we realize all that is wrapped up in that description of their 
character ! It is difficult to comprehend of others what we have not 
experienced in ourselves. That easy frame of mind which prevails among 
a highly favored people, in periods of halcyon prosperity, is scarcely 
capable of being placed in sympathy with the moral heroism, the spir- 
itual courage, the sublime equanimity of a generation truly animated 
by the religious principle, exalted by persecution, and purified by hard- 
ship. Happy if in such a period we can, by diligent contemplation of the 
venerated men of other days, exalt our imaginations, till by conceiving 
we form a desire to imitate tlieir virtues ! In proportion as we do this, 
we shall realize the secret of their perseverance and success. They did all 
things through Christ strengthening them. What cannot man do when 
he has learned habitually and distinctly to regard this life as a preparatory 
scene, — a brief hour, — nay a fleeting moment, intro<luctory to an eternal 
being ? The fathers of New England were enabled, with their scanty 
means and feeble powers, to establish the foundation of institutions which 
will last to the end of time, for the very reason that they regarded allha- 
man interests and delights as transitory. That paradox in our moral na- 
tures which educes strength out of weakness, triumph out of self-denial, 
worldly power and success out of a stern preference of things not of 


tills world, received its most illustrious confirroation in the career of the 
pilgrim fathers of New England. 

This principle of our natures is the key to the great problem of the 
success which attended the Torlorn hope of humanity that landed on 
these shores. There is indeed a fanaticism, which violates all the laws 
of our nature, alike the higher ulterior principles which belong to an 
immortal spirit, and the humbler influences which grow from the reki- 
Uons of ordinary life. It leads to surprising deeds ; it forms characters 
which dazzle us with brilliant eccentricities. It is near allied to mad- 
ness ; often runs into it. But the religiousness of the fathers of New 
England was a far different principle. It was eminently practical. It 
allied itself with wise institutions of government; it sought the guidance 
of education ; it encouraged the various pursuits of industry ; it provided 
for the public safety and defence; and with chaste discrimination admit- 
ted the courtesies of polished life. It is difficult to say what sort of a 
commonwealth George Fox would have founded, had circumstances call- 
ed him to assume the province of the legislator. It is most certain, that 
in setting up an immediate divine inspiration as the guide of every man, 
he maintained a principle at war with the very idea of a politcal system 
and all its institutions ; nor is it less certain that the constitution which 
was actually granted to Pennsylvania, by its pure and noble-spirited pro- 
prietor, possessed little of the peculiarities of his sect but their mild, 
peaceful, and equitable temper. But the fathers of New England stop- 
ped short of the point where solemn conviction passes into enthusiasm. 
They pursued the ordinary occupations of life, planted the field, built 
vessels and navigated the sea, and carried on the usual mechanic arts. 
They made provision for protection against the Indians and the French. 
They organized a plan of civil government; they established by law a 
system of common school education, for the first time in the history of the 
world, and they founded a college for the avowed purpose of training up 
a class of educated men, well qualified to take the place of the learned 
and pious ministers who had emigrated with the first generation of pil- 
grims. These are the doings of intelligent and practical men, not of en- 
thusiasts or fanatics ; and yet they are the doings of men so resolutely 
bent upon the exercise of the right of worshipping God according to the 
dictates of their consciences, that they were willing to sacrifice to it 
home, fortune, and all that the mass of men hold dear. 

To say that the fathers of New England were not faultless, is merely 
to say that they were men ; to say that they established no institutions, 
the object of which was to Mnd the consciences of their successors is 
praise as just as it is high. If they adhered with undue tenacity to their 

NEV KSaiAltB. 
own opioiODS, and failed ia charity towards those who didfiirad, Ifaejr *t 
least left their posterity free, nithnut the attempt to secure before hand 
the control of minds in other ages by transmitted symbols and testa. Hu- 
manity inourna over the rigors practised towards Roger Williams, th« 
Quakers, and the unhappy persons suspected of witchcraft; but let it 
not be loi^olten that, as late as 1749, a wilch was executed at Wurzburf , 
and (hat even in 1760 two women were thrown into the waterin Lcices- 
terahire, ia England, to ascertain by their sinking or swimming whether 
they were witches. Above all, it may deserve thoughtful enquiry, before 
we condemn the founders of New England, whether a class of men leM 
Btevo in their principles and austere in their tempers, could hava accom- 
plUhed, under all the discouragements that siirruuniled them, against all 
the obstacles which stood in their way, the great work to which Provi- 
dence called them,— the foundation of a family of republics, confederated 
under a constitution of free representative government. There is every 
reason to believe, great and precious as are the results of (heir principle!, 
hitherto manifeateil to the world, that the quickening power of those 
principles will be more and more displayed, with every leaf (hat is turned 
in the book of Providence. 

That part of the United States denominated New Enoi 


KiGHTV TOWNS. Their extent, divisions, and population 
periods, are as rollows : 











■ S 











N. H 



















SI 0,409 



R I. 








87. IBS 

















The population of Maine and Massachusetts, in 1837, is given as by 
Bcenaustakeninthatyear. The population of New Hampshire, Ver- 
mont, Rhode Island and Connecticut, for 183T, is estimated according to 
the ratio o{ increiue, from 1320 to 1830. 


rich variety of minerals ; but until recently its people have been 
In ploughing the ocean, or digging on its surface, to search for 
within the bosom of its hills and valleys. A spirit of explorat 
ever, has arisen, which promises the most favorable results. 
Bnd indefatigable men are in the field, and the wisdom of our leg 
will keep them there. 

Granite or sienite, in all its varieties, are common in all th< 
marble of various hues, varying in quality, most of which, bear! 
polish, is abundant ; coal is found in various places, and stron 
pected to ezbt in others. Peat is abundant on Cape Cod, wh< 
is no wood ; and it is found in meadows surrounded by forests, 
exists in various parts of New England; and iron ore, of a pure 
is abundant in various sections of the eoiintry. Gold and silver 
to exist, but we hope not. Fine clay, sandstone, manganese ; si 
for roofing bpildings ; and various other articles for necessary 
abundant. Garnets, cobalt, rock crystals, and other miner: 
been discovered in various parts of New England, and which : 
tioned under their localities within the volume. 

Climate. The climate of New England is exceedingly 
the temperature ranges from 15° below the zero of Fabrenhe 
above. The mercury has been known to descend from 20° to 30 
r and to 102° above ; but such cases rarely occur. 

European philosophers have imagined that the coldness of th 
America was caused by our northwest winds, proceeding, as tl: 
j , ^ thought,/r(7m the great lakes, which aire situated in the interior < 

America : but since it has been discovered that the great lakes 
ward of the true N. W.. point, that opinion has been exploded. 

A second cause to which the coldness of these winds has been 
ted, is a chain of high mountains running from southwest to m 
in Canada and New Britain, at a great distance beyond the St. La 
A third opinion is that of the venerated Dr. Holyoke, of Sal 
supposed that the numerous evergreens in this country are the 
of the peculiar cold which it experiences. A fourth opinion is, 
coldness of these winds proceeds from the forested state of the i 
Dr. D wight entertained an opinion different from all those we ha 
tioned, viz : that the winds which generate the peculiar col 
country descend, in most cases, from the superior regions of i 
phere. The N. W. wind rarely brings snow, but when it do 
gree of cold is increased. The deepest snows fall with a N. E. 
storms from that quarter are most violent and of longest durat 
the mountains, the snow falls earlier and remains later than l 



grounds. On those elevated summits, the winds have greater force in 

driving the snow into the long and deep gullies of the mountains, where 

it is so consolidated, as not to be dissolved by the vernal sun. Spots of 

snow are seen on the south sides of mountains as late as May, and on 

the highest till July. A southeast storm is oflen as violent, but com 

monly shorter, than one from the northeast. If it begin with snow, 

it soon changes to rain. A brisk wind from the W. or S. W. with snow 

or rain, sometimes happens, but its duration is very short. Squalls of 

this kind are common in March. 

One of the greatest inconveniences suffered by the inhabitants of our 
country, is derived from tjie frequent changes in the state of the atmos- 
phere. The temperature has been known to change 44^ in twenty four 
hours. Changes are frequent, though seldom in the same degree. 
Changes from wet to dry, and from dry to wet, are at times unpleasant, 
and probably unhealthy. There is no month in the year which is not 
sometimes very pleasant, and sometimes disagreeable. In a series of 
years, our most pleasant months are June, September and October. 
Often the first two, and not unfrequently the first three weeks in Sep- 
tember are, however, very warm. From the 20th of September to the 
20th of October, the weather is delightful. The temperature is mild, 
the air is sweet, and the sky singularly bright and beautiful. This is 
the period denominated the Indian Summer. Some persons think June 
to be a more pleasant month than either September or October. In June, 
there are usually a few days of intense heat. In all other respects, 
except the brilliancy and beauty of the heavens, this month must be 
confessed to have the superiority over all others. The progress of vege- 
tation is wonderful ; and it seems as if the creative hand was, in a 
literal sense, renewing its original plastic efforts, to adorn the world with 
richness and splendor. All things are alive and gay. " The little hills 
rejoice on every side. The pastures are clothed with flocks. The 
valleys are also covered with corn, and shout for joy." Health at the 
same time prevails in a peculiar degree. The Spring is often chilled by 
easterly winds and rendered uncomfortable by rains. The Winter months, 
when the earth is clad with its mantle of snow, is the season for relaxa- 
tion and pleasure. 

The number of fair days in a year compared with the cloudy, is as 
three to one. We have had but few meteorological journals kept. For 
several years past they have become more frequent, and it is hoped, that 
from the increasing attention to the subject, comparative results of tho 
weather will become more numerous and exact. 

Navigation- and Commerce. The people of New England, 
from the first settlement of the country to the present time, have been 


eelebrated for fheir fine ships, nautical prowess, and commercial spirit 
Their extended Atlantic sea coast, and their noble forests of ship timber, 
give them as great, if not greater OBtcilities for these^ enterprises, than 
can be found in this or any other country. 

The number of vessels built in the United States in 1838, was 1,188; 
tonnage, 161,626 tons; of which there were built in New England 590: 
tonnage, 95,146. The number of seamen employed in navigation in 
the United States, was 67,744, of which 37,142 belonged to New 

In consequence of the absence of both natural and artificial channels 
to the fertile countries on the borders of the great lakes, and west of the 
Alleghany mountains, the exports and imports of New England, compar- 
ed with the whole of the United States, appears small ; but it must be 
borne in mind that a large proportion of the ships and seamen employed 
in this commerce belong to New England, and that a vast amount of the 
exports from other states consist of the products of the manufacturing 
industry and fishery of that section of the country. 

The value of the imports of New England, during the year ending 
SO September, 1837, was $22,052,414. Exports, $11,878,824. The 
total value of the imports of the United States, in that period, was 
$140,989,217; of exports, $117,419,376. 

During that period the American tonnage of New England, entered, 
compared with that of the United States, was as follows : New England, 
1,944 vessels, 893,877 tons: United States, 6,024 vessels, 1,299,720 tons. 
During that time there were 949 vessels built in the United States ; 
tonnage, 122,987 tons ; of which 389 were built in New England, meas* 
uring 51,988 tons. 

Fishery. This important branch of industry, and one of the great- 
est sources of wealth to the American people, has, from time immemo- 
rial, been almost exclusively cairied on by New England vessels, men, 
and capital. 

In 1837, there were 508 vessels in the United States engaged in the 
whale fishery ; the total tonnage was 127,239 tons ; of which number 
459 belonged to the New England states ; measuring 115,194 tons. The 
same year there were 127,678 tons employed in the cod and mackerel 
fishery ; 126,968 tons of which were owned in New England. , 

MAirurACTURXs. From the first settlement of the country, to the 
general peace in Europe in 1815, New England was emphaticallv a com- 
mercial country. During the long wars in Europe, when the flag of 
^e U. S. was the only passport among the belligerent nations. New 
England ships became the carriers of almost the whole of the eastern 

« • 


eontinent. The change from war to peace, in Europe, shook New Eng- 
land to its centre. It however stood firm. During a pause, in which 
conflicting interests in regard to the tariff on imports were settled, the 
resources of the country were examlned,and it was found that a large por- 
tionof the capital which had been accustomed to float on every g^e;and 
subjected to the caprice of every nation, might profitably be employed at 
home,in supplying our own necessities, and placing our independence on 
ft more sure foundation. A manufacturing spirit arose in New England, 
whose power can only be excelled by the magnitude and g^randeur of in- 
numerable streams on which it is seen to move. 

Our statistics on this hiehly important subject are exceedingly imper- 
fect : (hose only of Massachusetts are attempted to be given. When we 
find that every state in New England are making rapid advances in thii 
branch of our national wealth, particularly Rhode Island and Connecti- 
cut ; and that the amount of manufactures in Massachusetts, in a single 
year, was ^6, 282, 616, we may safely indulge the pleasing hope that 
the period is not distant when our exports will exceed our imports, and 
that oar work shops will no longer remain in Europe. 


There are several items in this volume which do not strictly pertaia 
to the general character of the work. Some of them are here noted. 

Routes to the White Mountains, - See White Mountain$m 

Distances on Long Island Sound and Hudson river, Long I, SounA, 
Saratoga and Ballston Springs, - - White Mountain$* 

Lake George, N. Y., - - - «• 

Whitehall, N. Y., - - - - « 

The North Eastern Boundary Question briefly stated. Maim. 

Confidence in God, 

Troy, N. Y., - - 

New Lebanon Springs, N. Y., 

Firmness of mind, 

Catflkill Mountains, N. Y., 

A venerable minister. 

Curious Courtship, 

Bay of Fundy, 

St. John's, N. B., 

A Congregation made Prisoners, 

Sharon, Ci 

Long Island Sound. 

Hancock^ Maa9, 

Stan^ordy Ct, 

Long Island Sound. 

Hartfordy Ct. 

Lyme, Ct. 

Fundy, Ba^ 


Darien, Ct 

Brave Women, Dustan's Island, Gorham, Me,, and Dorchester, Mas$ 
A good shot, .... Dalton, JV*. H 

Gofie and Whalley, • Hadley,Mass*,taid Woodbndge, Ct 


The" Old Black Bull," 

Prices of sundry articles in 1760, 

Faithful Missionaries, 

Burning of Fairfield, 

Mount Auburn Cemetery, 

Transplanting fish, f 

Obookiah, ... 

Large Apple Tree, 

Thecmometrical observations. 

Fortunate Stageman, 

Tribute to female character. 

Large Pines, 

Generals Allen and Stark, 

General Putnam and the Wolf, 

Alexanders' Lake, and Berlin, Ct. 

Colchester, Ct* 

Gorham, Me. 

Roxhury, Mass., and Haddam, Ct. 

- . Fairfield, Ct. 

Cambridget Mass. 

Fairlee and Whiting, Vt. 

Comwdll, Ct. 

Duxbury, Mass, 

• Epping, J\r, H. 

JBelchertown, Mass. 

- - - Ledyard, Ct. 

Liberty and JSTorridgewock, Me. 

Litchfield, Ct., and Manchester, J\r, H. 

Ponrfret, Ct. 

Tornadoes, Warner and JV*eto London, JV*. H., and Winchendon, Mass. 


Meteoric Stones, 
Story of the Frogs, 
Smart Old Men, 
A modest office seeker, 

See TVeHon, Ct. 

Windham, Ct. 

TVhitingham P7., and Shutesbury, Mass. 

Stratford, J\/\ H. 

iMad Title settled by combat. 

The ** Devils Den," a good ice house. 

Large Trout, - - - - 

Floating Islands, - Atkinson, JV*. £*., and 

Singular motive for marriage, 

"Lovewell's Fight, 

Curious Epitaphs, 

Poised Rock, 


Lymt, Ct. 

Sterling, Ct. 

Strong, Me., 

Whitingham, Vt. 

Wethersfield, Ct. 

Fryeburgh, Me. 

Dorchester, Mass. 

Farmington, JST, IT. 

A Turtle well marked, 

Mohegan Village, 

A relic of olden times. 

The New Hampshire Giant, 

•* Purgatory Cavern,** 

Ice Beds, - ' - 

•< Satan's Kingdom," 

Names of Towns, 

A " South Shore** White oak, 

Tak, a slave, the captor of a British General, 

Horrible butchery of a family, 

Penobscot Indians, ... 

"The Pool," - - - 

First mail stage^ in the United States, 

Indian Mound, . . . . 

George III. and John Adams, 

The Hermitess, ... 

Tough words for stammerers. 

Mineral Springs, 

Avalanches, ... 

Autumnal Foliage, 

A worthy maiden Lady, 

A Connecticut river law suit. 

The Drum Rock, - - 

An atrocious murder, 

A New England Clergyman of 1686, 

Middleborough, Mass, 
MontviUe, Ct. 
As^ford^ Cfi 
JVew Market, J>f, H 
Sutton, Mass. 
Wallingford, Vt 
J>rew Hartford, Ct. 
J^Torth Bridgewater, Mass. 
Plympton, Mass, 
Tiverton, R, I. 
Wethersfield, Ct. 
Orono, Me. 
Oxford, Ct 
Shrewsbury, Mass 
Ossipee, JV. H 
Quincy, Mass, 
Ridgefield, Ct. 
Roxbury, and Webster, Mass. 
Stafford, Ct,, and Hopkinton, Mass, 

White Mountains. 


Taunton, Mass. 

Wethersfield, Ct. 

Warwick, R, I. 

Washington, Ct, 

Wenham, Mass. 

Ancient Epitaphs, 
A runaway pond. 
Lake scenery. 

Plymouth, Mass,, and Windsor, Ct. 

- Glover, Vt, 

Winnepisiogee Lake^ 

>. ■■■ . 


Ab1»oty Me. 

Piscataquis co. This town lies 
76 .miles N. by E. from Augusta, 
130 N. by £. from Portland, and 
about 40 N. N. E. from Norridge- 
wodi. It is bounded N. by Mon- 
wm, E. by Guilford and S. by Park- 
man. The Piscataquis river passes 
nearly through its centre. It was 
incorporated in 1S27. Population, 
1837, 649. 

Abingdon, Mass* 

Plymouth co. This town is on 
the high land between Massachu- 
setts and Narraganset bays. Three 
rivers rise here, two of which emp- 
ty into the Taunton, the other into 
the North. It lies 19 miles S. S. E. 
from Boston, 22 N. W. from Plym- 
outh, 18 N N. E. from Taunton, 
and 8 S. of Weymouth landing. 
This town is noted for its manufac- 
tures of boots, shoes, and tacks. The 
total value of its manufactures, in 
one year, was $847,294, of which 
the amount of $82,000 was for tacks, 
and $746,794 lor boots and shoes. 
There were 847 males and 470 fe- 
males employed in the manufacture 
of the latter. Population, 1837, 
3,067. This town was incorporated 
in 1712. Its Indian name was Man- 

Acoalcset Rl^er^ 

Rises on the border of the town 
of Fall River, and meets an arm of 
Buzzard's bay, at Westport, 12 miles 
S. W. of New Bedford, Mass. 

Acton, Me* 

An interior town, in the county 
of York, recently taken from Shap- 
leigh. It lies near the head waters 
of Salmon river, by which it is di- 
vided, on the W., from New- Hamp- 
shire. It is 107 miles S. W. from 
Augusta, and 15 W. from Alfred. 
Population, 1837, 1409. 

Acton, Vt. 

Windham co. This town was 
first settled in 1781, and in 1782 
it was incorporated. It has some 
fine brooks, but no important mill 
streams. It lies about 15 miles N. 
of Newfane, and about 90 S. of 
Montpelier. Population 1830, 176. 

Acton, Mass. 

Middlesex co. This is a pleas- 
ant farming town of good soil. The 
Assabet river passes through it. It 
is 5 miles N. W. by W. of Concord, 
and 21 N. W. of Boston. Incorpo- 
rated 1735. Population 1837, 1071. 

Acwortli, Nf. H. 

Sullivan co. This town is chiefly 
agricultural in its pursuits. The 
soil is generally good. Cold river, 
which rises from Cold pond in this 
town, affords some good mill seats. 
This town was formerly noted fo* 
the culture of flax, which was man- 
ufactured by some of the inhabitants 
into the finest linen, equal to any 
imported from Ireland. The town 
was settled in 1768, and incorporat- 
ed in 1771. Population 1830, 1401. 


ed to its present name. It is water 
ed by a number of ponds, and by 
Black river and its branches. Al- 
bany lies 34 miles N. from Mont- 
pelier, and 9 S. of Irasburgh. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 683. 

Albion, Me. 

, Kennebec co. This fine farming 
town lies on the stage road from 
Aueusta to Bangor; 24 miles N. 
E. ntim the former, and 44 S. W. 
from the latter. Population, 1837, 
1609. This town produced 10,728 
busheb of wheat, in 1837. 

Alburgliy Vt. 

N Grand Isle CO. Settlements com- 
menced here by emigrants from 
Canada, in 1782. This town lies at 
the N. W. corner of the state and 
of New England ; 10 miles N. from 
North Hero, and 79 miles N. W. 
from Montpelier. It is bounded by 
the waters of Lake Champlain, ex- 
cept* on the north, where it mee.t8 
the Canada line, in north latitude 
45^. The soil is good and finely 
timbered. It has a mineral spring, 
of some repute in scrofulous cases. 
Population, 1880, 1,239. 

Alexander, He. 

Washington co. About 25 miles 
. N. by W. from Machias; and S. of 
Baileyville, and Baring, which bor- 
der on the river St. Croix. In this 
town are some ponds, which, with 
the large pond in Baring and Alex- 
ander, produce a large stream which 
empties into Cobscook bay. J'opu- 
lation, 1837, 457. 

Alexander's Ijake. 

. This beautiful sheet of water, of 
about a mile in length and half a 
mile in breadth, lies in the town of 
Killingly, Ct., and was formerly 
known to the Indians by the name 
of Maihapaug, Its present name 
is derived from Nell Alexander, a 
man who settled at Killingly in 
1720, and became proprietor of a 
large portion of the town. As this 

person gained his wealth in a man- 
ner which illustrates the antiquity 
of the propensity of the inhabitants 
of this state to the once honored, 
yet now despised employment of 
peddling, we will give the reader 
a short notice of his history. He 
came from Scotland, with a great 
number of other emigrants, in a 
ship which was to land them at 
Boston. Just before leaving the 
ship he discovered a gold ring up- 
on deck, for which he could find no 
owner. Thus fortunately provided, 
after his arrival he pawned the gold 
ring for small articles of trade, 
which he peddled in Boston and 
Roxbury. He was very prosper- 
ous, and finally became able to re- 
deem the author of his success, and 
pursue his business without embar- 
rassment. Afler a few years of 
constant activity, he acquired suffi- 
cient property to purchase a planta- 
tion of 3,500 acres in Killingly. 
The gold ring was transmitted as a 
serf of talisman, to his only son 
JVell, who transferred it to his only 
son JVell; who is now living at an 
advanced age, and has already pla- 
ced it in the hands of his grandson 
JVell; and so it will doubtless con- 
tinue from JVell to JVell, agreeably 
to the request of the first JVell, 
until the "last knell of the race is 

A singular tradition has been 
handed . down to us by the abori- 
gines concerning the origin of this 

In ancient times, when the r 
men of this quarter had long enjo 
ed prosperity, that is; when tht 
had found plenty of game in t^ 
woods,and fish in the ponds and y 
erSjthey at length fixed a tim^ 
a general powwow, a sort of fe 
for eating, drinking, smoking, 
ing and dancing. The spot c 
for this purpose was a sandy h 
mountain, covered with tall 
occup3ring the situation wb 
lake now lies. Thcpowwc 
four days in succession, an 


contiiiue longer had not the Great 
Spirit, enraged at the licentiousness 
which prevailed there, resohred to 
punish them. Accordingly, while 
the red people in immense numbers 
were capering about upon the sum- 
mit of the monntidn, it suddenly 
<*gaye way" beneath them, and 
sunk to a great depth, when the 
water from below rushed up and 
covered them all except one good 
old squaw, who occupied one of 
the peaks, which now bears the 
name of Loon's Island. 

Mr. Barber in his admirable work 
entitled *< Connecticut Historical 
Collections** from which this ac- 
eonnt is taken, observes, <* whether 
Ike tradition is entitled to credit or 
not, we will do it justice by affirm- 
ing that in a clear day, when there 
is no wind and the surface of the 
lake is smooth, the huse trunks and 
leafless branches of gigantic pines 
may be occasionally seen in the 
deepest part of the water, some of 
them reaching almost to the surface, 
in such huge and fantastic forms as 
to cause the beholder to startle V* 


AlexAAdrta, V, H* 

Grafton co. A small part of New- 
found lake lies in this town. Al- 
exandria is 30 miles N. W. from 
Concord, and 40 S. £. from Haver- 
hUl. Population, 1830, 1,083. In- 
corporated, 1782. On Fowler's and 
Smi&'s rivers and several other 
smaller streams are about 2000 acres 
of intervale land, which produce 
flax, potatoes and grass in abund- 
ance. Other parts of the town are 
favorable fqr wheat and maize. — 
This town was first settled by Jon- 
athan, John M. and William Cor- 
liss, in 1769. 

AUredy Me. 

One of the shire towns of York 
county. It lies 24 miles N. from 
York, 35 S. from Portland and 86 
8. W. from Augusta. Incorpora- 
ted, 1808. Popuhition, 1837, 1,860. 
This is a good farming town and is 

well watered by the higher soarett 
of Mousum river> whidi meets tlM 
sea at Eennebunk. In this town 
is a society of those neat and indui* 
trious horticulturists and artizani, 
denominated '* Shakers." 

Alfordy JIEass. 

Berkshire co. On the line of the 
state of New York, and watered 
by branches of Green river. Some 
manufactories of leather and shoes. 
125 miles W. from Boston, 14 S. by 
W. from Lenox, and 24 £. of Hud- 
son, N. Y. Population, 1837, 441. 
Incorporated, 1773. 

Allenstowity N« H. 

Merrimack co. On the Suncook 
river, 11 miles S. £. from Concord, 
and 38 W. from Portomouth. The 
land generally is of an ordinary 
quality, though there are some fine 
farms. The town is principally 
covered with a growth of oak and 
pine timber ; and great quantities of 
lumber are annually taken down 
the river. Allenstown is well wa- 
tered, though no large stream pass- 
es through it. Great Bear brook 
furnishes the principal mill seats. 
Catamount hill is the highest land 
in town. At the £. end of this hill 
b a precipice of 70 feet nearly per- 
pendicular, at the foot of which is a 
cavern of some extent, inclining up- 
wards. The first settlers were Rob't 
Buntin and others. In 1748, while 
at work on the western bank of the 
Merrimack river,opposite the mouth 
of the Suncook, in company wi& 
James Carr, Mr. Buntin and his son, 
ten years of age, were surprised by 
a party of Indians. Carr attempted 
to escape, and was shot down. Bun- 
tin and his son, making no resist- 
ance, were not harmed ; but taken 
through the wilderness to Canada, 
and sold to a French trader at Mont- 
real; with whom they remain^ 
about eleven months, escaped, and 
fortunately reached home in safety. 
Andrew, the son, continued on hi* 
fadier's farm until the commene** 


ment of the revolution, when, en- 
tering the service of his country, 
he died in her defence at White 
Plains, Oct 28, 1776. Incorporated 
July 2, 1831. Populktion, 1880,421. 

Aliuiy Me« 

This town is situated in the coun- 
ty of Lincoln, 10 miles N. from 
Wischsset, 64 N. E. fh>m Portland^ 
and 20 S. S. £. from Augusta. In- 
corporated 1794. Population, 18ST, 
1,138. This is a pleasant town and 
well watered by Sheepscot river. 

Cheshire co., is 1^ miles S. E. 
from Charlestown,14 N.from Eeene 
and 60 W. by S. from Concord. 
This town is well watered by small 
streams. Cold river passes through 
the N. W. part; and some of &e 
branches of Ashuelot river have 
their sources in this town. There 
are a number of ponds, the princi- 
pal of which is Warren's pond-; — 
length, 260 rods, breadth, 160. 
Perch and pickerel are here caught 
in great abundance. The' soil lb 
strong and productive, and the farms 
irenerally well cultivatied. Manu^ 
factures flourish in this town, and 
great attention is paid to education. 
Alstead was originally called New- 
ton, and was granted by charter, 
August 6, 1763, to Samuel Chase 
and 69otiiers. Genieral Amos Shep^ 
ard, who was for many years a 
member of the General Court of 
this state, and President of the Sen- 
ate from 1797 to 1804, resided in 
this town, and was one of its prin- 
cipal inhabitants from 1777 to the 
time of his death, Jan. 1, 1812. By 
his persevering industry, his econ- 
omy and correctness in business, 
and at the same time, by a rigid ad- 
herence to uprightness and integri- 
ty in his dealings with his feltow 
men, he acquired a handsome for- 
tune, and was in many things, a 
pattern worthy of imitation. Pop- 
lUation in 1880, 1,662. This town 
haf 6000 sheep. 

Strafibrd co. This town lies 22 
miles N. E. from Concord, and 26 
N. W. from Dover, and is bounded 
N. by Winnepisiogee lake and bay. 
The town is rough and uneven ; the 
soil hard and rocky, but productive 
when well cultivated. The growth 
of wood is chiefly oak, beech, maple 
and pine. The principal elevations 
are Mount-Major and Prospect Hill 
Merrymeeting bay extends S. about 
1800 rods into this town, where i^ 
receives the waters of Merrymeet- 
ing river. Half-moon pond, be- 
tween Alton and Bamstead, is 300 
rods long and 160 wide. This town 
was originally called JVew thw^ 
ham Gore, and was settled in 1770, 
by Jacob Chamberlain and others. 
It was incorporated Jan. 16, 1796. 
Population in 1830, 1,993. This 
town has 2000 sheep. 

Amesbiirjry Mass* 

This town is situated on the N 
■side of Merrimack riVer, in the 
county of Essex, 40 miles N. E. 
from Boston, 6 N. W. from New- 
buryport, and 7. N. E. from Haver- 
hill. Population, 1837, 2,567. It 
was taken from Salisbury in 1668, 
and is separated ft^om it by Powon^ 
river, a navigable stream for vessels 
of 300 tons. A pond, covering 
about 1000 acres, back of the town, 
90 feet above ^e sea, serves as a 
reservoir for a constant and exten- 
sive water power. The manufac 
ture of flannel and satinet is ve 
extensively pursued. The amo* 
of those articles manufactured 
the year ending April I, 1837, ^ 
$426,000. Many vessels are b) 
herb of superior timber, and 
manufacture of boots, shoes, h 
er, chairs, phaetons, gigs, anc' 
ryalls is very considerable, 
total amount of the various 
factures of this place is abou 
000 annually. About half 
ulation of the town is en| 
mechanical labor. Josiah 
M. D. one of the signer 


dedaration of independence was 
bcNrn here, in 1729. He died May 
19, 1795. 

Amliersty Me* 

Hancock co. This town is boun- 
ded on the S. by Mariaville. The 
head waters of Union river pass 
through it. It lies about 25 miles £. 
of Bangor. Population, 1837, 198. 

Ainl&ersty N* H. 

An important town, and the seat 
of justice in Hillsborough county, 
is situated on Souhegan river. It 
is 28 miles S. from Cpncord, about 
the same distance from Hopkinton, 
47 N. W. from Boston, 40 E. from 
Keene, 60 S. £. from Windsor, Vt. 
and 484 from Washington. Souhe- 
gan is a considerable and very im- 
portant stream, and in its course 
to the Merrimack river from this 
town, affords some of the finest wa- 
ter privileges in the county. Bab- 
boosuck, little Babboosuck and Jo 
English ponds are the largest col- 
lections of water. In some parts, 
and particularly on Souhegan river, 
the soil is of an excellent quality, 
producing abundant crops. In oth- 
er parts, on the hills elevated above 
the village, the soil is of a good 
quality, and several valuable farms 
are found under good cultivation. 
The village is pleasant and contains 
many handsome buildings. There 
b a, spacious common between the 
two principal rows of houses, which 
is often used for public purposes. 
There is what is termed a mineral 
spring, about 1 1-2 miles £. of the 
meeting house. The water has 
been found useful in rheumatic 
complaints, and in scrofulous and 
scorbutic habits ', for poisons by ivy, 
dog-wood, &c. This town was 
granted in 1733, by Massachusetts, 
to those persons living and the heirs 
of those not living, who were offi- 
cers and soldiers in the Narragan- 
set war of 1675. It was called Ji'ar- 
raganset JVo.3, and afterwards Sou- 
hegan- West. The number of pro- 


prietors was 120, of whom t cflmid- 
erable number belonged to Salem, 
Mass. The town was incorporated 
Jan. 18, 1760, when it assumed the 
name of Amherst, in compliment to 
Lord Jeffi^y Amherst. Among 
the worthy citizens of Amherst 
who deserve remembrance, may be 
mentioned Hon. Moses Nichols, a 
native of Reading, Mass., who was 
a colonel under Gen. Stark in the 
Battle of Bennington: Hon. Samuel 
Dana, a native of Brighton, Mass. 
Hon. W^illiam Gordon, eminent 
in the profession of the law. — 
Hon. Robert Means, who died Jan. 
24, 1823, at the age of 80, was for 
a long period of time a resident in 
Amherst. He was a native of Ire- 
land. In 1764, he came to this 
country, where by his industry and 
application to business, he acquired 
a large property, and great respect. 
Amherst did its duty manfully 
during the revolutionary contest. 
During, the first four years of that 
war about one in seventy of its 
people died in the service. The 
expenses of that war, to this town, 
« in addition of any bounties, travel 
or wages given or promised by the 
State or the United States, was 
found to be in specie, £3,611." 
Population, 1830, 1,657. 

Ambersty Mass* 

Hampshire co. The college and 
village in this town are on elevated 
ground and command a very beau- 
tiful prospect of the surrounding 
country. Amherst was taken from 
Hadley, and incorporated in 1759. 
Population, 1837, 2,602. It Ues 7 
miles £. by N. from Northampton, 
108 S. from Dartmouth college, and 
82 miles W. from Boston. There are 
good mill sites in this town on two 
streams, which empty into the Con- 
necticut at Hadley. Its manufac^ 
tures are various, consisting of 
woollen cloth, boots, shoes, leather, 
hats, paper, chairs, cabinet ware, 
tinware, axes, ploughs, palm-leaf 
hats, carriages, wagons, (large and 


tfnaU) Joinert' planes, storefi^^rteel 
hammerf, pistols, 0tA botoie knives. 
Total annual amount of manuilBtc- 
tures, about $200^00. SteReg- 

Washington co. Township No. 
10, first range of townships from the 
east line of the state, — about 100 
miles N. £. from Bangor. Incor- 
porated 1886. Population, 1887, 
180. This town has fine soil for 

Amonoosiiclc RlT-erSy N* H. 

Upper and Lovoer, The Upper 
Amonoosuck rises in the ungranted 
lands north oi the White Mountains, 
and passing N. £. into Dummer, 
approaches to within a few miles of 
the Androscoggin^ thence turn- 
ing abruptly to flie S. W. it pursues 
that direction and falls into Connec- 
ticut river near the centre of North- 
umberland. Its whole length is 
about 50 miles. The valley of the 
Upper Amonoosuck is 7 or S miles 
in breadth, and more than 20 in 
length : it is scooped outwithgreat 
beauty, the surface gently rising to 
the summits of the mountains on 
the N. The Lower Amonoosuck 
rises on the W. side of the White 
Mountains, and after running a 
course of 60 miles, falls into the 
Connecticut just above Haverhill, 
hy a mouth 100 yards wide. At 
the distance of two miles from its 
mouth, it receives the Wild Amo- 
noosuck, a stream 40 yards wide, 
and, when raised by freshets, very 
fwift and furious in its course. 
The waters of the Amoiioosuck 
are pure, and its bed clean ; the 
enrrent lively, attd in some places 
rapid. The vllley of the Lower 
Amonodsuck is about half a mile 
in width, and was ptobably once 
the be4 of a lake, its S. W. limit 
hclftgi the rise of ground at its foot, 
over which the waters descended 
in their coursa to the Connecticut. 
•Tbar^ia a fiarfrU in tfaia river about 

6 1-2 miles from the Notch ot* Uia 
White Mountains, where the da 
scent is 60 feet, cut through a maat 
of stratified granite. 

Ainoskeag Falls Sb VlUasey H« H. 

These falls are in the Merrimack 
river; between Grofistown on the 
W. and Manchester on the £. The 
whole fall of the river, within the 
distance of half a mile, is 64 feet, 
producing a great hydraulic pow- 
er. A company, with a large cap- 
ital, have commenced forming ca- 
nals and erecting buildings for man- 
ufacturing purposes on a very ex- 
tensive scale. Their plan provides 
for 87 mills, each containing 6000 
spindles. Two canals, 2 factories, 
a number of dwelling houses, muk- 
chine shops, &c. are now nearly 
completed. The canals are each a 
mile in length, and will, when com* 
pleted, be equal to any works of the 
kind in our country. The village 
is in Go£&town, 16 miles below Coti- - 
cord and 18 miles above Nashua ^ 
delightfully situated on the banks 
of these majestic falls. Amoskeag 
is already a place of considerable 
business, and must eventually be* 
come the mart of large manufac- 
turing operations. The vicinity of 
these falls was much frequented by 
the Indians. The Sachem Wono- 
lanset redded here. The tribe un- 
der him was sometimes molested by 
the Mohawks, who carried terror 
to the hearts of aU the eastern In- 
dians. In time of war between 
these hostile tribes, the Indians liv* 
ing in the neighborhood of the falls, 
concealed their provisions in the 
large cavities of the rocks on the 
island in the middle of the upper 
part of the fall. They entertained 
an idea that their deity had cut out 
these cavities for that purpose. 

Andover, Me* 

Oxford CO. This town was incor- 
porated in 1804. Population, 1837, 
661. It Hes about 30 miles N. W. 
firem Pari9, 61 W. N. W. from An- 

miw BNOLAim oAnftTsm. 

«A8te, and TO N. W. fjrom Portland. 
It Is finely watered by Ellis' river, a 
h«n€h of the Androscoggin. This 
town is an extensive glebe of up- 
land and intervale of excellent 
quality, snrrounded by White Cap, 
Bald Pate, Blue and Cone moun- 
tains. The town was first settled 
by industrious and intelligent farm- 
ers from Essex county, Mass., in 
1790, and most of its present popu- 
lation maintain the characteristicB 
of their fathers. 

Merrimack co. It lies 20 miles 
N. W. frorti Concord, and about 18 
E. by N. from Newport. Popula- 
tion, 1S30, 1,824. The Blackwa- 
ter in the S. W. part of the town, 
is the principal stream ; but nu- 
meMus rills and brooks find their 
way down the hills into the ponds 
or BlackWater. There are six 
pOnds in Andover, the largest of 
which are Chance and Loon ponds, 
both pictnriesque, and their wa^ 
ters pure. The surface of this 
town is extremely uneven, and 
in some parts rocky and barren. 
The Ragged Mountains pass along 
the N., and the Kearsarge extends 
its base along the W. The soil is 
in many parts of good quality, and 
pleasant villages are formed in dif- 
erent parts of the town. This town 
was granted in 1746, and was called 
JVew Breton, in honor of the captors 
of Cape Breton in 1745 ; in which 
expedition several of the grantees 
were engaged. It retained this 
name until June 25, 1779, when it 
was incorporated by its present 
name. The first inhabitant of Ando- 
Ter was Joseph Fellows, who mov- 
ed Into the place in 1761 : he died 
March 14, 1811, aged 84. Among 
the deceased citizens who are re- 
membered with respect by the in- 
habitants, we may mention Dr. Silas 
Barnard, the first physician in town, 
a native of Bolton, Mass., who died 
June 25, 1795 : Dr. Jacob B. Moore, 
a native of Georgofvwn^ Me., bom 

8eptff 5, 1772; settled in Andover 
in 1796; died Jta. 10, lftl8. He 
possessed respectable poetical tal- 
ents; was a writer on political tab- 
jects in the public papers, and was 
eminent in his profession. Jonathan 
Weare, Esq., a civil magistrate, 
highly respected for his integrity, 
died in 1816. Mr. Joseph Noyes 
was much honored for his charitable 
disposition. In 1782 a congrega- 
tional church was formed and ue 
Rev. Jossiah Babcock, of Milton, 
Mass., was ordained. Andover, 
though rough, is well adapted for 
grazing. It lecds about 4,000 sheep. 

Aadoyery Vt« 

Windsor co. Emigrants from En- 
field, Ct, first made a permanent 
settlement in this town, in 1776. , It 
was organized, as a town, in 1781. 
It is a mountainous township. Mark- 
hum and Terrible mountains lie in 
the western part. The land is une- 
ven, the soil is hard, and the town 
posseMes but few water privileges. 
Population, 1830, 975. It lies 20 
miles S. W. from Windsor , 87 N. 
E. from Bennincton, and 68 8. from 
Montpelier. The number of sheep 
in this town is about 4,500. 

Andevevy 11mm* 

Essex CO. This town lies on the 
south side of the Merrimack river, 
and is well watered by the Shaw- 
sheen river; and by Great Pond 
and Ha^gett's Pond, covering an 
area of 721 acres. It is 20 miles 
N. by. W. of Boston, 15 N. N. W. 
of Salem, 10 £. of Lowell, and 43 
S. 8. E. of Concord, N. H. This 
town was first settled in 1643. In- 
corporated, 1646. Population, 1837, 
4^78. This town has a valuable 
water power, which is used for 
manufacturing purposes to a great 
extent. The value of its manufac- 
tures, for the year ending April 1, 
1837, amounted to $624,450. They 
consisted of woollen goods, boots, 
shoes, leather, flax, soapstone, ma>- 
cliiiiery, tin and ceUnet wares. 


ehairf and hmtf. This is a.Tery 
beautiful town of fine foil and un- 
der excellent cultivation. It is on 
high ground and commands a vari- 
ety of beautiful landscape. The 
access to Andover from Boston by 
the railroad, is easy and very pleas- 
ant This town has long been cel- 
ebrated for its literary and theologi- 
cal institutions. There is no place 
in New JBngland better situated 
for seminaries of learning. See 

Aadroseog^S^ River, 

Or AmerUeoggin, Its most north- 
erly branch is the Margallaway 
river which receives the waters of 
Dead and Diamond rivers,and unites 
with those flowing from Umbagog 
lake, about a mile distant from its 
outlet. From this junction, the 
confluent stream pursues a souther- 
ly course till it approaches near the 
White Mountains, where it receives 
several considerable tributaries, and 
passes into Maine ,N. of Mount Mo- 
riah. It there bends to the £. and 
8. E. ; in which course, through a 
fertile country, it passes near the 
tea-coast, and turning N. runs over 
the falls at Brunswick, not far 
from Bowdoin College, into Merry- 
meeting bay, forming a junction 
with the Kennebec, 20 miles from 
the sea. 

Ann, Cape, BImis. 

See Gloucester, Muss, 

Anson, Me. 

Somerset co. Anson lies about 
10 miles N. £. from Norridgewock, 
112 W. from Portland, and 40 N. 
E. from Augusta. Incorporated, 
1798. Population, 1837, 1,894. It 
lies at the junction of Seven Mile 
Brook with the Kennebec, on the 
western side of that river. Here 
are fine farms and good husband- 
men. In 1887, 12,713 bushels of 
wheat was raised. 

Antrim, Bf* HU 

Hillsborough oo. It is 20 miles 

I N. W. from Amherst, tO 8. W. 
from Concord, and 67 from Boston. 
The E.'part of Antrim lies on Cob- 
toocook river; and though some- 
what hilly, is a tract of productive 
land, a considerable proportion of 
which is arable. On the river 
there are valuable tracts of allu- 
vial land. The North Branch river, 
so called, a small stream originate 
ing from several ponds in Stoddard, 
furnishes several valuable mill seats 
and in some parts of its cours^, it 
is bordered by tracts of intervale. 
The W. part of the town is moun- 
tainous, but suitable for grass, and 
affords an extensive range of good 
pasturage. There .are six natural 
ponds well stored with perch and 
pike. A curiosity has been dis- 
covered in the middle branch of 
Contoocook river, a rock, about 10 
feet long and 8 feet wide, covered 
with a shallow coat of moss, afibrd* 
ing sustenance to 21 different kinds 
of plants and shrubs, three of which 
produce edible fruit. Antrim was 
incorporated March 22, 1777. The 
first settlement was made by Dea. 
James Aiken about the year 1768. 
Dea. Aiken was a native of Lon- 
donderry, where he was born in 
1731. He died July 27, 1817. He 
was a professor of the christian re- 
ligion more than '60 years, and 
adorned it by a serious and exem- 
plary life. Population, 1830, 1,309. * 
Antrim has about 4,400 sheep. 

Appleton, Me. 

Waldo CO. This town lies 20 
miles S. W. from Belfast, 84 N. W. 
from Portland, and 35 E. by S. from 
Augusta. Incorporated, 1829.~- 
Population, 1837, 839. It is situa- 
ted between the head waters of 
the Muscongus and St. George's 
rivers. Considerable wheat is grown 

Ar|nrl«9 Ble. 

Penobscot co. This is a new 
town, but fertile, and flourishing 
in its agricultural pursuits. It^ro- 


duces tiie best of wheat It lies 
69 miles N. E. from Augusta. — 
Ftpulation, 1830, 326 ; in 1837, 601. 

Arltngtony Vt. 

Bennington co. This town was 
first settled in 1763. The time of 
its organization is not known, as one 
Blsco, a tory, the town clerk in 
1T77, destroyed the records. It is 
finely watered by Green river. Mill 
and Warm brooks, and Roaring 
branch which fall into the Batten- 
kiU, at tiie north part of the town. 
These streams afibrd excellent mill 
sites, and on their banks are large 
bodies of superior meadow land. 
Wesi and Red mountains extend 
through the west part of &e town 
and supply a great variety of good 
timbetr. Excellent marble is found 
here ;— considerable quantities of 
which are wrought and transported. 
Here is a medicinal spring, and a 
cavern of large dimensions. The 
spring is not of much note, but the 
caverU is a great curiosity. This 
is a flourishing town in boUi its ag- 
ricultural and manufacturing pur- 
suits. The number of sheep in 
this town in 1836, was 10,077. It 
lies 15 miles N. from Bennington, 
106 S. W. from Montpelier, and 40 
N. E. from Troy, N. Y. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,207. 

"" Aroostook River* 

This river rises in the interior 
part of Penobscot county. Me., and 
alter traversing more than 100 miles, 
and receiving many and powerful 
tributaries in that state, it falls into 
fte river St. Johns in New Bruns- 
wick. The lands on this river and 
its branches are very fertile, and are 
said to be equal to the celebrated 
Genesee lands for the culture of 

Aseutney Mountain^ Vt« 

This mountain is situated in the 
towns of Windsor and Weathers- 
fietd. It is 3,116 feet above the 
Connecticut river, at Windsor; and 

3,820 feet above the level of th« 
sea. It consists of granite and it 
nearly destitute of vegetable ■ cov« 
ering. From Windsor, to the base, 
is 4 miles. Its ascent is generally 
steep, but travellers who delight 
to view rich and variegated scene- 
ry, will be amply rewa^ed for the 
toil of a pilgrimage to its summit. 

Ashbumhain , Mass* 

Worcester co. This township 
was granted to Thomas Tileston and 
others of Dorchester, for services 
in an expedition against Canada, in 
the year 1690. For many years it 
was called " Dorchester Canada.'* 
It was incorporated as a town in 
1765. Ashbumham lies on the 
height of land between the Con- 
necticut and Merrimack rivers. It 
is watered by large ponds which 
furnish good mill seats. Its manu- 
factures consist of cotton goods, 
boots, shoes, leather, chairs, cabin- 
et ware, fur and palm-leaf hats ; the 
annual value of which is about 
$100,000. This town is 80 mllea 
N. from Worcester, 50 N. W. irom 
Boston, and 35 W. from Lowell. 
Population, 1837, 1,758. 

This is a pleasant town, in the 
county of Middlesex, on the line of 
N. H. It is 25 mUes N. W. from 
Concord, 42 W. N. W. from Boston 
and 8 S. £. from New Ipswich, N. 
H. Population, 1837, 1,201. It has 
some manufactures of palm-leaf hats 
boots, shoes, chairs, wooden ware, 
and curled hair. 

Aslkileld, Mass. 

Franklin co. This town was first 
settled in 1754, and, until its incor- 
poration, in 1764, it was called 
Huntstown. Population, 1887,— 
1,656. This town is on elevated land 
between Deerfield and Westfield 
rivers, to each of which it sends a 
small tributary. It has small man- 
ufactures of leather, scythe snaiths, 
spirits and essences, tod about 


8000 sheep. It is 106 miles W. from 
Boston, 12 S. W. from Greenfield, 
and 15 N. W. from Northamptop. 

Aslnford, Ct« 

Windham co. This town was 
first settled in 1710. Incorporated, 
1714. It is watered by several 
small streams which afford a water 
power for one cotton and three 
woollen factories. The surface of 
the town is rough and stony, but 
excellent for gra^ng. The num- 
ber of sheep in this town is about 
5,000. It lies 81 miles £. fi-om 
Hartford, and 14 N. W. from Brook- 
lyn. Population, 1^30, 2,660. The 
following is said to have occurred in 
this town, and is told to illustrate the 
manners and customs of ancient 
times. "A concourse of people 
were assembled on the hill in front 
of the meeting house, to witness 
the punishment of a man who had 
been convicted of neglecting to go 
to meeting on the Sabbath for a pe- 
riod of tlu«e months. According 
to the existing law for such delin- 
quency, the culprit was to be pub- 
licly whipped at the post. ■ Just as 
the whip was about to be applied, 
a stranger on horseback appeared, 
rode up to the crowd of spectators, 
and enquired for what purpose they 
were assembled. Being informed 
of the state of the case, the strange 
gentleman rose upright in his stir- 
rups, and with emphasis addressed 
the astonished multitude as follows : 
* You' men of A^iford, serve God 
as if the D...1 was in you ! Do you 
think you can whip the grace of 
God into men ? Christ will have 
none but volunteers.*^ The people 
stared, while the speaker, probably 
not caring to be arraigned for con- 
tempt of court, put spurs to his 
horse, and was soon out of sight ; 
nor was -he evermore seen or heard 
of by the good people of Ashford." 
Col. Thomas Knowlton was a na- 
tive of this town. He was at the 
batde of Bunker Hill, and fell at 
Hsrlem Heights, in 1776. Wash- 

ington termed him, in a general or> 
der after his death, "the gallant and 
brave Col. Knowlton, who would 
have been an honor to any coun- 

Aalkuelot RlT-er, N. H.^ 

Or Ashwillet, a river in Chesh- 
ire county, which has its source in 
a pond in Washington. It runs in 
a southerly course through Marlow 
and Gilsum, to Keene, where it re- 
ceives a considerable branch issu- 
ing from ponds in Stoddard. From 
Keene it proceeds to Swanzey, 
where it receives another consider- 
able branch which originates in Jof- 
frey and Fitzwilliam. It pursues 
its course southerly and westerly 
through Winchester into Hinsdale, 
where, at the distance of about 8 
miles from the S. line of the state, 
it empties into the Connecticut. 

Aasabet Rl-rery Mass. 

This river rises in the neighbor- 
hood of Westborough j — it passes 
through Marlborough, Northbo- 
rough and Stow, and joins Sudbury 
river at Concord. 

AtlienSy Itle. 

Somerset co. This town was 
incorporated in 1803. Population, 
1837, 1,424. It is about 18 miles 
N. N. £. from Norridgewock, 114 
N. N. £. from Portland and 45 N. 
from Augusta. It is watered by a 
tributary of Kennebec river. 

Atlieiui Vt. 

Windham co. This town lies 14 
miles N. from Newfane, 98 S. from 
Mon^elier, 10 W. from Bellows' 
Falls, and about 40 N. £. from Ben- 
nington. Peculation, 1830, 415. 
This town was first settled in 1780, 
by people from Rindge, N. H., and 
Winchendon, Mass. They encoun- 
tered great hardships. « The snow 
was four feet deep when they came 
into town, and they had to beat 
tl^eir own path for 8 miles throu|^ 
the woods. A small yoke of oxen 


were the only domestic animals 
that they took with them." This 
ia a good township of land, particu- 
larly for grazing. It has 2000 sheep. 
Here are productive orchards, pine 
timber, and a small mill stream. 

AQkolf Mms« 

WOTcester co. The Indian name 
of this town was Paquoig, This 
pleasant place lies 60 miles W. N. 
W. from Boston, 28 N. W. from 
Worcester, and about 24 W. from 
Fitchburg. Miller's river is a fine 
ftream, and affords Athol a great 
water power. The manufactures 
of Athol consist of cotton goods, 
boots, shoes, leather, paper, iron 
castings, scythe», ploughs, cabinet 
ware, machinery, straw bonnets, 
palm leaf hats,shoe pegs, harnesses, 
shoe and hat boxes, pails, sashes, 
doors and blinds; — annual amount 
about $175,000. Incorporated,1762. 
Population, 1837, 1,603. 

Afkliuidny He. 

Piscataquis co. This township 
was incorporated in 1819. It lies 
•bout 35 miles N. N. W. from Ban- 
gor, 132 N. £. from Portland, and 
79 N. £. from Augusta. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 557. It is bounded on 
the N. by Piscataquis river. This 
town has a good soil. Wheat crop, 
1837, 5,168 bushels. 

Atkiiuiony ]f • H. 

Rockingham co. It is situated 
30 miles S. W. from Portsmouth, 
and 32 S. E. from Concord. The 
surface of Atkinson is uneven ; the 
soil of a superior quality, and well 
cultivated. The cultivation of the 
jipple has received much attention 
here, and the finest frmt is pro- 
duced. Incorporated Sept. 3, 1767, 
by its present name, in honor of 
Theodore Atkinson. Several of 
the first settlers lived to a great age. 
The Rev. Stephen Peabody was Sie 
first settled minister in Atkinsop. 
He was a native of Andover, Mass. 
He took an active part in the revo- 

lution, and served as chaplain in 
tiie regiment under Col. Poor, sta- 
tioned at Winter-Hill. The acade- 
my in this town is one of the oldest 
and most respectable institutions in 
the state ; it was incorporated Feb. 
17, 1791. ** In a large meadow in 
this town, there is an island, con- 
taining 7 or 8 acres, which was for- 
merly loaded with valuable pine 
timber and other forest wood. When 
the meadow is overflowed, by means 
of an artificial dam, this island rises 
in the same degree as the water 
rises, which is sometimes six feet. 
Near the middle of this island, is a 
small pond, which has been gradu- 
ally lessening ever since it was first 
known, and is now almost covered 
with verdure. In the water of this 
pond, there have been fish in plen- 
ty ; which, when the meadow hath 
been flowed, have appeared there, 
and when tiie water hath been 
drawn off, have been left on the 
meadow ; at which time the island 
settles to its usual place." Popu- 
lation, 1830, 555. 

This town lies at the N. W. cor- 
ner of the county of Bristol ; 12 
miles N. from Providence, R. I., 8 
N. W. from Taunton, and 28 S. 
from Boston. A branch of the 
Pawtucket rises here, and several 
other rivers pass through the town. 
It possesses a fine water power. It 
was first settied, 1644, and incorpo- 
rated in 1694. Population, 1887, 
2,396, The value of the manufac- 
tures at this place, for tiie* year 
ending April I, 1837, amounted to 
about $500,000. That of cotton 
goods alone to $229,571. The oth- 
er manufactures consisted of boots, 
shoes, leather, metal buttons, combs 
jewelry, clocks, planing machines, 
carpenter's tools, straw bonnets, 
chairs and cabinet ware. This town 
suffered much during the reign of 
the celebrated Indian King Philip. 
In 1675, Atdeborough was a fron' 
tier settiement. 


Aubwnty BiMis. must pass this place on its passage 

Worcester CO. Until 1887, this ^J?"^®*' - , . - ^ „«*♦««• *i.. 

town had been called Ward, in hon- T»ie Kennebec bndge, unitf ngthe 

or of (General Ward, of the revolu- ^^'^ ^^J^^^ ^^.^^ the town is 

*i^^^^ «-«.« Tf Joo ir^^ixrn^w^ii^ » ^^^ stTucturc. It was boilt in 

tionaryarmy. It was incorporated ^ - , length and 

in 1778. Population, 1837, 1,188. ^^T'^Si nnn ^L J™^c'«o^ 

Worcester, and 46 W. S^ W. trou, '-^ptZ!^:^tel^, hS 

^' Many of the streets are decorated 

An^putUf Me. |jy ^^^^^ planted on each side ;— a 

This delightful town, the Capi- striking evidence of tbe good taste 

TAL of the state, and chief town of the inhabitants, 
of the county of Kennebec, is in 

N. Lat. 44® 18' 48'' and W. Lon. The <9fafe Hiemse is a spacious and 
69® 50'. It lies 146 miles N. £. elegant structure, located upon a 
from Concord, N. H.; 182E. N.£. beautiful eminence about half a 
from Montpelier, y t. ; 163N. N.E. mile from the village, on the road 
from Boston, Mass. ; 208 N. N. E. towards Hallowell, and commands 
from Providence, R. I. ; 260 N. E. an extensive and very delightful 
from Hartford, Ct. ; and 595 miles prospect. It is built of hammered 
N. £. from Washington. Augusta is granite, or rather gneiss of a white 
situated at the head of sloop naviga- color, and very much resembles 
tion on Kennebec river, 43 miles marble, at a distance. Themateri- 
from the sea. The town lies on al of which it was built, was quar- 
both sides of the Kennebec, and ried from the spot on which it stands, 
contains an area of 8 by 6 miles. It has a spacious hall for the Rep- 
It was first settled in 1771, and in- resentatives ; two of convenient size 
corporated in 1797. In 1886 it con- for the Senate and the Executive 
tained 6,800 inhabitants. Its In- Departments, and rooms for all the 
dian name was Cushnoe. There offices immediately connected with 
was, in its early settlement, a fort, the Government. In front is an ex- 
and four block houses built of tim- tensive eommofii adorned with trees 
ber, to afford protection to the in- tastefully arranged, which, when 
habitants from the Indians, who grown into shades, will afford a de- 
were then very troublesome. The lightful promenade. * 
fort was called Fort Western, and 

is still standing on the east bank of The United States' Arsenal 

the river, and is now occupied as a buildings are situated upon the east 

dwelling house. This is already a bank of the river, in view of the vil- 

very flourishing town, not only in lage, and are chiefly constructed of 

its agricultural pursuits, but in its stone, and present a very fine ap- 

commerce and manufactures. The pearance. The Government has 

tonnage of the place is about 3000 expended large sums of money ir 

tons. Its exports are lumber of all their construction, and it is expec 

kinds, oats, peas, beans, hay, pota- ed that soon the Government w 

toes, wool, cider, apples, &c. — make it an Arsenal of Constrv 

When the extent and resources of tion. There are at present abo 

the noble Kennebec and its tributa- 2000 stand of arms deposited he 

ries, above tide water, are consid- besides cannon and other munif 

ered, some idea may be formed of of war. The Post is command^ 

the vast quantity of lumber that a captain of the Ordnance D( 

meat, BJded bj a Lieut, of the bi 

The Slate Insane Hospital. This 
■plendid granite edifice, an honor 
to the slate and to humanity, occu- 
pies a plat af elevated ground, of 
■erenty acrea, dd the east side of 
the river. Its siluation is unriFal- 
ed for the beauty of ita scenery. 
This buUding was commenced in 
1839, and will probably be com) 
t)d and prepared to receive patjc 
Id 1S39. It will cost the state, and 
some beneficent iudividualn, who 
have made liberal douatloDS towards 
its erection, about $100,000. It is 
of the model of the Lunatic Hoe- 
pital at Worcester, Mass., and is 
much admired for its.eiteniQl arch- 
itecture and internal arrangement. 
The centre building and wings are 
263 feet Iwig ; the centre building 
is S2 feet in length, 46 feet wide, 4 
stories high, besides the basement 
■nd attic, having a chapel in the attic 
80 by 40. The wings are 90 feet 
bug in front, and 100 in the t«ar, 
>e feet wide, and 3 stories high, di- 
vided into 126 rooms, 120 of which 
are designed for patients, the re- 
Daining 6 for water closets and oth- 
er purposes, with halls between the 
rooms 13 feet wide ruaning the en- 
tire length of each wing, and com- 
municating with the dining rooms 
in the centre building. 

The Auguita High Schaol,\i an 
elegant brick building, situated up- 
on a beautiful eminence, 2 stories 
bigh, 63feet lone hy 50 wide, hav- 
ing a pediment front supported by 
done coliiDins, and contains two 
large school rooms, beside a labora- 
tory and (bur recitation rooms, and 
cost about $7,000. 

The above isa brief sketch of the 
prominent features of this beauti- 
ful and flourishing town ; — such as 
It has bec<Hne by the common ef- 
■ — -' - intelligent 


But a new era is opened to An- 
^nsta. The mighty waters of the 
KeDoebec have been arrested in 
Iheir course. That proud stream, 
which, for ages, has rolled its rapid 
current to the ocean, unimpeded by 
the devices of man, is destined for 
affps lo come, to pay perpetual 
homage to Yankee perseverance 
nnd skill, and to lend its gigantic 
strength to aid the arts and sciences 
in ^applying the wants of millions. 

We may perhaps, be suspected of 
p^irtiality towards this lovely Vll- 
liic;e of the East, for giving it ao es- 
(landed a notice ; — but, as accounts 
of works of great public utility ai 

esting <c 

t of our readers, 



Iriicturc;— boldinitsdesign — euri- 

iti? in its worlimanship, — and prob- 

li!; unrivaled by any workoi sim- character and for similar pur- 

0568, in this or any other country. 

Although Augusta enjoys the 

ilcasure of seeing this noble enter- 

iri^ accomplished within its own 

iLiF'Jera, and by the energy of iU 

im people; yet improvements of 

hit character are by no means lo- 

;i1 in their effects. The benefits 

nf this undertaking will be fell, not 

y in the valley of (he Kennebec, 

i throughout the state. 

fhcse works were commenced 

ISSn, by the JTcnneAec Locks 

'I Canals Companj/, and com- 

pk'ted in September, 1837. The 

rnsl was about $300,000. They 

arc about halfa mile above the cen- 

of the village, and were con- 

Lictcd under the superintendence 


lua, N. H., as chief enpnoer. 

whose report many of the fcil- 

ig facts are elicited. 

le length of the Dam, excla- 

of the stone abutments and 
Liivk, is 5S4 fee^-the base, 127 
{•■•■i — the height, IB feet above or- 
tlitisryhigb watei msrb. Ills built 

rith . 

ibs of timber, Iralted tnd 



trenailed strongly together, and is 
filled with ballast, to the very top. 
The upper slope is covered with 
five inch pine plank, jointed and 
perfectly tight ; the lower with five 
and three inch hemlock plank.-^ 
The crest, terminating at the sluice, 
near the middle of the overfall, is 
level, and covered entirely with 
stone eight feet in length, and 
strongly secured with iron straps 
and bolts. The sluice, sixty feet 
in length, is covered in the same 
manner, and is about twenty inches 
lower than the wings. The walls 
of the Lock are 170 feet in length, 
its chamber 101 feet by 2S 1-3 feet 
in the clear, with a single lift ; the 
west wall serves as the eastern 
abutment of the Dam — it is 2S feet 
thick at the base, graduated to 25 
at the top. The head and east walls 
are of corresponding strength. — 
Both are built wholly of granite. 
The face courses hammered, bed 
and joint, rabbitted, and laid in ce- 
ment, and the rabbit filled with 
cement The floor of the Lock is 
constructed of timber fifteen inches 
deep, and covered with five inch 
pine plank, tongued and grooved, 
with an additional flooring of five 
inch hard wood plank, commencing 
at the head of the Lock and ex- 
tending fourteen feet. The main 
gates of the Lock, and guard gates 
of the Canals, are of white oak from 
the Chesapeake, and the wicket 
gates of cast iron. The large stone 
piers above the Dam, for the pro- 
tection of the Lock and abutments, 
are each 30 feet square on the base, 
graduated to 26 feet on the top, and 
about 34 feet high, and built of 
granite, clamped and strapped with 

The Canals on each side of the 
river are 50 feet wide in the clear, 
carrying 10 feet of water from the 
level of the top of the dam. The 
walls are 22 feet high, 7 1-2 feet 
thick at the base, and 6 feet at the 
top. They are finished as far as, and 

including, the gusrd gates. Tli« 
gates are of great strength, built of 
heavy oak timber, and m the most 
substantial manner, revolving in 
stone coins, with which stone and 
sheet-piling is connected, extending 
across and 25 feet into each bank, 
and driven 10 feet below the bottom 
of the Canals. 

The walls on the banks of the 
river, above and below the Dam, 
extending about 500 feet, are of the 
same height as the Canal walls, 
and 8 feet thick at the base. On 
the upper side of the Dam is a 
sheet of timber-piling, tongued and 
grooved, and either resting on the 
bare ledge, or driven as far as they 
could be made to penetrate into the 
solid bed which covers a portion of 
its surface, and is connected with 
the piling which passes under and 
across the Lock into the east bank, 
and also with that which is driven 
in the west bank of the river. — 
Above this, and extending to the 
top of the Dam, so as to cover the 
entire planking of the upper slope, 
is a mass of gravel from 20 to 30 
feet deep. 

2,500,000 feet of timber and about 
25 tons of iron have been used in 
constructing the Dam, and about 
75,000 tons of ballast have been de- 
posited in it. 

The Lock, Piers, River and Mill 
walls, with the Canal walls, ex- 
tending to and including the guard 
gates, contain about 800,000 cubic 
feet of stone. 

During the progress of the work, 
and especially while the course of 
the river was contracted to a space 
of 17 feet wide by 24 deep (a time 
peculiarly favorable for forming an 
estimate, and rarely offered in a 
stream of this magnitude) repeated 
observations were made upon the 
velocity of the current, and at no 
time was there found a less quanti- 
ty than 2,500 cubic feet per second. 
It is proper to add that the seasons 
of 1836 and 1837, were both re- 


markable for the small quantity of 
water running in all the streams in 
tiiis vicinity. 

The pond formed by this Dam 
covers 1200 acres. It is 16 1-2 miles 
in length, and its average depth is 
16 feet. 

Augusta presents advantages 
for manufacturing establishments, 
equal, if not superior to any in New 
England. It is located in the heart 
of a large and powerful state, rap- 
idly increasing in population and 
wealth; surrounded by a fertile 
country, rich in every necessary 
agricultural product, and stored with 
granite, clay, lumber, lime, iron 
ore — every building material ; all 
of which are found near the spot, 
and at very low prices. 

The facilities afforded at this 
place, for transportation, are of in- 
estimable value to a large manufac- 
turing town. Cotton and other raw 
materials, and manufactured goods, 
may be transported by water, to and 
from the very doors of the mills. 
At no distant period the great east- 
em railroad from Boston and Port- 
land will pass thi*ough this town, 
in its course to Bangor. At this 
time, steamboats pass from Augus- 
ta to Boston in eleven hours. 

The greatest consideration, how- 
ever, in regard to Augusta, as a 
manufacturing town, is its ur^fail' 
ing supply of water. The main 
branch of the Kennebec is the outlet 
of an immense lake, with numer- 
ous powerful tributaries, connected 
with other lakes or large reservoirs 
of water. On its passage to Augus- 
ta, Dead river. Seven Mile Brook, 
the Sandy, Sebasticook, and many 
other less powerful streams pay their 
tribute to it. Indeed, all the waters 
of the extensive valley of the Ken- 
nebec, above the Dam, meet at this 
place. It may be said with safety, 
that this place possesses a water 
power amply sufficient to drive 
200,000 spindles, day and night, 
fliroaghout the year ; and an almost 

inexhaustable surpltu power frooi 
November to July. 

Preparations are making for the 
erection of buildingv for extensive 
manufacturing operations. 

Anroim, Me. 

Hancock co. This town lies 106 
miles from Augusta. With a popu- 
lation of only 140, this town pro- 
duced, in 1337, among its agricuU 
tural products, 865 bushels of wheat 

Averill, Vt. 

Essex CO. This town lies on the 
Canada line, about 80 miles N. of 
Guildhall. It has several larga 
ponds and a branch of Nulhegan 
river. Some of these waters pasi 
to the Connecticut, and some to the 
river St. Francis. The soil of Aver- 
ill is cold and broken, with few cul- 

Airon.f Me. 

Franklin co. Avon lies 35 miles 
W. by N. from Norridgewock, and 
50 N. N. W. from Augusta. It 
was incorporated in 1S02. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 767. It is watered by 
some of the head branches of San- 
dy river. In 1837, this town pro- 
duced 8,220 bushels of wheat. 

Avon, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town was tak- 
en from Farmington, in 1830. Pop- 
ulation, 1,025. It lies between two 
mountainous ridges and has consid- 
erable rich level land on the bor- 
ders of Farmington river. This is 
a handsome agricultural town and 
possesses some very beautiful scen- 
ery. The view from Monte Video, 
on Talcott mountain, nearly 1000 
feet above the waters of the Con- 
necticut, is quite enchanting.^ 
"Wardsworth's Tower," or Monto 
Video, is much resorted to by par- 
ties of pleasure in summer months. 
Avon is 6 miles N. from Farming- 
ton, and 9 W. N. W. from Hart- 


Baclielcler, BI9* 

Oxford CO. This township lies 
between two mountains on the line 
of New Hampshire, 20 miles W. 
by K. from Paris, and 60 W. irom 

BaUeyirllle, Me. 

Washington co. This town is on 
the line of New Brunswick, about 
46 miles N. by W. from Machias, 
and 80 E. N. E. from Bangor. In- 
corporated, 1828. Population, 1837, 
831. Baileyville is watered on the 
£. by the St. Croix, and on tlie N. 
by the outlet of Schoodic lakes. 

Baker's River, N* H* 

Baker's river, a considerable 
stream in Grafton county, is form- 
ed of two branches. The N. branch 
has its source near Moosehillock 
mountain in Coventry. It runs 
southerly through Warren into 
Wentworth, where it unites with 
the S. branch which originates in 
Orange. After the union of these 
branches, the river pursues a S. E. 
and an easterly course through the 
S. part of Rumney and the N. part 
of Plymouth, where it forms a junc- 
tion with Pemigewaset river just 
above Plymouth village. It was 
on this river, in the township of 
Rumney, that General Stark was 
captured by the Indians, on the 28th 
of April, 1752. 

Bakersfleld^ Vi.^ 

Franklin co., lies 30 miles N. E. 
from Burlington, 88 N. N. W. from 
Montpelier, and 15 miles E. from 
St. Albans. Branches of Missis- 
que river pass through it. This 
town is well timbered with hard 
wood , the land is warm, but some- 
what broken. 4,000 sheep. First 
settled about 1789. Population, 
1830, 1,087. 

Bald-win, Me* 

Cumberland co. This town is 
bounded E. by Sebago pond and W. 
by Saco river. It contains a num- 

ber of ponds, affording fish of yari- 
ous kinds. Baldwin was incorpo- 
rated in 1802. Population, 1S37, 
1,133. It is 26 miles W. S. W. 
from Portland. 

Baltimore, Vt. 

Windsor co. This town was tak- 
en from Cavendish in 1793. Hawk 
mountain is the division line. The 
soil is warm but stony. 1,200 sheep. 
An abundance of gneiss and granite 
is found here. It is 10 miles N. W. 
from Windsor and about 65 S. from 
Montpelier. Population, 1830, 179. 

Bang^or, Me. 

This is the chief town of Penob- 
scot county. It lies in N. lat. 44^ 
47' 60"., W. long. 68° 47'. It lies 
66 miles £. N. E. from Angustat 
120 N. E. by E. from Portland, 230 
N. E. from Boston, Mass., 115 S. 
from Eastport, and 675 N. E. from 
Washington. The first settlement 
in this place, by the whites, was 
made in the winter of 1769 — 1770, 
In 1772,the Plantation,Eenduskeag, 
as it was then called, consisted of 
twelve families. In 1790, the pop- 
ulation of Bangor was 169 ; in 1800, 
277; in 1810, 850; in 1820, 1,221; 
in 1830, 2,868, and in 1837, 9,201. 
This place is situated at the head oi 
navigation on the west side of Pe- 
nobscot river, 30 miles N. by E. 
from Belfast bay, 60 to Matawam- 
keag Point, 120 to Houlton, and 
about 60 miles from the open sea. 
The compact part of the population 
reside on both sides of Eenduskeag 
stream, about 190 yards in width at 
its mouth, over which are three 
bridges, and on which, at the foot 
of the falls, about a mile from the 
city, are numerous mills. The 
bridge across the Penobscot, 100 
rods above the mouth of the Ken- 
duskcag, is about 440 yards in 
length. It cost $50,000. The basin 
at and below the mouth of the Een- 
duskeag, where the shipping lie 
to receive their cargoes, is 90 rods 
in width, and afibrds good anchor^ 


age. The tide generally rises about 
17 feet. Ship building is exten- 
dvely pursued at this place; but 
commerce in lumber, of all the va- 
rious kinds in use, is the principal 
occupation of the inhabitants. An 
immense amount of that article is 
annually rafted down the rivers, 
and transported to almost all parts 
of the world. Bangor is the great- 
est depot for lumber on the conti- 
nent of America. 

On the Penobscot river and its 
tributary streams, above Bangor, 
are more than 250 saw-mills, capa- 
ble of cutting at least two hundred 
million feet of boards a year ; all 
of which, except what is used in 
building, must be shipped at the 
harbor of Bangor. The value of 
the boards, timber, clapboards, shin- 
gles, oars, scantling, wood, &c., 
shipped at this port, varies from a 
million to a million and a half of 
dollars, annually. About 1200 ves- 
sels of about 110 tons burthen are 
annually employed during the sea- 
son of navigation, in freighting lum- 
ber, timber, &c., to various places. 
There are belonging to this place, 
about 100 sail of coasting vessels, 
50 engaged in foreign commerce, 
and 15 or 20 other vessels engaged 
in the fisheries. 

Bangor was incorporated as a town 
in 1791. In 1834 it became a city. 
Its government is under a Mayor 
and seven Aldermen, who consti- 
tute the upper Board ; and twen- 
ty-one Common Council men, who, 
when they have elected a Presi- 
dent, constitute the lower Board. 
A city court sets every Monday. 

The site of the city is pleasant, 
commanding fine views of the riv- 
ers and the adjoining country. The 
buildings, both public and private, 
are consb>ucted with neatness and 
taste, and some in a style of supe- 
rior elegance. Conveyances for 
travellers from the city are frequent 
and comfortable ; both by land and 
water. A railroad is in operation 
to Oldtown, 12 miles, and steam- 


boats ply to and from Portland and 
Boston, during the season of navi- 
gation, which generally continues 
eight months in the year. The 
great eastern railroad from Bostoa 
will doubtless reach this eastern city 
before the lapse of many years. 

On the banks of the Penobscot, 
wi&in the city, three miles above 
the mouth of the Kenduskeag, is 
what is called " Fort Hill," the site 
of a fortification, supposed to be the 
ancient "Negas," destroyed by Cap- 
tain Heath, with a party of men, 
in 1725, who, it is said, " fell on a 
village of about 50 Indian houses, 
and committed them to the flames. 
The Indians becoming alarmed, de- 
serted them." 

Bangor is on one of the noblest 
rivers in the Northern States ; — the 
product of an almost innumerable 
number of tributary streams. Na- 
ture has seated Bangor at the nat- 
ural outlet of these mighty waters, 
as the mart of one of the most ex- 
tensive, and one of the richest al^ 
luvial basins east of the Ohio val- 
ley. It is true that this section of 
country is in a high degree of lati- 
tude, and that the icy chains of 
winter are felt with greater force 
and for a longer period than in more 
southern climes. But this seeming 
disadvantage is more than compen- 
sated by the unrivalled purity of 
the air and water, — two of the in- 
dispensable requisitions of health 
and longevity. There is probably 
no portion of country in the world 
where the great staples of wheat, 
beef and wool can be produced with 
greater facility ; where surplus pro- 
duce can find a market at less ex- 
pense, or where the industrious ag- 
riculturalist can reap a more sure 
reward. When the present popu- 
lation of this immense territory, 
extending from tide water to Mad- 
awaska, is compared with that of 
older settlements of a less fertile 
soil, of less navigable facilities, and 
in nearly as high a degree of latl<» 
tude, the mind is favorably struck 


wHh tiie fixtterlhg prospects of the 
valley of the Penobscot, and with 
pleasing* anticipatiops of t)ie pros- 
perity of its d^. Bee Register, 

Washington co. This town is 
bounded N. by the St. Croix river, 
£. by Calais and Robinston, and W. 
by a large and beautiful pond which 
empties into the St. Croix. Incor- 
porated, 1825. Population, 1837, 
286. The railroad from Calais, 4 
miles, will soon be completed to 
this place. 209 miles N. E. by E. 
from Augusta. 

Barkliampstcad, Ct« 

Litchfield co. This town is wa- 
tered by branches of Farmington 
river. The soil is more particular- 
ly adapted to grazing : considerable 
beef and the products of the dairy 
are sent to market. It is 26 miles 
N. W. from Hartford, and 20 N. N. 
£. from Litchfield. Population, 
1880, 1,715. First settled, 1746. 
Incorporated, 1779. Granite, iron 
ore and limestone are found here. 
The hilly part of the town presents 
some fine scenery. Sitcheockville, 
north of the centre of the town, is 
a flourishing manufacturing village, 
with great water privileges. 

Barnard^ Hie* 

All the knowledge we can obtain 
in regard to this town is, that it lies 
in the county of Piscataquis, 108 
miles from Augusta ; — that in 18.37, 
there were 132 people in the town, 
and that they raised 444 bushels of 
wheat, the same year ; — that this 
town received $264 of the surplus 
revenue ; — that in 1837, Augustus 
W. Walker and others, obtained an 
act of the legislature for quarrying 
slate, and that Stephen Palmer is, 
or was. Postmaster. 

Now, the good people of Barnard 
are hereby respectfully requested 
to give the editor their latitude and 
longitude, and other necessary in- 
formatioii for future editions. Cit- 

izens of other towns, nmilarly sit- 
uated, and of all toums, who may 
wish more full descriptions of their 
resources, &c. than we are able, at 
present, to give, are also requested 
to forward their communications. 

Baruardy Vt« 

Windsor co. First settled, 1774. 
Incorporated, 1778. Population, 
1830, 1,881. It is watered by 
Broad Brook which empties into 
White river in Sharon ; and by Lo- 
cust Creek, which also empties in- 
to White river in Bethel. On this 
Creek,during the revolutionary war, 
there was erected a Fort, where 
the militia of this and other towns 
were stationed as a defence against 
Indian depredations — they having 
surprised and carried to Canada a 
number of its first settlers, in 1780. 
In the centre of this town is the 
village, and a beautiful pond, from 
which issues a stream on which 
there are mills. On this Creek is 
an establishment for the manufac- 
ture of starch from potatoes. This 
stream joins its waters with the 
Creek one mile from the pond. The 
surface of this town is hilly. The 
soil is well adapted to grazing ; and 
there are but few towns that turn 
off yearly more cattle, butter and 
cheese, sheep and wool. The num- 
ber of sheep is about 6,000. It lies 
10 miles north of Woodstock, and 
40 miles south of Montpclier. 

It is stated as a singular fact, that 
the firing on Bunker Hill, on the 
17th of June, 1775, was distinctly 
heard in this town, 130 miles N. 
W. from Charlestown. 

Bamet, Vt> 

Caledonia co. This town lies on 
Connecticut river, at the 15 mile 
falls, and opposite to Lyman, N. H. 
It has a good spil, and is an excel- 
lent farming town, with slate and 
iron ore. It lies 35 miles E. from 
Montpelier, 10 S. by E. from Dan- 
ville, and 65 N. by E. from Wind- 
sor. Population, in 1830, 1,764,— 


■• ^ 


First settled, about 1763. Many of 
the inhabitants are of Scotch de- 
scent. This town has a great water 
power on Passnmpsic and Stevens' 
rivers. On the latter, are falls of 
100 feet, in the distance of 10 rods. 
This water power is improved by 
three flannel and other manufacto- 
ries. There are a number of pleas- 
ant and fertile islands in the river 
between this place and Lyman, and 
some beautiful ponds in Barnet, 
which afford fish of various kinds. 
This is quite a romantic place, and 
lies at the head of navigation on 
the Connecticut river. In 1835, 
the product of the farms, carried to 
market, amounted to $26,331. One 
farmer sold 3,000 lbs. of butter, and 
3,000 lbs. of piork. There are about 
4,000 sheep in the town. 

Barnstable County Mass. 

Bamstahle is the chief town. — 
This county was incorporated, 1685. 
Population, 1820, 24,046—1830, 28- 
525 — and in 1837, 31,109; area, 
about 330 square miles. This coun- 
ty includes the whole of Cape Cod, 
extending £. and N. into the At- 
lantic ocean, and which Gosnold 
discovered in 1602. It is bounded 
N. W. by Plymouth county, and 
W. by Buzzard's bay. Cape Cod 
lies in the form of an arm,half open ; 
the elbow is at Chatham, 20 miles 
E. of Barnstable; the hand, the 
wrist inclining inward, is at Race 
Point, 33 miles N. by W. of Chat- 
ham. The whole length of the 
Cape is 66 miles, and the average 
breadth about 5. This county is 
principally diluvium. Below the 
town of Barnstable the county is 
quite sandy, so much so that the 
people are generally dependant on 
Boston and other towns for a large 
proportion of their meats and bread- 
stuffs. This deficit is amply com- 
pensated by the unrivalled privi- 
leges enjoyed, and well improved 
by them, in the cod, mackerel and 
o&ier fisheries. This county has 
but little wood, but it is well stored 

with. peat. About. two nullions •€ 
dollars are invested in the i&inufao- 
ture of salt. There- were manu- 
factured in this county in the yeai^ 
ending April 1, 1837, 669,064 bush«^ 
els of salt, valued at $219,870. The 
manufactures of cotton and woollen 
good3» boots, shoes, iron castings, 
glass, cabinet and tin wares, cord- 
age, &c., amounted to $496,602. > 
There are in this county 370 ves- "" 
scls employed in the whale, cod 
and mackerel fishery. The tonnage, 
24,378 tons. The value of the fish- 
ery, in one year previous to April, 
1837, was $557,737. Tonnage of 
the District, 183C, 30,278 tons. The 
annual amount of tonnage of vessels 
built is about 1,000 tons; value, 
$63,318. Total annual value of 
the fisheries and manufactures, $1,- 
337,527. The number of sheep ill 
the county in 1837, was 7,332. 

Barnstable county is noted for its 
fine sailors and men of superior nau- 
tical talents. The ladies are cele- 
brated for their fair complexions 
and good housewifery ; but are pe- 
culiarly subject to the vicissitudes 
pertaining to a maritime situation. 
By a statement recently made, it 
appears that there were in this 
county nearly a thousand widows 
living, who had lost their husbands 
by the dangers of the sea. In two 
towns, (Harwich and Wellfleet,) 
tliere were 223 widows who had 
thus lost their companions. This 
county has 13 towns ; and 91 inhabit- 
ants to a square mile. 

Barnstable, Mass. 

This is the chief town of Barn- 
stable county, and a port of entry. 
It is 65 miles from Boston. Sandy 
JYeck, on the N. side, forms a good 
harbor for vessels of 8 feet of water. 
HyanniSy on the S. side, 6 miles S. 
£. of Barnstable C. H., is now a 
good harbor ; but by an expensive 
Breakwater, constructing at that 
place by the U. S. government, it 
will soon become perfectly safe 
from all winds, for all classes of 



vessels navigating the Sound, and 
passing round the Cape. The " Pil- 
grim Fathers" landed here, Nov. 
11, 1620, and borrowed some corn 
of the Mattacheeset Indians. The 
celebrated patriot, James Otis, was 
born here, Feb. 5, 1725. He died 
at Andover, May 23, 1783. The 
manufacture of salt was commenced 
here as early as 1779. It then sold 
for $6 a bushel. There was made 
27,125 bushels of salt in this town 
in 1837. Between 50 and 60 sail of 
fishing and coasting vessels belong 
to this place. This town has nu- 
merous ponds, a considerable water 
power, some fine upland, and ex- 
tensive salt marshes. The manu- 
facture of vessels, salt, boots, shoes, 
hats, leather, cabinet ware, chairs, 
and wooden ware, amounted in one 
year to $56,562. Pop. 1837,4,017. 

Bamsteady ST* H. 

Strafford co. This town lies 26 
miles W. by N. from Dover, 36 N. 
W. from Portsmouth, and 20 N. E. 
from Concord. Incorporated, 1767. 
Population, 1830,2,047. Barnstead 
is not mountainous, but has large 
swells of land, good for grazing. 
About 2,600 sheep are kept here. 
The soil is easy and productive. 
There are several ponds in this town 
— the largest are the two Suncodk 
ponds, which lie near each other, 
Brindle pond, and Half-moon pond, 
on Alton line. These waters are 
stocked with fish, and are discharg- 
ed into the Suncook. Barnstead 
was granted May 20, 1727, to the 
Rev. Joseph Adams and others. 
Settlements commenced in 1767. 

Barre^ Vt« 

A pleasant and flourishing town 
in Washington county, six miles 
S. of Montpelier, and 48 N. by W. 
of Windsor. This is considered 
one of the best farming towns in 
the state. Large quantities of pot 
and pearl ashes, beef, pork, butter 
and cheese, are annually taken from 
this place to Boston market. About 

7,000 sheep are kept here. It is 
well watered by Stevens' and Jail, 
branches of Onion river, which afiford 
good mill privileges. Inexhausti- 
ble quantities of granite are found 
here, of the excellent quality with 
which the capitol at Montpelier is 
built. This is a great thoroughfare 
for travellers, particularly for large 
te^uns from the north to Boston, by 
the Gulf road. A large number oi 
these noted six and eight horse 
teams are owned here. Barre was 
first settled in 1788. Present pop- 
ulation, about 2,500. 

Barre, Mass. 

Worcester co. This excellent ag- 
ricultural township is on high land, 
and is well watered, particularly by 
Ware river, on which are many 
mills. The manufactures of Barre 
for the year ending April 1, 1837, 
amounted to about $365,000. The 
articles manufactured were woollen 
and cotton goods, ($161,600) copper 
pumps, boots, shoes, carriages, 
leather, palm-leaf hats, ($167,200) 
straw bonnets, axes, scythes, and 
gimpowder. Large quantities of 
beef, butter, cheese, &c., are an- 
nually sent from this town to Bos- 
ton market. It was incorporated in 
1774. Population, 1837, 2,713. It 
lies 65 miles W. by S. from Boston, 
24 N. by W. from Worcester, and 
15 N. £. from Ware. Barre took its 
name in honor of Col. Barre, an el- 
oquent friend of America in the 
British Parliament. 

Barrinf^n, ST. H. 

Strafford co. It lies 20 miles N. 
W. from Portsmouth, 10 W. from 
Dover, and 30 E. from Concord. 
The surface of Barrington is some- 
what broken and rocky, the soil be- 
ing principally a gravelly loam.— - 
The town is abundantly supplied 
with ponds, of which there are no 
less than thirteen of considerable 
magnitude, from whence issue 
streams affording excellent mill 
seats. At one of these mill seats. 


on the Isinglaaa river, is a perpen- 
dicular fall of 80 feet. There is, 
about two miles from the centre of 
the town, a remarkable cavern, or 
fissure in a rock, commonly called 
the DeviVs den. The entrance is 
on the side of a hill, and is suffi- 
ciently large to admit a person in a 
stooping posture. Having entered 
6 feet in a horizontal direction, 
there is a descent of 4 or 5 feet, on 
an angle of 45^, large enough only 
to admit the body of a middling siz- 
ed man. After squeezing through 
this passs^e, you enter a chamber 
60 feet in length, from 10 to 15 in 
height, and from 3 to 8 in width. — 
Communicating with this, are sev- 
eral other fissures of equal height, 
and from 10 to 15 in length. Bar- 
rington was incorporated May 10, 
1722, and the settlement commen- 
ced in 1732. Population, 1830, 

Bristol CO. This small town, of 
about 8 square miles, originally be- 
longed to Massachusetts. It was 
attached to Rhode Island in 1746, 
and incorporated in 1771. It is 
bounded southerly by Narraganset 
bay, and is well watered by Palm- 
er's river, and by an inlet of War- 
ren river, over which is a bridge. 
The soil of the town is of a fertile. 
Bandy loam, and quite productive. 
Large quantities of sea-weed are 
collected on its shores. A large 
tract in Barrington, called "the 
, cove," now covered with water to 
a considerable depth, is supposed to 
have once been a forest, as timber 
and fuel are obtained from its bot- 
tom. Some salt is made in this 
town, and shell and other fish are 
abundant. Barrington lies 8 miles 
£. S. £. from Providence, and 
about 7 miles N, by W. from Bris- 
tol. Population, 1830, 612. 

BarUett, N. H., 

Coos CO., is 45 miles S, E. from 
Lancaster, 82 N. N. £. from Con- 

cord, and 85 N. N. W. from Ports- 
mouth. It lies at the foot of the 
White Mountains, on the eastern 
side. Its soil is various, and, on the 
Saco, in some parts, good. This 
river meanders through the centre 
of the town. Bartlett was incorpo- 
rated June 16, 1790. Population, 
1830, 644. 

Barton, Vt« 

Orleans co. This town derived 
its name from Gen. William Barton, 
of R. I., and was first settled in 
1796. The town is well watered 
by Barton river, which rises in 
Glover, and empties into Memphre- 
magog lake. Here are several 
ponds containing good fish. Barton 
is a thriving town, with a good hy- 
draulic power, and about 3,000 
sheep. It lies 9 miles S. E. from 
Irasburgh, and 40 N. E. from Mont- 
pelier. Population, 1830, 729. 

Basin Harbor, Vt« 

See Ferrisburgh. 

BaskaJiegan Biver, Me. 

This river rises in a large lake of 
the same name, in the county of 
Washington, near the line of New 
Brunswick ; it passes westerly 15 op 
20 miles, and falls into the Mata- 
wamkeag, a tributary of the Pe- 

Batli, Me., 

In the county of Lincoln, is situ- 
ated on the west bank of Kennebec 
river, 12 miles from the sea, 32 N. 
E. of Portland, and 31 S. from Au- 
gusta. It is bounded E. by Ken- 
nebec river, S. by Phipsburg, W. 
by New Meadows river and Bruns- 
wick, and N. by Merrymeeting 
bay. Population, in 1830, 3,773; 
in 1835, 4,200, and in 1837, 4,528. 
Incorporated, 1780. An attempt 
was made by a missionary to settle 
this place, and preach to the fisher- 
men, as early as 1670. But the In- 
dians would not permit it. A per- 
manent settlement was made in 


1756. The principal business of 
Bath ia commerce, trade and ship- 
building, for which it is admirably 
well located. There belonged to 
this port in 1836, 26 ships, 32 brigs, 
54 schooners, and smaller vessels. 
Tonnage of the district of Bath, in- 
cluding the waters of Kennebec 
river, in 1837,41,728 tons. Total 
number of vessels belonging to the 
district of Bath, in 1835, 37 ships, 94 
brigs, 195 schooners, 10 sloops, and 
1 steam-boat. Total, 337. The 
harbor of Bath is seldom obstructed 
by ice. Regular lines of steam- 
boats ply between this place and 
Portland and Boston, about three- 
fourths of the year. 

Bath, N. H; 

Grafton co., on Connecticut river, 
is 32 miles N. of Dartmouth Col- 
lege, 82 N. W. of Concord, and 9 
N. of Haverhill. Bath is pleasant- 
ly situated in the vale of the Con- 
necticut, between the Green moun- 
tains on the W., and the White 
Mountains on the E., bjrwhich it is 
effectually shielded fioin high winds 
and long storms. Tbe Amonoosuck 
river waters the S, E. part, afford- 
ing many fine mill seats and water 
privileges. The Amonoosuck has 
a very convenient fall at the village, 
calculated to accommodate ma- 
chinery to any extent. Two mills 
for the manufacture of cassimere, 
and other machinery, are already 
erected. At the principal village, 
(which is very pleasant,) there is a 
considerable bridge over the Amo- 
noosuck, of 350 feet in length, built 
in 1807. The soil on the hills is 
generally a reddish loam, on a bed 
of marl, or hard pan. In the val- 
leys, it is alluvial. About one-sixth 
fiart of the whole town is intervale 
and. Much improvement has been 
made in the agriculture of this 
place : 550 sheep are kept here. 
The town was granted, 1761, and 
the first settlement was made in 
1765, by John Herrinan from Ha- 

verhill, Mass. Population, 1830, 

Battenkill River. 

This river is about 45 miles in 
length. It rises in Dorset, and pass- 
ing Manchester, Sunderland and 
Arlington, it receives Roaring 
Brook and other tributaries in Ver- 
mont ; it then passes into the state 
of New York, and falls into the 
Hudson, three miles below Fort 
Miller, and about 35 miles N. from 
Albany, N. Y. 

Bays and. Harltorfl. 

The bays and harbors in New 
England are generally mentioned 
under the places pertaining to them. 

Bear Camp River, N. II«y 

Is formed of several branches ris- 
ing on the south side of Sandwich 
and Albany mountains. The two 
principal branches unite in Ossipee, 
and fall into Ossipee lake on its 
western border. 

Bear River, WLe»f 

Rises in the highlands, near Um- 
bagog lake, passes Newry, and 
empties into the Androscoggin, op- 
posite to Bethel. 

Beolcety Mass., 

An elevated farming township 
on the Green mountain range, in 
Berkshire county. Westfield, Farm- 
ington and Housatonick rivers re- 
ceive the waters of several ponds in 
this town. It has some small man- 
ufactures, and about 7,000 sheep. 
The town was incorporated in 1765, 
and lies 110 miles W. from Boston, 
15 E. S. E. from Lenox, and 23 W. 
from Northampton. Population, 
1837, 957. 

Beddington, Me. 

Washington co. There are sev- 
eral ponds in this town, which are 
among the head waters of Pleasant 
and Narraguagus rivers. Incorpo- 
rated, 1833. Population, 1837, 169. 


It lies 35 miles N. W. from Machi- 
ts, and about 40 £. from Bangor. 

BedTord, K . H. 

This is a pleasant town in Hills- 
borough county. It is 8 miles N. 
£. from Amherst, 20 S. by £. from 
Concord. Merrimack and Piscata- 
quoag are the only rivers in this 
town. The latter passes through 
its N. E. comer, where there is the 
pleasant and flourishing village of 
Piscataquoag. This town has con- 
siderable very productive intervale 
land. It has been noted for the 
cultivation of hops and for its fine 
domestic manufactures. On the W*. 
line of Bedford, are a remarkable 
gulf and precipice, which are ob- 
jects of curiosity. A considerable 
brook passes over the precipice, and 
falls about 200 feet within the dis- 
tance of 100 yards. Here are found 
several excavations in solid stone, 
which are sufficiently large to con- 
tain many persons. In mineralogy, 
this town affords a great variety of 
specimens. Iron ore is found in 
different places, and in several vari- 
eties. Sulphuret of iron, imbedded 
in common granite, and red oxide 
of iron, combined with aluminc, are 
common. Black lead, pyritous cop- 
per, schorl, hornblende, epidote, 
talc, mica, black, yellow and green 
gneiss, crystallized quartz, &c. are 
found here. The first child born in 
town was Silas Barron, son of Capt. 
Moses Barron, in 1741. The town 
was incorporated, May 19, 1750. 
Bedford was the residence of many 
Indians in former times. Near 
Goffe's falls is a spot of ground, 
about ten rods long and four wide, 
which is supposed to have been an 
Indian burial place. Population, 
1S30, 1,554. 

Bedford, Mass. 

This is a pleasant town in Middle- 
sex county, and the source of Shaw- 
sheen river. This town was for- 
merly parts of Concord and Billeri- 
ca, and was incorporated in 1729. 

Population, 1837, 858. It lies 15 
miles N. W. from Boston, and 6N 
£. from Concord. Bedford is bound ■ 
ed N. by Concord river. It has 
some manufactures ; principally of 
boots and shoes. 

Belolierto'Virny Mmw., 

A beautiful town in Hampshire 
county, originally called " Cold 
Spring," 75 miles "W. from Boston, 
11 £. from Northampton, and 27 £. 
from Pittsfield. Population, 1837, 
2,598. First settled, 1732. Incor- 
porated, 1761. The soil of the 
town is of an excellent quality, and 
well improved. Large quantities 
of wool is grown in this town. It 
is separated from Ware by Swift 
river, on the N. The principal 
manufacture is that of pleasure 
wagons, of which about 600 are an* 
nually made. Mr. A. Shumway, of 
this place, has driven the stage be- 
tween Belchertown and Northamp- 
ton 25 successive years. In that 
period he made 16,000 trips, travel- 
led 218,400 oples, and carried at 
least 124,000 passengers; yet, al- 
though his hours of travelling were 
early in the morning and late in 
the evening, he never broke a limb, 
overturned his coach, or met with 
any serious accident whatever, dur- 
ing his whole career. 

Belfast, Me., 

Is the chief town of Waldo coun- 
ty, and a port of entry, and is beau- 
tifully situated on Belfast bay, on 
the W. side of Penobscot river. It 
lies 40 miles £. from Augusta, 30 
S. from Bangor, 30 N. from Thom- 
aston, and, across Belfast bay, 12 W. 
from Castine. The town was in- 
corporated in 1773, but not perma- 
nently settled until about the year 
1785. There is considerable good 
land in Belfast. In 1837 it pro- 
duced 3,492 bushels of as good 
wheat as ever grew on the prairies 
of the "boundless West." The 
Paasaggassawakeag river passes 
near the centre of the town, and 


adds much to the appearance of the 
place. The harbor is very good — 
it is guarded by Long and Sears' 
islands, and has anchorage for a 
great number of vessels of the larg- 
est class. The proximity of Bel- 
fast to the sea, its site in relation to 
Penobscot river, and its excellent 
harbor, which was never known to 
have been obstructed by ice, but 
twice, (1780 — 1816,) gives it pe- 
culiar advantages for foreign com- 
merce, the coasting trade, and the 
fisheries. Considerable ship build- 
ing is carried on at this place. The 
tonnage of the district of Belfast in 
1837,was 29,342 tons. The principal 
exports are lumber and fish. Pop- 
ulation, 1810,1,259; 1820, 2,026; 
1830, 3,077, and in 1837, about 
4,000. Belfast, although irregular- 
ly built, is- a pleasant town, and is 
an important winter mart of the 
trade of Penobscot river. 

Belgrade, Mc« 

Kennebec co. In this town are 
parts of three larse and beautiful 
ponds or lakes, weM^nred with fish. 
They are connectSlVith each oth- 
er, and find an outlet at Waterville. 
The scenery on the borders of these 
waters is truly delightful. It pro- 
duced in 1837, 6^340 bushels of 
wheat. Belgrade was incorporated 
in 1796. Population, 1837, 1,483. 
It lies 10 miles N. E. from Augus- 
ta, and 69 N. by E. from Portland. 
The village at Belgrade Mills, 6 
miles from the centre of the town, 
and 16 miles from Augusta, is a 
very flourishing place. 

Bellamy Banlc, ST. H. 

A river, one branch of which is- 
sues from Chesley's pond, in Bar- 
rington, and the other from low and 
marshy lands in the vicinity ; these 
unite in Madbury, and afler mean- 
dering through the town, the wa- 
ters fall into the Piscataqua, on the 
W. side of Dover Neck, where the 
stream is called Back river. 

Bellingl&aiifty Haas. 

Norfolk CO. The soil of this town 
is light and sandy, and not yerj 
good for agricultural purposes. It 
is finely watered by Charles river, 
and has a good hydraulic power. 
Its manufactures, consisting of cot- 
ton and woollen goods, straw bon- 
nets, boots and shoes, amounted, in 
one year, to $127,837. It lies 18 
miles S. W. from Dedham, 17 N. 
by W. from Providence, R. I., and 
28 S. W. from Boston. Population, 
1837, 1,159. Incorporated, 1719. 
Iron ore is found here. 

Bellows' Falls. 

See WalpoUy J\\ H, 

Belmont, Me* 

This town is well watered by the 
Paasaggassawakeag', which rises 
there in a pond of that name, and 
empties at Belfast, about 6 miles N. 
It lies 84 miles £. by'N.iJsom Au- 
gusta. In 1837, Belmont produced 
3,435 bushels of wheat, and consid- 
erable wool. Waldo county. 

Belvldcre, Vt. 

Lamoille co. A mountainous 
township on the west side of the 
Green Mountains, 82 miles N. E. 
from Burlington, 32 N. from Mont- 
pelier, 27 ETby S. from St. Albans, 
and watered by branches of La- 
moille river. Incorporated, 1791. 
Population, 1830, 185. 

Bennington County, Vt. 

Bennington and Manchester are 
the chief towns. This is the oldest 
county in Vt., on the west side of 
the Green Mountains. It is bound- 
ed on the north by Rutland county, 
on the east by Windham county, 
on the south by Berkshire county, 
Mass., and on the west by the state 
of New York. It is 39 miles long 
and 20 wide. Area, 610 square 
miles. Population, in 1820, 16,125 ; 
1830, 17,468. Inhabitants to square 
mile, 2« The low lands are excel-. 


leiit,«Dd praduce good crop*, bat tiie ' 
lu^Git pnHon of (hs county la 

tnonntaliioiii, and fit only for gnx- 
iDg. Many fltreamB rua Id the 
nunint^QB and descend to the oceftn, 
some by the Hudsoa Q.iid some by 
the Coonecticut, affiirding a great 
hydraulic power. Lead an^ iron 
orea of g;ood quality >re found in 
this coimtf , and large quurlea of 
beautiful vhlle marble. The oum- 
berof abeep in tfaii county in 1S3T 

loi, Tt. 

One of the cbief town« of Ben- 
nington county. It liea ISO miles 
S. W. by S. Inim Moutpelier, 2S S. 
from Manchester, and BO eait from 
Troy, N. T. Population, 1830, 
&,419. PrcBent popuUtion, about 
4,200, Firetsetaed^lTei. The ' - 
is dtuated high above the grei 
ers and the ocean, yet we find it of 
good allnrial .nil, delightfully e 
drdedbjwwgpoeo mountains, 
abounds in Iran ore, mangaaei 
ochre and marble. The atreai 
are numeious and aSbrd excellent 
mill sites. The products of 
■oil consist of all the varietiaa ci 
monto New England. Qt 

uing c 


sheep: about 7000 of those 
animals feed on the hills and v; 
There are in Bennington, 6 
and 3 woollen factories, a vei 
lODsiTe iron (bundry, 2 furna 
paper mill, flouring milts, &c. The 
public scbooU justly sustain an ele- 
vated rank. Benmngton is finely 
located for the musce. On the bor- 
der of Uiis town, about 9 miles W. 
at die court house, the gallani 
8tari(, with a small ban^i of ■' Green 
Ho wi tain Boys," celebrated for 
tfaeifbrarery, guned an important 
Tietory over the British, August 10, 
17TT. The fame of that banle 1» 
U imperishable as the mountains 
which OTershadoir the ground. 
Shame to the country :— there i« 
not B itone to mark (be spot i 


CO. This town, on Late 


was firs 

t settled in 178S. 



,493. 111165 84 

miles E. 

rom Mo 

ntpelier, 20 W. 

N. W. fro 

m Rnllai 

d, and opposite 

to Putnam 

N. y. 

The lake at this 

place is about a mi 

e in Width. The 

«ams aSbrding 

mill sites. 

but no 


irackish and unpleasant. A stream 

. D this to . 
and after running a short distance, 
passes through the base of a hieh 
distance of more than half a 
Benson has good pine, ma- 
ple, walnut, oak and beech Umber, 
and a bog of murl resembling (til- 
ler's earth. There are about 14,000 
sheep in this town. 

Bcrkleri Hui. 
Bristol CO. Berkley Iiee37milei 
from Boston, 18 E. from Provi- 
dence, and 6 S, from Taunton. Pop- 
ulation, in 1S3T, 818. Taken from 
Dighton in (T>fi, tfom which it is 

coasting vewaliltetDng to this place, 
and^me ship building is carried on. 
Anantt village, on Taunton river, 
is the principal place of business. 
The bch] is light and sandy. 

Lenax is the chief town. This 
county was incorporated in 1770. 
PopulaUon, IS20,3S,66(i; 1830,37- 
825, and in 1837, 39,101 ; area, 860 
square miles. Bounded Ben- 
nington county, VL, W. by Rensse- 
laer and Columbia counties, N. V., 
S. by Litchfield county, Ct., and 
E. by Franklin, Hampshire and 
Hampden countios. This county 
is rough and hilly in many parts, 
but it affords considerable very fine 
land, and produces much wool, 
all sorts of grain, and exports great 
quantities of beef, pork, butter, he. 
The number of aheep in tbls coun- 
ty in 1837, was 13iI,S«2. Berkiblra 


ts the moat elevated county in ttn 

state. TheGreenandTauglikannii 
Mauntaiae croaa it fnim N. to S. 
liie average height of which is aUon 
1,200 feet above the level i.f ilii 
sea. The Housatonick am! Hoc 
tick are its chief rivers. The hi 
nerenipties into Long Island Suurid 
the latter into the Hudson : £[ 
towDs; 45 ichabllants to a .^rjniiri 
nile. " This county posaes'V. ii 
rich and tneihaualible aboiiiiaiire 
three of themosl importantariii-li' 
of the commercB of the worW. Irmi 
Marble and Lime, and its wuoil inn 
water power are fully suOirii'ntli 
enable it to fit them for tlic piii' 
poses of Ufa." Thetonnageof tliia 
county to Its marts of trade, ])rir ' 
pally on the Hudson, amounlcd. 
1S34, to no less than S4,0T5 to 
At the present time it probably i 

Is 40,01 

The ei 

of a railroad from Boston to Albuny 
will soon be accomplished, and can- 
not f^l of being exceedingly benefi- 
cial, not only to this county, but lo 
the commonwealthjrt large. 
Bcrlulitr*, Tt. 
Franklin co. Elihu M. Royce. 
«oo of Stephen Royce, was the Iksl 
child bom In this town. That event 
occurred in 1T93. On Mlssl<que 
and Trout rivers, which water this 
town, is some fine intervale liind. 
Pike river, from Canada, afTonU 
Berkshire a great water power. 
This (own lies 50 miles N. W. from 
Montpelier, 23 N. E. by E. from 
St. Albans, and 81 N. E. by N. 
from Burlinglop. Population, 1S30, 
1,30S. About 3,000 sheep. 

Oxford CD. TbisloimiabAunilpd 
E. by Phillips, S. by Weld and W. 
by Byron. It lies 100 miles N. 
from PorUaod, « N. W. from Au- 
fusta, and about 40 H. from Paris. 

Cooa CO. Thu town, tconi 1771 

to lBS9,was called Haynesboraagh. 
The Androscoggin and Amonoo- 
suck rivers pass thniugh It. It.i* 
about 30 miles E. from Lancaster, 
and 126 N. from Concord. . Pi^u- 
lation, 1830, 73. 

This is a pleasant town in Wash- 
ington county, watered by Onion and 
Dog rivers, Stevens' branch, and * 
number of ponds, famishing good 
mill sites, and excellent fishinf. 
The land is somewhat broken, hut 
of strong soil and eood Ibr tilla|^. 
Considerable manufactures are prft- 
I duced in this town, and about 8,000 
sheep. There is a mineral spring 
here of little note. Firal settled in 
1786. Ptqjultttion, 1830, 1,664.— 
Berlin is bounded N. by Montpe- 
lier and £. by Barre, 

Berila, Mus. 

Worcester co. Taken from Bol- 
ton, in 1734. PopulaflODi ISlf, 
724. It lies IS miles N. E. from 
Worcester, 81 W. by N. from Bos. 
ton, and 7 S. E. from LancasCir. 
A branch of the Aesabet aftoidf 
this town good water prfvilegei. 
Large quantitisB of hops are pro- 
duced here ; some wool, and soma 

BeiUa, Ct. 

Hartford co. Taken from Far- 
mi ngton. in 1786. Population, 1880, 
3.047. This (own lies 11 miles S. 
from Hartford, and S3 N. from New 
Haven. The surface of BeHin 
is hilly, but productive of graai, 
grain and fmita. There are in th« 
town about 2,000 sheep. The vil- 
Ib^s of tVorlhington and JVem 
Britain are very pleasant, aoAHia 
manufactures of brass, tin and oth- 
er wares, there pursued, are veiy 
extensive and flourishing. The fir«t 
manufacture of tin ware in thi( 
country was commenced at this 
place, In about the year 1770, bj 
Edward Patterson, a native of IrB- 
land. Mr. PatterMQ peddled his 


ware about Hie country, on foot, in 
ba^ets ; his successors in the man- 
ufacture did the same, until the uses 
and value of the article becoming 
known, and the demand increasing, 
horses and wagons were employed ; 
and thus this im|K>rtant manufac- 
ture of New England was- trans- 
ported to all parts of the country. 

Benaardsten, Has*. 

Franklin co. This is a township 
of superior land for agricultursd 
purposes, considerably elevated, be- 
tween Fall and Connecticut rivers. 
It was formerly called Fall Town. 
There was a fort here in 1746, 
when this part of the county was 
peopled mosdy by Indians. It was 
inc(»porated, by its present name, 
in 1764. It lies 96 miles W. by N. 
from Boston, and 7 N. from Green- 
field. Population, 1837,878. Bald 
and West mountains afford delight- 
ful sceneij : — the former is 680 feet 
above Um' waters of the Connecti- 
cut. Here are springs containing 
magnesia, sulphur and iron. Ber- 
nardston produced, in one year, 
16,000 bushels of com and rye, and 
5,000 barrels of cider. There are 
8,022 sheep in this town, and some 
manufactures of shoes,leather,palm- 
leaf hats, and scythe snaiths. 

BerwtelK^ Me. 

York CO. This town lies on the 
£. side of Salmon river, about 14 
miles S. S. W. from Alfred, 45 S. 
W. fit>m Portland, and 98 S. W. 
from Augusta. Berwick has con- 
siderable trade in lumber. Incor- 
p(»«ted, 1718. Population, 1837, 

Bethaayy Ct« 

New Haven co. Taken from 
Woodbridge, in 1832. It lies 10 
miles N. by W. from New Ha- 
Ten. Some portions of this town 
is good land and well cultivated, 
hut a large part of it is mountain- 
ous, and fit only for the growth of 
wood. Beacon mountain, between 

Bethany and Naugatuck river, pro* 
sents some wild and picturesquo 

Bethely Me* 

Oxford CO. Incorporated in 1796. 
Population, 1837, 1,864. Bethel 
lies 18 miles N. W. from Paris, 61 
N. W, from Portland, and .68 W. 
from Augusta. This town is bound- 
ed N. and W. by Androscoggin riv- 
er, and S. by Greenwood. This if 
a fine farming town, and produced 
5,214 bushels of wheat in 1887. 

Bethel) Vt« 

Windsor co. This town was fim 
settled m 1780, and was the first 
town chartered by the government 
of Vermont. It lies 31 miles S. by 
W. from Montpelier, and 80 N. W. 
from Windsor. Population, 1830, 
1,240. Bethel is watered by 
branches of White river, and pos- 
sesses good mill sites. Soap .stone 
is found here in great quantities 
and of good quality : much of it is 
sawed and traiifl|K>rted. Garnet in 
small, but poifect crystals, is also 
common. The surface of Bethel is 
broken and mountainous, but the 
soil is warm and good for grazing. 
It has about 8,000 sheep. Consid- 
erable business is done at both vil- 
lages. East and West; the latter 
is the largest. 

Bethel, Ct« 

Fairfield co. This is a pleasant 
and flourishing village, in the town 
of Danbury, and about 8 miles N. 
W. from the centre of that town. 
There are about fifty dwelling hous- 
es in the village, and about thirty 
work shops or factories. The man- 
ufacture of hats and combs is the 
principal business of the place, and 
large quantities of both are annu* 
ally transported to Boston, New 
Yoik and other places. 

Bethlehem* N. H.* 

Grafron co., is bounded N. by 
Whitefield and Dalton»^ by Car- 


toll and ungrtated land, S. by Fran- 
eonia and Lisbon, and N. W. by 
Littleton. It is watered by Great 
Amonoosuck river. The soil pro- 
duces good crops of grass and grain. 
There is plenty of pine timber and 
sugar maple. Iron 6re, both of the 
mountain and bog kind, has been oc- 
casionally found. Two mineral 
springs have been discovered. — 
Bethlehem was settled in 1790. 
It was incorporated Dec. 27, 1799. 
Population, 1830, 665. 

Betlilebeiifc, Ct. 

Litchfield co. This town is 38 
miles W. S. W. from Hartford, 32 
N. W. by W. from New Haven, 
and 8 S. from Litchfield. It was 
taken from Woodbury in 1787. It 
is hilly, with a gi^velly loam, and 
fit for grazing and the growth of 
rye. It has 2,000 sheep. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 906. The town is wa- 
tered by Pomperaug river, a branch 
of the Housatonick. 

Beverly, Mass. 

Essex CO. This town lies N. of 
Salem, and is united to it by a bridge 
across the North river, built in 17^, 
1,500 feet in length. The people 
of this town are noted for their en- 
terprise in commerce and the fish- 
eries. There are some merchant 
vessels belonging to this place, 
about 50 sail of fishermen, and 20 
cdasters. The annual value of the 
fineries at Beverly is about ^100,- 
000. The manufactures, consisting 
<^ Brittania ware, tin and cabinet 
wares, chairs, hats, boots, hair, mus- 
tard and bricks, amounted in one 
year to about $120,000. The pros- 
perity of this town has not suffered 
by the growth of luxury or excess of 
trade ; its fisheries and manufactur- 
ing concerns are steady and pro- 
gressive. First settled, 1626. In- 
corporated, 1688. Population, 1830, 
4,079—1837, 4,609. Among many 
distinguished men who have lived 
and died at Beverly, was Captain 
Ttkomas Lothrop, whtt commalided 

the " Flower of EZssex,*' a cmnpi^ 
ny of young men from this county, 
and who were, with their leader, 
almost wholly cut off by the In- 
dians, at Bloody Brook, in 1676. 

Biddefordly Ble. 

York CO. On the S. side of Sfto». 
river, and ccmnected with the tows 
of Saco by a bridge. The town 
extends down the river to the sea, 
and includes a point of land called 
«* Fletcher's Neck," off which are 
several small islands; on one of 
which. Wood Island, is a revolving 
light. This is a good township fyc 
agricultural pursuits, the coasting 
trade, ship building, and the fish- 
ery. It lies 38 miles N. £. from 
York, 15 S. W. from Portland, and 
69 S. W. from Augusta. First 
permanently settled, 1680. Incor- 
porated, 1718. Population, 1837, 
2,278. See Siieo, 

BtlleHofty Mam. 

Middlesex co. This town is wa- 
tered by the Concord and Shaw- 
sheen rivers, and has a pleasant vil- 
lage, on high ground, n^ar the cenr 
tre. Its soil is good and well im* 
proved. The Middlesex canal and 
the Boston and Lowell rail road pass 
through the easterly part of the 
town. First settled, 1653. Incor- 
porated, 1655. Population, 1837, 
1 ,498. Here are some manufactures 
of woolen cloth, boots, leather, 
wooden ware, straw bonnets, shav- 
ing and splitting knives, bed bind- 
ing, soft soap, and spirits. Billerica 
lies 18 miles N. W. from Bqstoo, 
7 S. S. £. from Lowell, and 7 N. £• 
by N. from Concord.' 

BtnglMMWy Me. 

Somerset co. On the eastern 
bank of Kennebec river, opposite 
to Concord, 26 miles N. fron^ Nor^ 
ridgewock, 118 N. N. E. from Port- 
land, and 55 N. from Augusta. lor 
corporated, 1812. Population, 1837, 
701. In 1837, 2,548 bushels d 
wheat was raised in this town. 


Blaek Rivers. 

Black river, $n Windsor county, 
Vt. is 35 miles in length. It rises 
in I^ymouth, passes Ludlow, Cav- 
eadish and Weathersfield, and falls 
into the Connecticut at Springfield. 
This river passes through many nat- 
ural ponds, and affords a great num- 
ber of mill seats. 

Black river, in Orleans county, 
Vt. is about 30 miles in length. It 
rises in some ponds in Crafbbury, 
and passing through Albany, Iras- 
burg, and Coventry, it fdls into 
Memphremagog lake at Salem. 

Black river, in Somerset county. 
Me. is one of the head branches of 
Che Walloostook. 

Rl>ek«tone River. Mase« 

The most inland branch of this 
river rises between Paxton and Hol- 
den. It passes Worcester, and the 
ponds in Shrewsbury pay it the tri- 
bute of their waters. After pass- 
ing Auburn, Grafton, Millbury, 
Sutton, Northbridge, Uxbiidge and 
Mendon, it passes into the state of 
Rhode Island, where it changes its 
name to Pawtucket, and meets the 
^e waters in Providence river» 


Black water river, N. H. so called 
from its dark appearance, is formed 
by two small streams, one of which 
rises in Danbury, and the other is- 
sues from Pleasant pond, in New 
London. These branches unite 
soon after crossing the W. line of 
Andover, and form the Blackwater, 
which passes through the S. W. part 
af that town ; from thence through 
the W. part of the towns of Salisbu- 
ry and Boscawcn into Hopkinton, 
where it empties into Contoocook 

Blanoluurdy Me* 

Somerset co. This town lies 116 
miles from Augusta. In 1887, 796 
bushels of wheat was raised here. 
Population, same year, 261. See 
Barnard, Me, 


Blandlbrd, Mam. 

Hampden co. Branches of West- 
field river rise in this town and give 
it a good water power. Blancubrd 
was incorporated in 1741. It was 
originally settled by a company from 
the north of Ireland. It lies 114 
miles W. by S. from Boston, and 16 
W. by N. from Springfield. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 1,443. The manufac- 
tures of the place consist of woolen 
cloth, paper and leather. Annual 
amount, $50,600. The agricultu- 
ral products sent to market in 1836, 
amounted to $22,340. There were 
in the town 1,536 cows and 1,822 
merino sheep. 

Block Island, R. I. 

See AVto Shoreham, 

Bloody Brooky Mass. 

See Deerfield, 

Bloomfleldy Me. 

Somerset co. This town was in- 
corporated in 1814, and lies on Ken- 
nebec river, 33 miles K. from Au- 
gusta and 7 below Norridgewock, 
opposite to Skowhegan. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 1,053. Bloomfield is a 
fine township of land, and produced 

Blackwater River, W. H. "' ^in 1837 6,080 bushels of wheat. 

Bloomifleld, VU 

Essex CO. Bloomfield lies on the 
W. side of Connecticut river, and is 
also watered by branches of the 
Nulhegan. Population, 1830, 150. 
It is about 20 miles N. from Guild- 
hall, and 60 N. £. from Montpelier. 

Bloomfield, C^ 

Hartford co. This was formerly 
a parish in Windsor, called Winton- 
bury. ' It derived its name from the 
circumstance of the parish being 
formed from Windsor, Farmington 
and Simsbury ; the name Win-ton- 
bury being a part of the name of 
each of those towns. It was incor- 
porated into a tpwn in 1835. The 
inhabitants enjoy a fine soil, and cul- 
^ tivate it with great industry, pro- 


dncing large crops of grass and 
ffrain, with an abundance of choice 
fruit It lies about six ^miles N. 
from Hartford. Population, about 

miM Hill and Bay, Me. 

Hancock co. The town lies at 
the head of a large bay, of the same 
name, 12 miles £. from Castine, 
and 78 £. from Augusta. There 
are several large ponds in Blue Hill, 
and a hill of 960 feet in height, from 
which delightful marine scenery is 
presented. Incorporated 1789. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 1,808. The bay has 
Long and other islands inside ; and 
outside, Bumtcoat, and a group of 
smaller islands. Blue Hill bay is 
connected with Penobscot bay and 
river by a passage between the 
islands and main land, of about 12 
miles. It lies about 16 miles W. 
from Frenchman's bay. 

Blue UlUs. 

The first range of mountains on 
the eastern coast of New Hamp- 
shire and Maine ; and the elevated 
Ismds in Milton, Mass. are thus de- 
nominated, in consequence of their 
blue or cloud-like appearance, at a 
distance, on the ocean. 

Boar's Heady IT. H. 

See Hampton. 

Bolton, Tt« 

Chittenden co. Population, 1830, 
452. 17 miles S. £. from Burling- 
ton, and 17 N. W. from Montpelier. 
Incorporated, 1763. Bolton lies on 
the western side of the Green 
Mountains. Onion river passes 
through the town, on the banks of 
which most of the inhabitants re- 

Bolton, Mass. 

A good farming town in the coun- 
ty of Worcester, 31 miles W. by N. 
from Boston, and 15 N. N. £. from 
Worcester. Incorporated, 1738. 
Population, 1837, 1 ,185. It lies be- 

tween Concord and Nashua rivers. 
Here are good limestone, and small 
manufactures of boots, shoes, leatk- 
er and combs. 


Tolland co. This town lies 14 
miles £. from Hartford, and 10 miles 
S by W. from Tolland. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 744. The soil is a coarse, 
hard, gravelly loam, fit only for 
grazing. It is within the granite 
region of the eastern section of the 
state. The Bolton Stone Quarry is 
quite noted. « The stone Is a spe* 
cies of slate, of a brilliant light 
gray color, composed of mica and 
quartz, and is excellent for flagging 
and other purposes. It is extensive- 
ly used in the principal cities of the 
United States. For strength it ex- 
ceeds any other known in this coun- 
try, and die demand for it is rapidly 
increasing.'* The supply is inex- 

Boon Island, Mesy 

A ledge of rocks, with a light- 
house thereon; about 9 miles £. 
from Kittery. Near this island the 
steamboat New England, on her 
passage from Boston to Gardiner, 
met a fatal disaster, by coming in 
contact with a loaded coaster, on the 
night Of the 81st of May, 1888, by 
which many ftluable lives were 

Bootbbay, Me. 

Lincoln co. This town is bound- 
ed W. by the mouth of Sheepscot 
river, N. by Edgecomb, E. by 
Damariscotta river, and S. by the 
ocean. It is nearly surrounded by 
water, and is noted for its excellent 
harbor. Its 'maritime situation ren- 
ders it a place of considerable busi- 
ness in the coasting trade and fish- 
eries. This town lies 39 miles S. S. 
£. from Augusta, 12 £. N. £. from 
Wiscasset, 60 E. N. E. from Port- 
land, and about 40 miles S. W. by 
W. from Owl's Head, by water. 
Boothbay is a fine watering place. 


and many visit it, in summer months, 
for health or pleasure. Here may 
be found all tiie enjoyments of sea 
air and bathing; fishing and fowl- 
ing ; ocean and island scenery ; for 
which J>rahantt in Massachusetts 
bay» is justly celebrated. Incorpo- 
rated, 1764. Population, 1837, 2,562. 

Merrimack co. Boscawen is sit" 
uated between Concord and Salis- 
bury, on the W. side of Merrimack 
river. Boscawen is 8 miles N. W. 
from Concord. Besides the Merri- 
mack, the west part of this town is 
watered by Blackwater river, run- 
ning nearly parallel with the for- 
mer, through the whole extent of 
the town, and about five miles dis- 
tant from it. It is not a large stream, 
but very important, botihbn account 
of the lertile fields of champaign 
on its borders, and the numerous wa- 
ter privileges it affords. There are 
two ponds of some note. Great pond, 
near the centre of the town. Long 
pond, in the west part, and mill seats 
at the outlet of each. Boscawen is 
of a deep, productive soil, afibrdine 
many excellent farms delightfully 
situated. The surface, when view- 
ed from its highest parts, appears 
uncommonly level. From the nu- 
merous streams of living water, and 
froib the peculiaij^rcction of the 
swells of the hills, this town prob- 
ably derives that pure air and uni- 
form temperature which are so con- 
ducive to health. The principal 
village is in the east section of the 
town. It is situated on £ spacious 
street nearly two miles in length, 
very straight and level. Here the 

eye of the traveller is attracted and 
delighted by the fertile intervales 
and windings of the river Merri- 
mack. There is another viliage on 
a pleasant eminence near the west 
meeting house. Boscawen was 
granted by Massachusetts in 1738. 
The proprietors gave to it the name 
of Conioocook, after the Indian 
name of the river. It received its 
present name when it was incorpo- 
rated, April 22, 1760, from Edward 
Boscawen, a celebrated English ad 
miral then on the American station. 
The first settlement commenced 
early in the season of 1734. . Abi- 
gail Danforth was the first child 
bom in the town. The Indians 
made frequent predatory incursions 
on the inhabitants. See I)u9ton*t 

Among the deceased citizens of 
this place entitled to respectful no- 
tice, are, George Jaekrnan,% Esq., 
the first town clerk, who continued 
in office 36 years. He was appoint- 
ed a justice of the peace under 
Geo. II. and continuc^din that office 
during all successive changes down 
to ISIS. 

Rev. Samuel Wood, D. D., for 
more than half a century the min- 
ister of Boscawen, was distinguish- 
.ed for his learning and piety. 

Hon. Ezekiel Webster, a native 
of Salisbury, resided here many 
years. He was an eminent barris- 
ter at law, of extraordinary talents, 
and great private worth. He died 
in the court house, at Concord, 
April' 10, 1829, as^ed 49, beloved 
and lamented by ail who knew his 
character. Population, 1880, 2,093. 




County of Suffolk. The ancient city of Bostov, the capital of Mat- 
sachusetts, and of New Ihigland, and the birth place of American Free- 
dom, is naturally divided into three sections — Old Boston, South Boston, 
and Ecutt Boston', situated at the western extremity of Massachusetts 
Bay. The peninsula on which Old Boston is built, extends frt>m Roxbu- 
ry, on the south, to Winnesimet Ferry, on the north, and is nearly sur- 
rounded by the waters of Boston harbor on the east, and Charles river 
on the north and west. Its length is nearly three miles, and its average 
breadth about one mile. It originally contained about 700 acres, but its 
territory has been greatly extended, by filling up around its borders. Its 
surface is quite uneven. It has numerous eminences, rising from 60 to 
110 feet above the sea, affording admirable sites for building, and giving 
to it a peculiarly romantic appearance. It is in. north Lat. 42^ 21' 28" 
and west Lon. 71^ 4/ 9''. It lies 169 miles S. S^'W* from Augusta, Me. 
63 S. ^. £. from Concord, N. H. ; 160 S. £. by S. from Montpelier, Vt 
158 E. (19' S.) from Albany, N. Y . ; 40 N. N. E. from Providence, R. I. 
97 E. N. E. from Hartford, Ct. ; 207 N. E. by E. from New York, and 
432 miles N. £. by E. from Washington. Its Indian name was Shaw^ 
mut. It was called by the first settlers Tramount, Tremont, or Tru 
mountain, from three hills nearly in its centre. It took its present name 
on th6 7th of Sept., 1630, in honor of the Rev. John Cotton, second min- 
ister of the first church, who came from Boston, in England. The orig- 
inal proprietor of this territory was John Blackstone, who, soon after its 
settlement by Winthrop and others, removed to Rhode Island. Boston 
was incorporated as a city, February 23, 1S22. ^|^ 

'South Boston. 

This part of Boston was set off from Dorchester, by legislative enaet> 
ment, March the 6th, 1804. It is bounded south by Dorchester Bay, 
and spreads about two miles on the south side of the harbor, above the 
forts. It contains about 600 acres, and is laid out into regular streets and 
squares. The surface of this part of Boston is exceedingly picturesque. 
In about the centre of this tract, and about two miles from the City Hall, 
the memorable " Dorchester Heights'' rear their heads 130 feet above 
the sea, from which is presented a splendid view of Boston, its harbor, 
and the surrounding country. It is connected with Old Boston by two 
bridges. This part of Boston is rapidly increasing in population and 
wealth. The Washington House, near the << Heights,'* is a noMe 
building, and a delightful residence 


East Boston* 

This section of the city, until recently, had been called JSToddU^B UU 
and. It lies about 660 yards N. £. from Old Boston, and about the same 
distance fropi Charlestpwn. It is divided from Chelsea by Chelsea Creek^ 
600 feet wide, over which is a bridge, and from which is an excellent 
road to the Salein turnpike. The Eastern rail-road, to Salem, Newbu- 
r3rport, &c., commences at East Boston. The island contains about 660 
acres of land, and a large body of flats. It was purchased by a compa- 
ny of enterprizing gentlemen in 1832. They were incorporated in March* 
1833, and the first house was commence4 in October of the same year. 
A steam-boat ferry is established between this place and Old Boston 
starting from each side every five minutes. The time occupied in cross- 
ing is about three minutes. A ferry is about being established betweer 
this island and Charlestown. The surface of the island is pleasingly va- 
riegated, and affords delightful sites for dwelling houses and garden* 
at moderate prices. Tta|s. place is well located for manufactories of vari- 
ous kinds; particu]at||f^iir ship building, and all those branches of me- 
chanics connected wibi navigation. 

The Maverick Hotel is a large and splendid building, occupying a 
commo^ous site. This house is named in honor of Samuel Maverick, 
who owned the island and resided there in 1630, and who is said to have 
made « some figure in the history of after times — a man of very loving 
and courteous behavior, and very ready to entertain strangers.' 


Boston Har1>or» 

Extends across light House Channel and Broad Sound, fitmi Point Al- 
dert<m on NantaskeL to Pmnt Shiriey in Chelsea, a distance, between the 
islands, of about 4pilles. It is safe, and of ample capacity for the larg- 
est navy. The most important part of this harbor is entered by a narrow 
pass, between two and three miles below the city and Navy Yard } and is 
well protected by two powerful forts — Independence and Warren. The 
outer harbor, below these forts, will shortly be protected by a very pow- 
erful fortress now erecting on George's Island, at a great expense, by the 
government of the United States. Boston harbor contains many islands 
of great beauty, and is the reservoir of the Mystic^ Charles, JVeponset, 
Jifanatiquot and other rivers. Its borders are environed by the towns 
of Hull, Hingham, Weymouth, Braintree, Quincy, Dorchester, Roxbu- 
ry , Broiokline, Cambridge, Charlpstown, and Chelsea ; and the numerous 
small bays, coves and inlets, indenting their shores, give great variety, 
and add much to the scenery of this delightful harbor. 

Owing to the almost insular situation of Boston, and its limited extent, 
its population appears small. But it must be considered that the neigh- 



boring towns of Quincy^ Dorchester, Milton, Roxbury, Brookline, Brigh* 
ton, Watertown, Cambridge, Charlestown, Medford, Maiden, and Chel- 
sea, although not included in the city charter, are component parts of the 
city, and are as much associated with it in all its commercial, manufac- 
turing, literary, and social relations and feelings, as Greenwich, Man- 
hattanville, and Harlem are with the city of New York ; or Southwark 
and the Northern Liberties with Philadelphia. 

The population of Boston in 1700, was 7,000—1722, 10,667—1765, 
16,620—1790, 18,088—1800, 24,937—1810, 83,260—1820, 48,298—1880, 
61,891, and in 1887, 80,826. 


The peninsular situation of Boston requires many artificial avenues to 
and from the surrounding country. Until 1786, the " Neck," between 
Boston and Roxbury, one mile and 117 feet in length, was the only pas- 
sage to it by land. On the 17th June, of that year, the Charles Miver 
Bridge, leading from Boston to Charlestown, was opened for travel. It 
was incorporated, March 9, 1786. This bridge li 1,608 feet in length, 42 
in breadth, and cost $60,000. Net. revenue in 1834, $9,388. This 
|>ridge by its charter becomes state property in 1866. 

West Boston Bridge, leading to Cambridge, was opened on the 28d 
of November, 1793. It was incorporated March 9, 1792. Length of 
the bridge, 2,768 feet — abutment and causeway, 3,432 — total leng^, 
6,190 feet. Cost, $76,667. Net revenue in 1834, $12,928. This bridge 
will become state property in 1879.' 

SotUh Boston Bridge, leading from Boston Neck to South Boston, was 
incorporated March 6, 1804, and opened for travel in July, 1806. Iiongih, 
1,660 feet — width, 40. It cost the proprietors about $60,000. It is now 
city property — free . -W' 

Canal Bridge, from Boston to Lechmere Point, in East Cambridge, 
was incorporated February 27, 1807, and opened for travel in August, 
1809. Length, 2,796 feet— width, 40. A lateral bridge extends from 
this to Prison Point, Charlestown. Length, 1,820 — width, 86 feet 
Net receipts in 1834, $3,178. This bridge will become state property in 

The Western Avenue, leading from Beacon street to SetoelVs Pointf 
in Brookline, was incorporated June 14, 1814, and commenced in 1818. 
It was opened for travel, July 2, 1821. This avenue is a substantial dam 
across Charles river bay,, about a mile and a half in length, and from 60 
to 100 feet in width. This dam encloses about 600 acres of flats, over 
which the tide formerly flowed from 7 to 10 feet. A partition dam di- 
vides this enclosure, and forms, by the aid of flood and ebb gates, a foU 


tad receiTi&g basin ; thereby producing, at all times, a great hydrauHe 
power. The cross dam also forms an excellent avenue from the main 
dam to Roxbury. Cost, about ^700,000. Net receipts in 1884, (6,188. 
The proprietors of this avenue claim a perpetual franchise. 

Boitan Free Bridge, from Sea street to South Boston. Incorporated, 
March 4, 1826-^completed, 1828. Length, 500~width, 38 feet. Built 
by proprietors of lands in the vicinity. City property. 

Warren Bridge, leading to Charlestown. Length, 1,890 feet — ^width, 
44. Incorporated Ma3>ch 12, 1828, and opened on the December follow- 
ing. It is now state property. The net receipts of this bridge in 1834, 
were $16,427. 

All the above avenues are lighted with lamps, when necessary, and 
make a beautiful appearance. 

Public Buildings. 

Some of those of the most prominent character only can be mentioned. 

The City Hall, or "ibe Old State House," on State and Washington 
streets, now occupied by the city government, Post-Ofi&ce, Reading-Boom, 
&c., is 110 feet in length, 38 in breadth, and 3 stories high. Two build- 
ings on this spot have been destroyed by fire. The first was bnilt in 1659, 
the second in 1714, and the present in 1748. Until the erection of •the 
present State House, this building had ever been used for governmental 
purposes, both colonial and state. 

Faneuil Hall, or the *< Cradle of Liberty," in Dock Square, is three 
stories high, 100 feet by 80, and was the gift of Peter Faneuil, Esq. to 
the town, in 1742. The building was enlarged in 1806, and until the 
new Market was built the lower part of it was used for meat stalls. It is 
now improved for jCfres. ' The Hall is 76 feet square> 28 feet high, and 
has deep galleries on three sides. It is adorned with superb paintings of 
patriots, warriors and statesmen. The third story is improved for armo- 

State House, This building is on an open square, on Beacon-street, 
fronting the malls and common. Its foundation is 110 feet above the lev- * 
el of the sea. It was commenced, in 1795, and completed and occupied 
in 1798. Cost, $183,333. Length, .\73 feet— breadth, 61. On the area 
of the -lower hall stands the beautiful Statue of Washington, by Chan- 
try. From the top of the dome on this buHding, 62 feet in diameter, and 
280 feet above the level of the harbor, the ''vhole city appears beneath^ 
with all its crooked streets, its extended avenn<%s, its splendid buildings, 
and the malls and common, crossed with romantic walks, and shaded by 
ceaturian elms. On the north and west the county of Middlesex pre- 
Mnti iti Biimttroiia vlUas» and a rich array of agricultural taste and beau- 


ly. Here are viewed tibe hallowed halla of Harvard, and the sacred 
field of Bunker. On the south the county of Norfolk im>pears, with its 
granite hills and luxuriant vales, chequered With a thousand farm houses, 
cottages, and splendid mansions. On the east, the city, with its lofty 
spires, the harbor and the ocean, all conspire to render this t|ie most en- 
chanting scene west of the Bay of Naples. 

The Massachutetts Hospital is on an open plot of ground of 4 acres, 
at the western part of the city, on the banks of Charles river. It is 16S 
feet in length, and 54 in breadth. Commenced in . 1818, completed in 
1821. This building is of granite, and is a bea^tiful monument of taste 
and beneficence. 

Faneuil Hall Market, The comer stone of this superb granite 
building was laid on the 27th of April 1825, and couipleted in 1827. Coat, 
1(150,000, exclusive of land. It extends east of Faneuil Hall, on Bock 
square, 586 feet, and is 50 feet in width. The centre part of the build- 
ing, 74 by 55, projects two or three feet on the noyrth and south, and rises 
TI feet from the ground, to a beautiful dome. The wings are 81 feet, 
and two stories high. The lower floor is exclusively appropriated as t 
meat, fish and vegetable market. The upper story is one vast hall, ar- 
ranged to be divided into compartments for ware-rooms and large sales. 
On the sides of this building are JVorth Market street, 65, and SovJth 
Market street, 102 feet in width ; on each of which is a range of spa- 
cious ware-houses, with granite fronts. On the east, across Commercial 
street, is a commodious wharf, belonging to the city. The hall, in the 
centre of the building is called Quiruy Hall, in honor of Josiah Quincy, 
L.L. D., the late indefatigable mayor of the city, and now president of 
Harvard University. 

Tremont House. This superb hotel, on Tremont and Beacon streets, 
was commenced on the 4th of July, 1828, and completed 16th of October, 
1829. Its granite front on Tremont street is 160 feet, and 3 stories high. 
The wings are four stories high ; that on Beacon street is 84 by 84 feet; 
uid that on the south, fronting an open square, is 110 by 40 feet. This 
building contains 180 rooms. The dining hall is 70 by 81, and 14 fell 
high. Cost, $68,000, without the land. 

JWtr Court House, The comer stone of this building, in Court 
square, between Court and School streets, for the accommodation of all 
the courts of law for the county, city, and the United States, offices b^ 
record, &c., was laid Sept. 28, 1888. It is of cut, or hewn granite, froB 
the Quincy quarry. Its length is 175 feet 10 inches ; — width, 58 feet 
10 inches, and height 57 feet 8 inches. A portico of nearly the same 
model of the Doric portico at Athens, adorns its north and south fronts. 
Thtrs an fimr unhimns td fluted granite «t each of these portleoe. 


arin^ 26 feet 4 inches in length, and 4 feet 5 inches in diameter. Tfaeisr 
weigh 25 tons each. The interior contains four court rooms, 60 feet by 
40, and large and commodious offices for all the respective departments. 

Houses qf Industry, Correction, and Reformntion, These houses are 
delightfully situated on a plot of ground of about 61 acres, situated at 
South Boston, on the margin of the harbor, and near the brow of Dor- 
chester Heights. 

Trinity Church, in Summer street, 8t, PauTs Church and the Ma- 
sonic Temple, in Tremont street, the Washington Bank, in Washing- 
ton street, the granite building lately erected by the Suffolk Bank, the 
United States Bank, in State street, and the Steeple of Paric street 
Church, are some of the best specimens of architecture m Boston. 

Schools and Institiitioiis* 

The first settlers of New England were exceedingly tenacious of their 
civil and religious rights, and they well knew that knowledge was an 
all-powerful engine to preserve those rights, and transmit them to their 
po^erity. They therefore very early laid the foundation of those /ree 
schools, of which all the sons and daughters of New England are justly 
proud. Exclusive of Infant and Sabbath school scholars, about a quar^ 
ter part of the population of Boston is kept at school throughout the 
year, at an annual expense of about $200,000. Boston is not only celO" 
brated for its schools, but for its munificent donations in support of its 
institutions for moral, religious, and literary purposes. Since the year 
1800, not less than two millions of dollars have thus been appropriated 
by the citizens of Boston. 

New England InsUtntion for tlie Edneation of t&e Blind* 

This Institution was incorporated in 1829 ; but, little was accomplished 
until 1832, when Dr. Howe returned from Europe accompanied by % 
blind teacher ; manifesting that zeal in the cause of the blind which had 
distinguished his philanthropic labors, in another sphere, in a distant 
land. He opened a school with six blind young scholars. The progress 
of those children was so great, and the value of an Institution of the 
kind so apparent, that legislatures and citizens, generally, became 
much interested. By public and private donations, particularly by the 
influence of ladies in several parts of New England, and by the munifi- 
eant gift of a splendid building in Pearl street, by the Hon. Thomas H. 
Perkins, the Institution has increased, both in reputation and funds, with 
unparalleled success. The scholars are instructed in all those branches 
common in other schools, and some of them in the higher branches of 
literature. Music is the study of all. Mechanical labors are taught 
and enjoyed by the pupils. Musical instruments of all kinds, and other 



implements are provided fior their convenience and use. A printin|f 
press is established, and several books have been printed in embossed 
letters, which are superior to any in Europe. It is exceedingly delight- 
ful to see these interesting youth, whose lives once seemed a dreary 
waste, and to witness their improvement in acquiring useful knowledge, 
partaking of all those recreations, natural and proper for their age, sex, 
and condition^ and ^tting themselves for useful stations in society. The 
Institution is managed by a board of trustees, and is patronized by the 
governments of all the New England States. 

Eye And Ear Iniinnary* 

This Institution was commenced in Boston, by Drs. Jefiries and Rey- 
nolds, in 1824, from a conviction of its utility and importance, derived 
from what they had seen and known of similar establishments in Europe. 
Those gentlemen conducted the establishment at their own expense for 
some time, during which large numbers received the most important 
benefits. In 1827, by the philanthropic exertions of those, and other 
gentlemen, an act of incorporation was obtained, and some funds were 
raised. As early as 1828, 2,610 cases were treated at the Infirmary, of 
which about five-sixths were cured. Of these cases about one-sixth 
were for diseases of the ear. Since that time the number of applicanii 
has increased annually ; and this Institution, whose merits are not sur^ 
passed by any other in the city, has now a beautiful and commodiooi 
building in Bowdoin square for the reception of patients. 


The Boston Theatre^ on Federal and Franklin streets, was first open- 
ed February 3, 1794. It was burnt, February 2, 1798 ; it was re-built, 
and re-opened on the 29th of October, the same year. It is of brick, 162 
feet long, 61 wide, and 40 high. This building is now denominated 
" The Odeon," and is consecrated to the worship of God. A huge wood- 
en building was erected on Tremont street, and opened as the " Hay- 
Market Theatre,*' December 26, 1796. The citizens in its neighbor- 
hood being fearful of its conflagration, caused its demolition, by subscrip- 
tion, and the block of elegant brick dwelling-housesj near, and north of 
Boylston street, now occupy the spot. 

The Tremont Theatre, on Tremont street, is a very neat building, 
with a granite front 135 feet by 79. It was commenced in July, and 
opened Septembef 24, 1827. Cost, about $120,000. 

The JVational Theatre, at the junction of Portland and TrarerM 
streets, near the Warren bridge, was constructed in 1831. This buiM- 
Ing was first used for equestrian performances. 


Bostoii Commoii* 

This is considered one of the most delightful promenac'Ies in the world. 
It comprises ahout 75 acres of land, of variegated surface, beautifully 
shaded by trees of various kinds, particularly in the malls, or walks 
which surround it. Some of those trees were planted more than a hun- 
dred years ago. The malls are wide, beveled, graveled, and smooth ; 
the waters of Charles river, and the romantic scenery beyond it, are in 
prospect The whole is enclosed by an iron fence, on the outside of 
which are wide streets and beautiful buildings. The distance around 
the malls and common is about a mile. This plot of ground is so held 
by the city, that it can never be appropriated to any other than its pres- 
ent healthful and pleasing purposes. 

The foundation of a large and splendid Botanic Gahdkit was 
laid in 1837, by the subscription of funds for that purpose. It is located 
on the city lands, on the west side of the Common. This will be • 
great ornament to the city, and an honor to the taste and judgment of iti 


The public debt of the city of Boston on the 1st of May, 1837, was 
$1,497,200. The recteipts, during the financial year, from the 30th of 
April, 1836, to 80th April, 1837, was $926,350— the expenditures, 
$904,065. Besides the public property in public buildings, city and other 
wharves, &c. &c., both improved for city purposes, and rented, the city 
has about 7,000,000 square feet of land on the Neck, exclusive of streets, 
public squares, and malls, and a very large property in other lands in 
various parts of the city, which are rapidly increasing in value. The 
amount of this property cannot be stated, but it is known greatly to ex- 
ceed the city debt, exclusive of that part which is wanted for the uses 
of the city. 


The citizens of Boston have ever sustained a high rank for their com- 
mercial enterprise. After whitening every sea with their canvass, and 
extending their commerce with all nations of the globe, they are now 
looking westward and northward^ and constructing new and artificial 
channels, to enable thenl not only to compete with other Atlantic cities 
for the already immense commerce of the western worid, but to inter- 
cept it on its passage down the St. Lawrence. 

The number of vessels entered at this port the year ending September 
80, 1887, was 1,544 — tonnage, 242,277 tons — crews, 11,503: — cleared, 
1,867, tonnage, 184,373 tons— crews, 9,177. The registered, enrolled and 
Ucensed tonnage of this port, the same year, was 201,005 tons. A large 
aaumnt of tonnage, owned at Boston, is registered at southern ports. 


Commercial Aooomanodatioiui* 

There is probably no place in the world better accommodated for com- 
mercial operations than Boston. The whole length of the harbor on tilt 
east and north is lined with about 200 docks and wharves. A few of 
them only can be noticed. 

India Wharf, at the foot of Fort HUl. was constructed in 1306. It 
extends into the harbor 980 foet, and is 246 to 280 feet in width. In tfat 
centre is a range of 89 stores, 22 by SO, and 4 stories in height. 

Central Wharf, between India and Long wharves, was built in 18H. 
la the centre are 54 ware-houses, 23 by 60, 4 stories high. It is ]„3T9 
feet in length, and 160 in width. Over a spacious hall in the centre of 
this range of stores, is one of the best observatories in the United Statee* 

North of this is Long Wharf, at the foot of State street, commenced 

in 1710. This wharf extends into the harbor 1,800 foet» is 200. feet in 

width, and has 76 spacious ware-houses. About the centre of tills wharC 
is a well of fresh water, 90 feet in depth. 

Passing the City wharf on the north, we come to Commercial Wkosff, 

1,100 feet in length, and 160 in width. On the centre of this wharf is 

a range of 34 granite ware-houses, 26 by 60 feet, and are unequalled by 

any thing of the kind in the United States for convenience or grandeur. 

Cost, ^500,000. 

^'iOn the west, and in front of this tier of wharves, which run into tike 

harbor nearly parallel to each other, are India and Commercial streeti, 

having the east end of Faneuil Hall Market nearly in the centre. These 

streets ;^re wide ; they serve as wharves, and their west sides are cover ' 

ed with large and convenient stores. It is contemplated to extend India 

street, on the south, to the Free Bridge on Sea street ; and Commercial 

street, on the north, to Winnesimet Ferry. (See Hale's Map of Boston.) 

The Marine Railways, established in 1826, at the north part ojf the 
dty, afford great accommodations to those engaged in navigation. A 
new and splendid Custom House is now erecting on India street, between 
Long and Central wharves. An Exchange, for the accommodation oi 
merchants, and a new City Hall, are contemplated. 


Although Boston has never been considered a manufacturing city, 
yet, since the general peace in Europe, in 1816, and the passage of tiie 
present tariff laws, in 1833, ito ipanufacturing interests have considerably 

Th9 following are the manufacturer of Boston for the year e»4iig 
April 1, 1837, with the value of each, the number of haods empkqnid» 
aqd t^e adLount of capital invested, so far as can be ascertained. 

It m^y bo proper to obHnvej that tho following iicceiint i» dovMitf 





Capitol In- 

Boots and Shoeg, 














IroD Castings, 













Ctiaira and Cabinet Ware, 








Tin Ware, 






Stran Bonnets, 



Vessels, (average Tor 6 years,) 











Soap and Candles, 





Whale Oil, 





Copper and Brass, 















Gold and Silver Leaf, 






Carriages and Harnesses, 




SeGned Sugar,, 



Silver Ware and Jewelry, 




Chain Cables, 







Saddles, Trunks and Whips, 






Graoile, Marble, Ue. 








Blank Books and Stationary, 











Looting Glasses and Frames, 










Neck Slocks, &c. 






Types and Stereotypes, 






P^ted BocJifl, 









Hard Wore, 



Baskets, &F. 










The city of Boston is w limited, in regard to territory, as to be eiclud- 
mI, Id ft great measure, from participating in the fisharies. Much capi- 
tal of die Bostonians is, however, invested, at the out ports, in this im- 
patMkt bnmdi of the repourcai of the nealth of New Easlaod. Dunnf 

ifae year ending April 1, 1887, there were belonging to dili city four 
ieU engaged in the whale fishery, and 152 in the eod and mackerel ftrii* 
eries, employing 1,919 hands. Total tonnage, 11,268 tons. Tolil pi^ 
ceeds, $824^98. Capital employed, $748,200. 


To judge of the health of a city we must compare its bills of mortality, 
for a series of years, with those of some other city. We have ever believed 
that the climate of Boston, and of New England generally, was as coo- 
ductive to health as any portion of our country ; but having heard it 
often asserted that the climate of Boston was more favorable to some 
diseases, particularly those of a pulmonary character, or what is com- 
monly called consumption^ than that of our sister city New York, we 
have examined with great care the authenticated bills of mortality of 
each city for five successive years, (1830 — 1834, inclusive.) The popu- 
lation of Boston, in 1830, was 61,391— of New York, 202,589— a fi-ac- 
tion less than 3 1-3 in New York to 1 in Boston. From 1820 to 1830, the 
average increase of the population of Boston was a fitiction less tiian 4 
per cent, per annum — ^that of New York a fraction less than 6 1-3 per 
cent, per annum, 'the aggregate number of deaths in Boston during those 
tkve years, was 7,340 — New York, 85,087 : — a fraction more than 4 2-8 in 
New York to 1 in Boston. In that period, the aggregate number of deaths 
li4ko6ton, by consumption, vr9s 1,128 — in New York 6,124: — more 
tiian 5 1-3 in New York to 1 in Boston. 


Boston, in common with all large towns which are chiefly built of 
wood, has suffered very much by fire. Fifty years ago the buildings ia 
the town were principally of that material ; but by efficient measurea 
adopted by the citizens, particularly the law of 1803, prohibiting the con* 
struction of wooden buildings of a greater height than 10 feet, a large por- 
tion of the old buildings have been taken down, and their places, with 
thousands of others on new sites, now present to that destructive element 
solid walls of brick and stone. A few of the most memorable fires are 
here given. In October 1711, a fire broke out in Williams* Court and 
destroyed most of the buildings on both sides of Cornhill, now Washing* 
ton street, from School street to Market square. On the 20th of March 
1760, 174 dwelling-houses, 175 ware-houses, shops, &c. were burnt 
This fire was in the centre of the town, (Cornhill, State and Congresi 
streets to Fort Hill,) and the amount of property consumed, was estimated 
at £100,000 sterling. April 24, 1787, a fire commenced in Beach street, 
imd extending south, destroyed about 60 dwelling-houses, 40 other bnild- 
ings, and the church in Hollis street July 80, 1794. Seven rope-walki, 
Between Peart and Atkinson atreets, and aboat 90 ofOier buiUBnga hi 


aeigbboriiood were destroyed. Lom estlinated at more tiiain $200,M0. 

On the 8d of November, 1818, the Boston Eteehange Coffse-BouBt, 
in Congress-sqaare, was destroyed by fire. This building covered 12,- 
758 feet of land. It was 7 stories high, and from the floor to the top of 
the dome was 83 feet. It contained 210 apartments, and cost about half 
a million of dollars. The conflagration occurred in the evening, and the 
sight was awfully sublime. 

On the 7th of July, 1824, at noon, (the wind blowing almost a gale,) 
16 costly dwelling-houses were burnt, on Beacon, Charles and Chesnut 

A very destructive fire commenced on Doane street, Aipril 7th, 1824, 
when 53 large ware-houses, in that part of the city, with a great amount 
d merchandize, were destroyed. 

A number of buildings, containing about 85 lawyers' ofiSces, and 20 
stores and shops, on Court street, were burnt, Nov. 10, 1825. 

During five years, 1830 — 1834, inclusive, there were 226 fires^'^the 
amount of property destroyed was $274,278 : — of which || 140,943 was 
insured. The most destructive fires were in 1833. In that year 71 fires 
occurred, $89,970 value of property was destroyed, of which $57,040 
was insured. 

The present Fire Department was organized in 1826. It is always in 
flie most perfect state of preparation for service. Attached to tU^^- 
partment are 24 engines, and 16,000 feet of hose. By the most powerful 
of these engines, with 250 feet of hose, water can be thrown over the 
greusJiopper, on the cupola of Faneuil Hall, 84 feet above the pavement 


The subject of pure water for all the various uses of life has ever been 
one of the first and most important considerations with settlers in all coun- 
tries. It fi^quently happens that those places most suitable for com- 
merce are the least favorable to the ready acquirement of that indispens- 
able element ; consequently the ingenuity and skill of man have devised 
and executed those stupendous aqueducts, and tanks or reservoirs, both in 
ancient and modem times, which have made some of the most desolate 
parts of the globe the greatest marts of trade and^most splendid cities. 
Governor Winthrop and his associates located themselves at Charlestown, 
and would have continued there had not the waters of Shatomut been 
more agreable to their tastes. Their change of situation, on that account» 
is no compliment to their chemical knowledge, for the waters of Charles- 
town are decidedly the best. Possibly '< the magic of a name" might have 
influenced them ; for Shawmut, in the Indian language, is ^d to o^ean 
*< springs of living waters." 

The city coiincil, in 1634, took the long neglected stfbjeiit of ititroduc' 


ing soft and pure water into the city, into consideration. By analyses of 
the wafers of Boston, one of the best wells in the city was found to contain 
3.6 grains of the salts of sulphate of lime, muriate of soda and muriate of 
lime, to the pound of water. The well is 30 feet deep, and is situate high 
on the side of a hill. Some wells were found to contain 7.5 grains of the 
above salts, and many others a much greater quantity of noxious matter. 
An able en^neer stated that in October 1834, there were 2,767 wells in 
the city ', of which number 2,085 were drinkable, and 682 bad ; and that 
only 7 of the whole number were occasionally used for washing. The 
engineer also stated that << all the dug or Artesian wells of Boston, are 
ip strata of different materials in very irregular position, so that whatever 
may be the success in making one well, no certain result can be predicap 
ted upon another trial at a short distance from the first. The wells in 
town are polluted by the dirty water at the surface being absorbed, set- 
tling and mingling with the veins below ; or are adulterated by mixture 
with little streams of sea-water.'* 

The Boston Aqueduct Corporation commenced operations for convey- 
ing water into the city from Jamaica pond, in Roxbury, in 1795. The 
distance from Boston to the pond is four miles, and the number of feet of 
logs laid in the city is 72,000, or about 18 miles. The greatest quantity 
of water that can be supplied from this source is 50,000 gallons daily, and 
thsKreatest height it can be raised in the city is 49 feet above tide-water. 
A^Rrding to the estimates of the quantity of water used in London and 
Philadelphia, about 28 gallons daily would be required for every person 
. in the city. This includes all that is commonly used for stables, wash- 
ing streets, the extinguishment of fires, for manufacturing, and all other 
purposes. The quantity of water necessary for the present population 
is therefore about 2,500,000 gallons, daily. Spot pond in Stoneham, 8 
miles from the city ; Mystic pond in Charlestown and Medford, 7 miles ; 
Long pond, in Natick, 16 miles ; or the waters of Charles river, taken at 
Watertown, 7 miles from the city, would almost inundate the misnamed 
Shawmut with soft and pure water, at an expense of about a million of 
dollars. Philadelphia, by her incomparable water works, has added a 
lustre to her bright name ; New York is following her noble example, 
by bringing the Croton river, 45 miles, to the centre of the city, at an 
expense of five millions of dollars ; and Boston cannot much longer re- 
main insensible of the value of pure water, to the health and comfort of 
Its people. 


Boston was described by Johnson in his « Wonder Working Profit 
dence," about the year 1663, in the following words : — 
** Invironed it is with brinish floods, saving one smaU Istmofl|» which 


ipires free access to the neighboring towns by land, on the loath side, on 
fte northwest and northeast Two constant fairs are kept for daily 
trafique thereunto. The form of this town is like a heart, naturally sit- 
uated for fortifications, having two hiUs on the frontier part thereof next 
the sea, the one well fortified on the superficies thereof, with store of 
great artillery well mounted. The other hath a very strong battery built 
of whole timber, and filled with earth ', at the descent of the hill, in the 
extreme poynt thereof betwixt these two strong arms lies a cove or bay, 
on which the chief part of this town is built, overtopped with a third 
hill; all these like overtopping towers, keep a constant watch to see the 
approach of foreign dangers, being furnished with a beacon and loud 
babbling guns to give notice by their redoubled echo to all the sister 
towns. The chief edifice of this city-like town is crowded on the sea- 
banks, and wharfed out with great labour and cost ; the buildings beau- 
tiful and large, some fairly set forth with brick tile, stone and slate, and 
orderly placed with semely streets, whose continual enlargement pre- 
sageth some sumptuous city. But now behold the admirable acts of 
Christ, at this his people's landing ; the hideous thickets in this place 
were such that wolves and bears nurst up their young from the eyes of 
all beholders, in those very places where the streets are full of girls and 
boys, sporting up and down with continued concourse of people. Good 
rtore of shipping is here yearly built, and some very fair ones. . Thig 
' town is the very mart of the land ; Dutch, French, and Portugalls eome 
here to trafique." 

Present eondttioii of Boston. 

Perhaps at no period since the settlement of Boston has its prosperity 
been so flattering as for the last seven years. It is true that Boston in* 
creased in population and wealth with great rapidity during the wars in 
Europe, from 1794 to 1807. But that growth was unnatural and contin- 
gent ; it depended solely on the caprice of the belligerent powers, who 
viewed us rather as servants to their necessities, than with respect 

The present state of things is altogether different The world is at 
peace. We look for no be^eged city to supply with bread, neither do we 
seek to run the gauntlet of a blockading squadron to furnish a starving 
country with the growth and produce of its own colonies. We now rely 
on our own resources — agriculture, manufactures, the fisheries, and com- 
merce with all nations with whom we can exchange our commodities at 
fair prices. So long as we are blessed with union, good, schools, good 
laws, and with all those moral, religious and charitable institutions, which 
tend to make mankind wiser and better, our city, under Providence, wUl 
continue on in the forward path to prosperity and happiness. 

Th<} lo^tion of Boston always gfive it the cAmmnnii of a greater coast- 


lug trade than any other port in the United States ; but the great arteries 
to an immense, wide -spread and rapidly increasing interior commerce 
were never opened until the rail-roads to the north, the west, the soufhy 
and the east were constructed and in operation. By these devicee of hu- 
man wisdom, and by the continuance of the two former — crossing the wa- 
ters of our own Connecticut to the noble Hudson, and piercing the cen- 
tre of a large and fertile country, to the outlet of the great western 
oceans on the banks of the St. Lawrence, Boston, with its enterprize and 
wealth, located 160 miles nearer the British capital than New York, can* 
not fail of sustaining a fair and successful competition for this trade witii 
any city on the American continent 

Motto of the City* 

Sieut patribtu tit Deus nobis. 
As God was with oxtr fathers, so mat hk bs 

WITH us. 

Bo'vr, N. H«y Samuel Welch, the oldest native 

Merrimack co., was originally S^^®"" °l^lTu^T?'^ n^'i^oo^ ^ 

laid out nine miles square, compre- Bow on the 5th of April, 1823, at 

bending a great portion of the ter- "J® ^S® ®^ 113 years. He was bora 

ritory now constituting Pembroke Jt Kingston, Sept. Ist, 1710, where 

and Concord. It is bounded N. E. J® ^Pent the early part of his hfe; 

by Merrimack river, which divides J® "J^f subsequently a while at 

it from Pembroke, S. E. by Hook- Pembroke 5 but for 50 years preced- 

sett, S. W. by Dunbarton, N. W. mg his death he resided at Bow, 

by Concord and a part of Hopkin- ^^ "^ obscure comer, and steadily 

ton. The soil is very uneven and cultivated his little farm, till the 

hard, but productive when well {~8t8 of a century had whitened 

managed. There is but one pond ^^ l^"^^?' ^^^^ ^« <^?"*8 ^{ \^^' 

of any size, called Turee pond. J*"®^ ^*^!''Vr^*'* benumbed his 

Turkey river empties into the Mer- ^^^^' ^ "^^ *"« T*? marked by no 

rimack at Turkey falls, near the N. extraordinary vicissitude— he was 

E. part of Bow. About a mile be- ^^""V^ m batUe, or m any pubhc 

low are Garven's falls, now passable semce ; he was a man of industry 

by locks on Bow side. Bow canal "^^ temperance. 

is situated on th§ Merrimack, 3 Bo'wlmclc Mountain* 

miles below Concord ; the perpen- «* */• j »/. rr 

dicular measurement around which ^®® iitratjord, JV. H, 

it is carried is 25 feet — ^its length «««,vi««« i*r^ 

•m *% r •! Tj. XV I- BoiTooln, Me* 

1-3 of a mile. It passes through 

a ledge of granite, and is for the Lincoln co. This agricultural 
most part imperishable. Its cost township is bounded on the S. E. 
was $13,860 ; and about $2,000 of by Bowdoinham, and S. by Tops- 
its first income were appropriated ham. It was incorporated in 1788, 
towards clearing channels through and lies 17 miles W. from Wiscas- 
Turicey falls, &c. Pop. 1830, 1,065. set, 87 N. N. E. from Portland, and 


90 S. S. W. from Augusta. Popu- 
Ution, 1837, 2,173. 

Boirdolnliam, Me. 

Lincoln co. A pleasant town 
on the west side of Kennebec river, 
and north of Topsham. Here is 
considerable business in the lum- 
ber trade and ship building. Twen- 
ty iniles S. by W. from Augusta, 
and 12 N. from Bath. Population, 
1837, 2,218. Incorporated, 1762. 

Middlesex co. Incorporated,1783. 
Population, 1837, 433. Some shoes, 
palm-leaf hats and straw bonnets 
are manufactured in this town, and 
large quantities of hops are grown. 
It lies 25 miles N. W. by W. from 
Boston, and 9 W. by N. from Con- 
cord. Good lime-stone is found 

Pozfordy Mass. 

Essex CO. This town lies 26 
miles N. from Boston, 13 S. W. 
from Newburyport, and 10 W. by 
N. from Ipswich. The annual 
amount of manufactures of cotton 
wicking, boots, shoes and ploughs 
is about $100,000. Population, 
1887, 964. Incorporated, 1685. 

Boylstoifty Mass. 

Worcester CO. Incorporated, 1786. 
Peculation, 1837, 821. It lies 40 
miles W. from Boston, and 8 N. by 
£. from Worcester. Boylston is 
iratered by Nashua river, and has 
iron ore and a ledge of crystalized 
quartz. Here are some manufac- 
tures of combs, palm-leaf hats, 
'boots and shoes ;-~seyeral ponds 
mnd fine fish. 

Bozralfti Ct. 

New London co. This town was 
taken from Norwich in 1786. It 
was formerly called New Concord. 
It lies 33 miles £. S. £. from Hart- 
ford, and 6 W. from Norwich. The 
•oil is a gravelly loam, rich and fer- 
tte. ' It is watered by Y antic riveri 

on which are two pleasant and 
flourishing villages, Bozrahtnlle 
and Fitehville, at both of which 
are manufactories for cotton. 

This town experienced a terrible 
hail ^rm on the 15th of July, 1799, 
by which much property was lost 
and many cattle injured. The hail 
fell in immense quantities, some 
particles of which ipieasured six 
inches in circumference. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,073. 

Bradford, Me. 

Penobscot co. This town lies 
87 miles from Augusta. 4,944 bush- 
els of wheat was raised here in 
1837, with a population of 770. — 
See Barnard, Me, 

Bradford, N. H. 

Merrimack co. Situated about mid- 
way between the Merrimack and 
Connecticut rivers, bounded N. by 
Newbury and Sutton,£. by Warner, 
S. by Henniker and Hillsborough, 
W. by Washington ; is 31 miles from 
Amherst, 25 from Concord, and 80 
from Boston. This town is watered 
by small streams, which principally 
issue from ponds, — of which the 
largest is Todd*s pond, lying in 
Bradford and Newbury. This pond 
is supplied with water from the 
hills and mountains in Newbury. 
In it are a number of floating 
islands, which are deemed objects 
of curiosity. Its outlet forms the 
northern branch of Warner river. 
Pleasant, or Bradford pond, is on 
the £. side of the town. It is about 
550 rods long and 150 wide. It 
communicates with Warner river 
by an outlet at the N. end of it. 
In 'this pond are several islands, 
which, with the rugged declivities 
on the £. bank, the waters below, 
and the cottages and cultivated 
fields on the west bank, present to' 
view, in the summer season, a wild 
and variegated landscape. Many 
parts of Bradford are hilly. A large 
proportion of the town, however, 
lies in a valley, about three miles 



In width. Near the Sunapee moun- 
tains, on the N. W.,is an extensive 
plain, more than a mile long and 
about half a mile wide. The soil 
differs in quality. It is light, loamy 
or rough. In the easterly part are 
valuable stone quarries. Bradford 
was granted to John Peirce and 
George Jaffrey, in 1765. Its first 
settlement Was made in 1T71, by 
Dea. William Presbury and his 
family. They were soon followed 
by several inhabitants from Brad- 
ford in Mass., from which circum- 
stance it derived its name. It was 
incorporated Sept. 27, 1787, and is 
mentioned in the act as including 
New Bradford, Washington Gore, 
and part of Washington. Popula- 
tion in 1830, 1,286. 

Bradford^ Vt. 

Orange co. This town lies on 
the W. side of Connecticut river, 
25 miles S. £. from Montpelier, 7 
S. from Newbury, and 15 £. N. E. 
from Chelsiea. Population, 1830, 
1,507. Bradford is a pleasant farm- 
ing town, of good soil, and is well 
watered by Wait's river. About 
4,500 sheep. 

Bradford, Mass. 

Essex CO. This is a very pleasant 
town on the south side of Merrimack 
river, and united to Haverhill by a 
bridge of 650 feet in length. The 
surface of the town is uneven and 
the soil various ; but much of the 
land is of a superior quality. Sev- 
eral of the hills exhibit beautiful 
scenery. Bradford is celebrated for 
its excellent schools and seminaries 
of learning. Here are several ponds, 
good fishing, and a pleasant stream 
of water. Some bricks are made 
here, and considerable leather tan- 
ned ; but the principal manufacture 
of the place is of boots and shoes, of 
which, during the year ending April 
1,1837, the value of $381,748 was 
made. Total amount of manufactures 
that year,f 394,448. Hands employ- 
ed,, 1,096. Incorporated, 1675. Pop- 

ulation, 1837, 2275. This town 11m 
28 miles N. from Boston, 10 W. S. 
W. from Newburyport, 18 N. by W. 
from Salem, and about 18 miles N. 
E. from Lowell. A branch of the 
Boston and Lowell rail-road pass6f 
through Bradford to Haverhill. 

Bradleyi Me* 

Penobscot co. First settled, 1796. 
Incorporated, 1835. Population, 
1837, 388. See Barnard, Me. 

Bradleyvale, Tt., 

An unincorporated township in 
Caledonia county, chartered in 1791, 
containing about 4000 acres. Moose 
'river passes through it. It is bound- 
ed on the west by Kirby. Most of 
the land is on a mountain. It never 
had more than 21 inhabitants. * 

Braintree, Vt. 

Orange co. This is a good farm- 
ing town,and produces considerable 
butter, cheese, beef and pork. It 
lies 21 miles S. from Montpelier, 
and 14 W. by S. fi*om Clielsea. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1209. Branches of 
White river pass through the town. 

Bratntree, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. This town formerly 
included Quincy and Randolph, and 
was first called Mount JVolUuton. 
It is celebrated for the antiquity of 
its settlement, (1625) and for the 
eminent men it has produced, both 
in church and state. The surface 
of the town is variegated by hill 
and dale, presenting many delight- 
ful views of Boston, its harbor and 
the adjaceiA country. The soil is 
a strong gravelly loam, and very 
productive. Excellent granite 
abounds here, of which large quan- ^. 
titles are annually quarried and 
transported; and some of the best 
merchant ships are built of native 
white oak and cedar. The holley 
tree (Ilex aquifolium) is indigenooi. 
Indications of coal have been so 
strong as to warrant an attempt at 
mining. The Manatiquot rivers 


whicb rises in Randolph, after 
mevidering through this town and 
recei^ng the waters of Great and 
Little pouds, meets the tide waters 
of Boston harbor, at Braintree land- 
ing, on Weymouth Fore river, 11 
miles from Boston. At this place 
there is considerable trade in lum- 
ber and bread stuffs, and some navi- 
gation is employed in the coasting 
trade and fisheries. The manufac- 
tures of Braintree consist of hoots, 
shoes, cotton and woolen goods, pa- 
per, leather, nails, axes, cotton 
ginns, chocolate, carriages, gran- 
ite, straw bonnets, tin ware, and 
vessels. The value of these arti- 
cles of manufacture, for the year 
ending April 1, 1837, amounted to 
$371,937. The value of boots and 
shoes amounted to $202,363, and 
gave employment to 850 persons. 
The Manatiquot affords this town 
excellent mill sites ; some of which 
lie near ship navigation, and are 
very valuable. Braintree was in- 
corporated in 1640. It lies 10 miles 
S. by E. from Boston, and 12 S. E. 
from Dedham. Population, 1830, 
1,752 ; 1837, 2,237. 

BrandoU) Vt« 

This is a flourishing town in Rut- 
land county, 40 miles S. W. from 
Montpelier, 16 N. by W. from Rut- 
land, and 16 S. from 'M iddlebury. 
It was first settled in 1775, and or- 
ganized in 1784. Population, 1330, 
1,940. Brandon is finely watered 
by Otter creek, Mill river, and 
Spring pond ; on which streams are 
good mill seats. Some of the land 
b level, with rather a light soil, but 
that on Ottec creek is the best allu- 
vial. Bog irqn ore, of an excellent 
quality, is found here ; copperas and 
marble are also found. There are 
two curious caverns in this town. 
The largest contains two apart- 
ments, each from 16 to 20 feet 
square. It is entered hy descend- 
ing from the surface about 20 feet. 
They are formed of limestone. 


Bimnfordi Ct« 

New Haven ,co. An uoereii 
township, of strong soil, on Long 
Island Sound, about 7 miles E. from 
New Haven. Thimble islands and 
Indian islands lie within the limits 
of the town. Here are fish of va- 
rious kinds, a small stream of wa- 
ter, a harbor, and some vessels en- 
gaged in the fishery. The town 
was settled in 1644. Population, 
1830, 2,332. A beautiful pond, 
called Saltonstairs lake, lies be- 
tween Branford and East Haven. 

Brattleborottgl&y VU 

Windham co. This town is situ- 
ated in the southeasterly quarter of 
the state and county ; is hounded 
E. by Connecticut river, S. hy Ver- 
non and Guilford, W. by Marlboro*, 
and N. by Dummerston. At the 
N. E. section of the town is the 
site of the once famous military 
post. Fort Dummer, nothing of 
which is now retained but the 
name, Dummer Meadows. At 
the mouth of Whetstone brook is a 
commodious landing place for river 
craft. Brattleborough is connected 
with Hinsdale and Chesterfield by 
a handsome covered bridge, span- 
ning the Connecticut, and terminat- 
ing at its western abutment in the 
east village, where the north, the 
south, the east, and- the west lines 
of mail stages concentrate. The 
town and vicinity are noticed for 
their salubrious air, pure watfer, 
and fine mountain scenery. It is 
watered on the east by the Connec- 
ticut, and is intersected by West 
river. Whetstone brook, and nume- 
rous smaller streams. There are 
many sites for water power on the 
larger streams, unoccnpied, and in- 
viting to cnterprize. The east vil- 
lage is the general business mart 
for the surrounding towns. Of its 
own internal business and industry, 
one instance is given of many of 
less amount. "The Blrattleboro* 


Typographic Co.** was incorporated 
Oct. 26. "lS36. Capital, $150,000. 
The Company is extensively cn- 
gaojod in the manufactarc of paper 
and book?. Their paper mill is fur- 
nished with the best machinery, 
and is capable of turning out ft-om 
40 to 50 reams of the largest print- 
ing; paper, or from 150 to 200 reams 
of letter paper per day. Their 
printing office contains eight power 
presses. There are employed in 
the establishment from 60 to 70 
male and female operatives. So 
great are their facilities, that they 
have taken iTigs and manufactured 
them into paper, and printed it, on 
the same day. Probably there is no 
estahlishmeiit in the country which 
combines so many facilities for car- 
rying on the book business as this. 
The Company publish a variety of 
bibles and other valuable works. 
The value of business done at this 
establishment, in 1S36, is stated to 
have amounted to $500,000. 

It is presumed that this village, 
according to its size, is second to 
none in the state for business or 
wealth. The surface of the town 
is diversified by hills, vales, and 
plains; is of good soil, and gene-' 
rally well improved. It is 12 miles 
S. E. from Newfane, 96 S. from 
Montpelier, 90 W. of Boston, and 
76 E. N. E. from Albany. Popu- 
lation, 1820, 2,017—1830, 2,141. 

Bremen, Me* 

Lincoln co. This town was for- 
merly a part of Bristol. It is bound- 
ed N. by Nobleborough, west by 
Bristol, south by Pemmaquid point 
in Brijtol, and east by Muscongus 
island in Muscongus bay. It lies 
about 40 miles S. E. from Augusta, 
and 15 E. S. E. from Wiscasset, and 
possesses great navigable privi- 
leges. Population, 1837, 773. 

Brenturood) N. H. 

Rockingham co. Brentwood is 
bounded E. by Exeter, N. by Ep- 
pingy W. 'by PopUn* and S. by 

Kingston. The soil is better adapt- 
ed to grass than grain, although 
some improvements have been 
made in its qualities. Exeter river 
passes nearly through the centre 
of the town, and there are other 
streams of less magnitude connect* 
ing with it. Pick-pocket falls, on 
Exeter river, are in this town, and 
near them are situated an exten- 
sive cotton factory, and a number 
of mills. A card factory has been 
established here, which promises 
to be of great utility ; and also an 
iron furnace for casting machinery. 
Quantities of iron ore have been 
found, and it was formerly worked 
with success. Vitriol, combined 
in masses with sulphur, has also 
been found here. Brentwood was 
incorporated June 26, 1742. Popu- 
lation, in 1830, 891. 

BreTirer) Me. 

Penobscot co. Brewer lies on 
the Penobscot river, opposite to the 
city of Bangor. It was taken from 
Orington in 1812. Population, in 
1837, 1,622. It is watered by the 
Segeunkedunk, on which are mills 
of various kinds. Considerable 
quantities of lumber, hay, potatoes, 
tanners* bark and wood, are annu- 
ally exported from this town. The 
town was named in compliment to 
Col. John Brewer, one of the first 
settlers, from Worcester, Mass. 
The navigable privileges at this 
place are equal to those at Bangor. 

Bre-wster, Mass. 

Barnstable co. This town was 
the Indian Sawkatucket. It was 
taken from Harwich, in 1830, and 
took its name from Elder Brewster, 
one of the first settlers of Ply- 
mouth ; a man of great learning and 
piety, who died, 1644. In com- 
mon with all the towns on Cape 
Cod, a large number of ship-mas- 
ters, sailing to foreign ports, belong 
here. From three ponds in this 
town, covering al)0ut 1,000 acres, a 
never-failiog stream of water is pfo- 



duced, on which are a cotton mill, 
carding mill, machine shop and oth- 
er small mills. The value of the 
manufactures of cotton goods, boots, 
shoes, leather, axes, chairs, cabinet 
and tin wares, lampblack, Epsom 
and common salts, amounted, in one 
year, to $52,072. Product of the 
cod and mackerel fishery, $9,050. 
Brewster lies on the north side of 
the Cape, 16 miles E. by N. from 
Barnstable, and 6 N. N. W. from 
Chatham. Population, 1837, 1,534. 
Here are about 1,000 sheep. 

Bridf^eport, Ct« 

Fairfield co. The town of Bridge- 
port was formerly a part of Strat- 
ford, and was incorporated by its 
present name in 1821. It contains 
about 10 square miles, of a strong 
and fertile soil, under excellent cul- 
tivation. That part of Bridgeport 
where the city now stands was 
called the village of Newfield, un- 
til 1800, when it was incorporated 
as a borough by its present name. 
In 1836 it became a city. This is 
one of those beautiful and flourish- 
ing places in New England, the 
pride of Yankees and the admira- 
tion of strangers. It is located on 
an elevated plain, on the west side 
of an arm of Long Island Sound, 
and commands extended views of 
Long Island and the surrounding 
country. The city is built in a style 
of great neatness and some ele- 
gance. The harbor is safe, but the 
navigation for large vessels is im- 
peded by a bar at its mouth, of 
about 13 feet draught of water at 
high tides. A large business is 
done here in the coasting trade ; 
some in foreign commerce, and 
some in the whale and other fish- 
erics. The ciiy is watered by the 
Pequanock, affording some water 
power. There is a commodious 
bridge across the harbor, 412 yards 
in length, with a draw for the 
passage of vessels. This is an im- 
portant manufacturing city, par- 
ticularly of saddlery and carriages. 

of which a very large amount is an- 
nually made and trapsported. A 
rail-road from this place is in con- 
templation, to pass up the Housa- 
tonick river, and meet the Boston 
and Albany rail-road at West Stock- 
bridge, in Mass. The population 
of the borough of Bridgeport, in 
1830, was 1,800. The present pop- 
ulation of the city exceeds 4,000. 
Bridgeport lies 62 miles N. £. 
from New York, 17 S. W. from 
New Haven, and 4 E. by N. from 
Fairfield. The distance from this 
place to Setauket, on Long Island, 
across the Sound, is about 18 miles. 

Bridgetony Me.) 

Cumberland co., is pleasantly 
situated on the border of Long pond, 
and near the head of navigation to 
Portland, by the Cumberland and 
Oxford canal. The distance from 
this place to Portland, by navigable 
waters, is about 60 miles. The toil 
of Bridgeton is good, and produced 
in 1837 4,000 bushels of wheat. 
Its location affords it great facilities 
for inland trade. Long pond is 
about 10 miles in length and 1 in 
breadth. It empties into Crooked 
river, which passes into Sebago 
pond. This town lies 74 miles S. 
W. by W. from Augusta, and 40 
N. W. from Portland, by the road. 
Population, 1837, 1,863. 

Bridge'vratery N. H. 

Grafton co. Originally part of 
New Chester; now Hill, was incor- 
porated, 1788. It is bounded N. 
by Plymouth and Hebron, on fhe E. 
by Pemigewasset river, dividing it 
from part of Holderness and New 
Hampton, on the S. by Bristol, and 
on the W. by Newfound pond, 
which separates it from Alexandria. 
The soil is well adapted to graz- 
ing, and few townships in this vi- 
cinity exceed it in this respect. 
The Mayhew turnpike passes 
through the W. part, near New- 
found pond, and the main road from 
Concord to Plymouth through the 


E. part near Pemigewasset river. 
The first aettlemeat was made in 
1766, by Thomas Crawford, Esq., 
when the tract comprised the whole 
of New Chester, Bridge water, and 
Bristol. Population, in 1830, 783. 

Windsor co. This town is bound- 
ed £. by Woodstock, and lies 45 
miles S. from .Montpelier, 17 N. 
W. from Windsor, and 60 N. E. 
from Bennington. Population, 1820, 
1,125; 1830, 2,320. The settle- 
ment of the. town commenced in 
1780. In 1785 the town was or- 
ganized. There are many good 
mill seats in this town, on Water- 
queechy river, and considerable 
fine intervale lies on the borders of 
that stream. The high lands are 
good, and produce valuable crops. 
It feeds about 6,000 sheep. Here 
are found iron ore, garnets, rock 
crystal, mica slate, gneiss, lime- 
stone, quartz, and excellent soap- 
stone. In 1822, a living frog was 
taken from 26 feet below the sur- 
face of the ground, about 30 rods 
from the river. 

Plymouth co. This township 
was formerly very large. It is now 
divided into four distinct towns. 
■ Not content with attaching the car- 
dinal points of the compass to the 
names of three divisions of this 
ancient and respcc^ble town, this 
remnant of the old territory is often 
improperly called South Bridgewa- 
ter. The Indian name of this town- 
ship was JVunketest. Bridgewa- 
ter contains some very good land, 
and is well watered by branches of 
Taunton river. It lies 27 miles S. 
by E. from Boston, 20 S. S. W. 
from Plymouth, and 17 S. from 
Weymouth landing. Population, 
^330, 1,855; 1837, 2,092. This 
, town was first settled in 1651,. and 
incorporated in 1656. The settle- 
ments were nearly all destroyed by 

the Indians, in 1676. Manufactur 
ing operations commenced here at 
an early period. Hugh Orr, an 
eminent Scotchman, carried on the 
manufacture of cannon' and small 
arms during the revolutionary war. 
The present manufactures consist 
o^ boots, shoes, hats, paper, anchors, 
bar iron (from native ore,) iron 
castings, nails, tacks, axes, cotton 
ginns, straw bonnets, &c. The 
value of these manufactures, in 
one year, amounted to about ^50,- 
000, and gave employment to 400 

Brldport, yu 

Addison co. Bridport was first 
settled in 1768, and organized as a 
town in 1785. It is bounded ou the 
W. by lake Champlain, and is op- 
posite to Crown Point, in the state 
of New York. It is 12 miles W. 
by S. from Middlebury, 37 S. from 
Burlington, and 45 S. W. from 
Montpelier. Population,18S0,l ,774. 
The surface is nearly level, with 
a loamy spil and sandstone. The 
water is bad to the taste, and con- 
tains Epsokn salts. It has a harbor 
on the lake, and the business of th^ 
town is considerable. Across the 
lake to Crown Point is about ^ 
miles. A visit to the ruins of this 
ancient fortress, so renowped in the 
annals of the revolutionary war, and 
elevated 47 feet above the level *f 
the lake, is a great treat to the 
contemplative traveller, or the lover 
of splendid scenery. From these 
warlike ruins to those of Ticondero^ 
ga, is 15 miles, S. 

Hrlglktoikf Me* 

This town is situated in the 
county of Somerset and bound- 
ed by Athens on the S. It was in- 
corporated in 1816, and is 120 miles 
N. N. W. from Portland, 50 fff. 
from Augusta, and about 30 W. 
from Dover. Population, ISSt, 
798. The same year it produced 
5,^03 bushels of wheat. 


Brighton, Vt. 
A town in Eisex county. Popular 
lioD, 183U, 105. Ses Barnard. Me. 
BrlgEktou, Ufttt. 
MiddlBSBK CO. This wii$rormcr- 
ly a part of Cacnbridge, and ealted 
" Little Cambridge" until iUi incor- 

ration in ISOT. It lies 6 miles 
W. from Button, 13 S..E, from 
Concord, 35 E. from Worcester, 8 
N. by E. from Dedliam, and 16 N. 
W. by N. from Weymouth landing. 
Population, 1830. 9721 183T, 1,33T. 
The nestern and northern bounda- 
ries of this town are washed by 
Charles river. The eoil i^eicel- 
Uat and highly cultivated, and. In 
eomiQOn with all the towns in the 
vicinity of Bo Jton, BrigliloQ has be- 
come the PBiridence ol many peo- 
ple of wealth and taste, who possess 
Deaatiful country seat-s and splen- 
did gardens. Wins hip's garden 
li noted throughout the country lor 
lli nursery of fruit-trees and shrub- 
bery, and for its grand display <A 
plants and flowers ofevery variety. 
Brighton is the lai^atcaHle market 
In New England. Monilay ia the 
ma rketday.when sellers andbuyert 
meet in throngs to (ralBc in live 
Hock, both fi)r slaughter and domes- 
Ocuse. Thesa1esinlS30andl83T 
are here given. 

1830. JVo. Value. 

Beef cattle, ET,TflT, $977,900. 
Store do. I3,t>35, 154,501. 

203,739, $1,41^,143. 

I93T. JVo. Valut. 

Becfcaltle, 32,664, fl,66T3T2. 
Store do. I;:,2I0, 436,430. 

Sheep, ll3,3n(j, 275,519. 

Swine, 17,032, 11»,S64. 

17S.I3,!, $2,449,331. 

Brlmlleld, Hub. 

milei E. by N . from Springfield, 50 
kV. N. W, from Providence, K. I., 
and 70 W. by S. from lioilon. Pop- 
ulition, 1837, 1,599. First settled, 
1714. Incorporated, 1731. This Is 
a line farming town, with a good 
9ail, and i4 well watered by Chlck- 
upee and Quinebaugh riven. Tha 
articles manufactured in ttiis town, 
in one year, amounted to $103,262. 
The manufactures coniidted of cot- 
ton goods, boots, ahoes. leather, 
pulm-leaf hats, chdni and cabinet 
iviire. The value of wool grown, 
in one year, was $4,067. 

Brlitol CoBBty, 3f ui. 

Tmmton and JVtut Bt^ford are 
the county towns. 

The surface of this county ii 
somewhat broken, but generally 
level, (ts mhI in many parts is of 
an inferior quality. There are 12,- 
463 sheep. Area, 600 square miles. 
It has a maritime coast of consid- 
erable extent, and its people arc ex- 
tensively engaged in navigation. 
Tbe tonnage of the two districts 
in (his county (New Bedford and 
Dlghton)i994,lS3lons. Thiscoun- 
ty gives rise to many importani 
streams (hat fall into Massachusetts 
nud Narraganset bays, and its wa- 
ter power is abundant in al^o.'t ev- 
ery town. It abounds in excellent 
iron ore, and in no section of our 

tensive manufactures of (hat mate- 
rial, for almost all the uses of man. 
TMs county is bounded N. by Nor- 
folk CO., E. by Plymouth co., S. E. 
by Buzzard's bay, and W. by the 
counties of Providence, Briiwl, 
and Newport, R. 1. In kin^ Phi- 
lip's time (his pai.of the country 
WDi called PamcMnnamcult. It 
wna incorporated in ifU3. Popular 
lion, in IH20, 40,003 ; 1830, 49.474 ; 
and in 1337,69,152 ; 97 inbabilanta 
to a square mile. Value of [he m:iii- 
ufactures, for the year ending April 
1, 1837, $7,1)29.479. Product of tha 
ll.hery, $2,188,686. TheTaunroa 
aod Fawtuekat v lb diUf iItwi. 

BrtMol OooDtr, R. Z - 

BHslol ii'ihB chief lown. Th* 
territory of Ihig smalleal county in 
New England, except the county 
of SufTolli. in Massachusetls, be- 
longcd'lo (he colony of Massachu- 
setts until 1T46. [t is bounded oa 
the N. by Bristol county, Mass., 
E. by Mount Hope bay, and S. and 
W. by the upper walcrs of N»rr»- 
ganset Uiy. Area, 2o square miles. 
The ligation of tliii couuly, on the 
beautiful walcn of Mount Hope 

id Narrat;anict lisyf , cITords It un- 

livalted taclliliei foi 
The scul iageuDrally adecp );raTelly 
loam and very fertile, producing va- 
rious kinds of grxin and fruits ; and 
has about 4,000 sheep. The rocks 
are mosUy granite. Bristol county 
affords some of the best scenery in 
New England, and is otherwise ia- 
terestini; as being, for many years, 
the residence of the brave and cruel 
Philip. Population, 1830, 6,466: 
218 inhabitants to a square mile. 

Briitol, me. 

Lincoln CO, This town is hound- 
ed N. by Nobleborough and Bre- 
men, W,hy Damariacotta river, S, 
by the sea, aoil E. by Muscongus- 
bay. " Bristol MilU," so called, is 
the centre of the town, or the chief 
■ of business, the town is 

and Pemraaquid, and possesses greal 
hydraulic power and navigable fa- 
cililies. There are a number of 
island! In the waters around Bristol, 
which make abeautiful appearance; 
some of them are quite large, and 
Inhabited. The surface of Bristol 
is not mountainous, but elevated, 
with a |rood soil. A number ol' 
square rigged vessels belong to thlx 
town ; ahiut 20 sail are engaged in 
the coasdng trade, and a great num- 
ber of imaller vessels are employ- 
ed in the bank and shorv fisheries. 
Bristol liM 16 miles S. E. from Wis- I town and in Het 
caaset, SO N. E. fram Portland, and are discharged 
aa S. £. Etom Ai^Mta. Popnla' [tireri •rtnun 

lion, leST, 2,788. This town wu 
Incorporated in 1T6S. Thera was 
a temporary setllemenlhere as ear- 
ly as 1625. In an old fort, on the 
liaaksofthe Pemtnaquid, once call- 
ed William Heury, and tCterwards 
Frederick George, built of stone, in 
and taken by the French in 
■■ are found grave stones of a 
very early date, and streets regu- 
larly laid out and paved, in the vi- 
cinity of the fort. On the side of 
the river, opposite to Hie fort, tan 
pits liaVe been discovered, the plank 
remaining in a state of preserva- 
tion. In other places coffins have 
lieen dug up, which bear indubi- 
Lable evidence of a remote antiqui- 
ly." "A considerable portion of 
the inhabitants of Bristol are of 
Irish extraction, a small part of 
Scotch, a few of German and Eng- 
lish. The predominant character- 
istics of the Inhabitants are frank- 
ness and hospitality, agenerous lib- 
erality of sentiment, and an ardent 
love of liberty and independence. 
There are few of that class of men 
who are esteemed opulent. The 
most wealthy are those who labor 
daily with (heir hands, and raise by 
their own individual cierlions the 
bread they consume. On the otbei 
hand, the population of the miser- 
ably poor is very small, nod tbe 
town is burthencd with but few 
paupers." Bristol was tbe rest- 
denee ot Commodore Samuel Tuck- , 
er, distinguished for his bravery la 
the revolulionory war. 

Briatol, n. H. 
Bristol, in the S. E. port of Graf- 
ton county, is bounded N. hy Bridg«- 
water, E. hy Pemigewasset riv«r, 
andW.byHill. ItislSmiles S.from 
Plymouth, and 30 N. from CoDcord. 
The land is hilly, but has. in gen- 
eral, a good soil. Newfound pond, 
about e miles in length and from 
" - "-■'-- '- width, 1-- ' -'■ 

Its V 


and 100 feet wide, info Pemigewas- 
0et river. At the confluence of 
these rivers is a pleasant village, 
& cotton factory, and a number of 
valuable mill seats. Bristol was 
taken from Bridgewater and New 
Chester, and incorporated June 24, 
1819. The first settlement was 
made in 1770. Population, in 1830, 

Bristol, Vt. 

Addison co. It is 25 miles S. W. 
from Montpelier, 11 N. from Mid- 
dlebury, and 25 S. £. from Burling- 
ton. The town is mountainous; 
some parts of it, about the " Hog's 
Back" and " South Mountain,*' are 
unfit for cultivation. On the west 
side of the mountains is some fine 
land. About 2,200 sheep are kept 
here. Bristol is watered by New 
Haven river, Baldwin and Lewis' 
creek, and some beautiful natural 
ponds. Here is a good water pow- 
er, and some manufactures. Pop- 
ulation, in 1830, 1,247. 

Bristol, R. I. 

This is the chief town of Bristol 
county ; the Pocanocket of the In- 
dians. It is delightfully situated 
on the waters of Narraganset and 
Mount Hope bays, in lat. 41 « 39' 
58" N., Ion. 71° 19' W. It lies 15 
miles 8. from Providence, 15 N. 
from Newport, and 56 S. S. W. 
from Boston. Its navigable advan- 
tages are unrivalled. The com- 
merce of this place is not so exten- 
rive as formerly; still there is con- 
siderable maritime trade. It has 
IS vessels engaged in the whale 
fishery, 15 or 20 sail in the mer- 
chant service, and a large number 
in the coasting trade. The amount 
of tonnage in this district in 1837, 
was 16,627 tons. Much of the cap- 
ital of this town is employed in man- 
ufacturing concerns at other places. 
The town comprises an area of 
about 12 square miles, including 
Mpunt Hope, once the residence of 
the telebrftted king Philips The 



BoiX'-Twrn deep, gravelly loam, very 
iprtile and productive, ^reat quaa- 
fittes of onions are produced here ; 
the cultivation of which gives a 
lucrative employment to a great 
number. of the inhabitants. 'Popu- 
lation, in 1830, 8,054. 

Mount Hope lies about 2 miles 
N. £. of the court house. It is of 
a conical form, and though not moro 
than 300 feet above tide water, pre- 
sents a view of great interest and 

Mount Hope bay is an arm of 
Narraganset bay : it extends N. E. 
from Bristol to Fall river and Som- 
erset, and receives the waters of 
Taunton river. 

Bristol, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town was ta- 
ken from Farmington in 1785. It 
is watered by some streams which 
flow into Farmington river, and 
there are found within its limits 
iron and copper ores, and granite. 
The copper mine is very rich and 
productive, and will probably be- 
come a source of great wealth. 
" The surface of the town is une- 
ven and hilly, and the soil is a grav- 
elly loam, and considerably fertile, 
producing all kinds of grain, grass 
and fruit, common to this region. 
This is a manufacturing town, and 
the inhabitants are distinguished 
for their enterprize and industry. 
There are at present sixteen clock 
factories, in which nearly 100,000 
brass and wooden clocks have been 
manufactured in a single year. 
The manufacture of buttons is also 
carried on in this place." Bristol 
is 16 miles W. by S. from Hartford, 
and 28 N. from New Haven. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,707; 1837, about 

Brookfleldy NT. H. 

Strafford co. It is 45 miles from 
Concord, and 90 from Boston; was 
originally a part of Middleton, from 
which it was separated and incor- 
porated Dec. 80, 1794. The toil is 


good. Cook's pond is the' source 
of the W. branch of Salmon-Fall 
river. There is also another small 
pond, covering about 15 acres, di- 
rectly on the top of Moose moun- 
tain, whieh has always about the 
same quantity of water, and a va- 
riety of fish in it. Population, in 
1830, 679. 

Broolcfleld, Vt. 

Orange co. On the high lands 
between Onion and White rivers; 
40 miles N. by W. from Windsor, 
16 S. from Montpelier, and bounded 
by Chelsea on the S. E. It is wa- 
tered by a number of ponds and 
springs, but has no important mill 
privileges. This is a tine grazing 
town, and feeds about 10,000 sheep. 
The products of the dairy are con- 
siderable. Here are some manu- 
factures, and an inexhaustible bed 
of marl, from which lime is made. 
The town was first settled in 1779, 
and organized in 1781. Population, 
1830, 1,677. 

Brookfleld, Mass* 

Worcester co. The Indian Qua- 
boagt a large, fertile and beautiful 
township, in two parishes, well wa- 
tered by several large ponds, which 
give rise to a principal branch of 
Chickopee river. For about forty 
years after its first settlement, in 
1660, this town suffered exceeding- 
ly by the Indians. The ponds ai- 
ford fine fish of various kinds, and 
in this town is a mineral spring of 
some celebrity. It lies 5is miles 
W. from Boston, 18 W. from Wor- 
cescer, and 7 E. from Ware. In- 
corporated, 1673. Population, 1830, 
2,342 ; 1837, 2,514. The agricul- 
tural products of this town are but- 
ter, cheese, wool, and fine beef cat- 
tle. The manufactures consist of 
boots, shoes, leather, iron castings, 
ploughs, chairs, cabinet ware, palm- 
leal hats, silver plate, shoe ma- 
kers rolling and shingle machines, 
sleighs, carpenters* hammers, coach 
wrenches, sewing silk, and wooden 

legs. These manufactures, for the 
year ending April 1, 1837, amount- 
ed to $243,502, exclusive of the 

Broolrlleld, Ct« 

Fairfield co. This town lies 83 
miles S. W. from New Hftven, 24 
N. by W. from Fairfield, and 6 N. 
by E. from Danbury. It was taken 
from New Milford, Danbury, and 
Newtown, in 1788, and named af- 
ter the first minister, Rev. Thomas 
Brooks, who was ordained when 
the church was organized, in 1758. 
The surface of the town is some- 
what broken,'but the soil is strong, 
and well adapted to the culture 
of grain. Tl^ rocks in many parts 
of the town are limestone, and af- 
ford marble. The N. £. boundary 
is washed by the Housatonick riv- 
er, over which is a bridge to Mil- 
ford ; and Still river passes nearly 
through its centre. Fish, particu- 
larly shad, are taken' in its waters. 
Population, 1830, 1,261. 

Brookllmey N. H. 

Hillsborough co. On the S. line 
of the state. It is 7 miles from Am- 
herst, 35 from Concord, and 43 from 
Boston. Nisitissit is the only river 
in Brookline. It rises in the N. E. 
part of Mason ; passes through the 
S. part of Milford into Brookline, 
pursuing a S. £. course to Potanipo 
pond. From the pond it runs S. E. 
to Hollis, passing through the S. W. 
corner of that town into Pepperell, 
where it empties into Nashua river. 
Potanipo, or Tanapus pond, is situ- 
ated near the meeting house. It is 
about a mile long and one third of a 
mile wide. Brookline formerly be- 
longed to Massachusetts. It was 
incorporated March 30, 1769, by 
the name of Rdby. In Nov. 1798, 
the name was altered by an act of 
the legislature to Brookline. Pop- 
ulation, in 1830, 627. 

Brooldlne, Vt* 

Windham co. Set off from Pot* 


Bey and Athenafin 1794. The east- 
erly part of the town is elevated 
and unproductive. A deep valley 
runs through the town, in which 
is some good land. Its principal 
stream is Grassy brook, a branch of 
West river. An extensive bed of 
porcelain clay is found here. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 376. 35 miles S. 
from Windsor, 10 N. E. from New- 
faCne, and 18 N. from Brattlebo- 

Brooldiney Mass. 

Norfolk CO.* This delightful town 
is connected with Boston by the 
mill-dam across Charles river bay; 
one of the most beautiful and ex- 
pensive avenues leading to the city. 
It is distant from Boston about 5 
miles S. W., and from Dedham 6 
miles N. N. E. Incorporated, 1705. 
Population, 1837, 1,083. Thiatown 
is remrfrkable for its varied surface, 
high state of cultivation, elegant 
eountry seats and gardens, excel- 
lent roads, and for its rich and pic- 
turesque scenery. Many gentle- 
men of taste and fortune make this 
their residence. 

Brooldyii) Ct. 

Shire town of Windham co. This 
town is finely watered by Quinne- 
baug river, and Blackwcll*s stream. 
It was taken from Pomfret and Can- 
terbury in 1786. The land is une- 
ven, and somewhat stony ; but the 
soil is strong, producing in abund- 
ance all the varieties common to 
a fertile grazing country. This 
town lies 30 miles E. from Hart- 
ford, 44 W. from Providence, R. I., 
and about 20 N. by E. from Nor- 
wich. Population, 1830, 1,451.— 
Good landscapes are obtained from 
. the Gray Mare and Tetnuck hills. 
Here is a cave called the Lion* 8 
Den, and a mineral spring of some 
ndtortety. The celebrated hero. 
General Israel Putnam, lived many 
years and died in this town. He 
was bom at Salem, Mass., Jan. 7, 
171S. He died May 20, 1790. 

Speaking of this brave man, Dr. 
Dwight observes, " During the gay- 
est and most thoughtless period of 
his life, he regarded religion with 
profound reverence, and read the 
scriptures with the greatest atten- 

BroolUy Me. 

Waldo CO. This town is 11 milet 
N. N. W. from Belfast, and 45 N. 
E. from Augusta. It produced in 
1837, 3 ,475 bushels of wheat. From 
Paasaggassawakeag pond issues a 
stream of the same name, which 
passes into Belfast bay. First set- 
tled, 1798. Incorporated, 1816. 
Population, 1837, 800. 

nrooksTllle) Me. 

Hancock co. On the E. side of 
Penobscot bay, opposite to Islesbo- 
rough and Castine. It is bounded 
on the N. by an arm of that bay, 
and includes cape Rosico. This 
town is well located for navigation 
and the fisheries. It lies 80 miles E. 
from Augusta, and about 25 S. £. 
from Ellsworth. Population, 1837, 
1,192. Incorporated, 1817. 

Broi«nafleldy Me. 

Oxford CO. Bounded E. by Sacc 
river, and contains several ponds 
and streams ; 81 miles S. E. from 
Augusta, and 30 S. W. from Paris. 
Incorporated, 1802. Population, 
1887, 1,178. 

BroMwningtou., Vt. 

Orleans co. Willoughby river, a 
branch of Barton river, furnishes 
this town with a good mill stream. 
It lies 45 miles N. N. E. from Mont- 
pelier, and 57 N. £. from Burling- 
ton. Chartered, 1790. Population, 
1830, 412. It is divided from Iras- 
burg, on the W., by Barton river. 
'In this town are about 1,500 sheep. 

Bro-vTAville) Me. 

Piscataquis co. Bounded on the 
N. and E. by Pleasant river, S. by 
WilHalnsburg^, end W. by Vang* 


han. Incorporated^ 1824. Popu- 
lation, 1S37, 532. It lies about 20 
I miles N. from Dover, 97 N. N. E. 
from Augusta, and 171 N. N. £. 
from Portland. This is a good town- 
ship of land, and produced, in 1837, 
3,252 bushels of wheat. 

Bduts-wieky Me. 

Cumberland co. This town if on 
the S. side of Androscoggin river, 
and connected with Topsham by a 
substantial' bridgs. It is 27 miles N. 
E. from Portland, 30 S. of Augusta, 
and 8 W. from Bath. Population, in 
1830, 3,747 ; and in 1837, 4,136. It 
lies at the head of the tide waters, 
where vessels of 400 tons are built. 
Vast quantities of timber and logs 
descend the Androscoggin to this 
place, and lumber of all kinds is 
sent to Bath in gondolas, or trans- 
ported by land to the sea board. A 
rail-road, of about 4 miles in length, 
is contemplated, for the transporta- 
tion of lumber. There are 30 board 
saw mills at this place, exclusive of 
those in Topsham. Two cotton and 
woolen factories were erected here ; 
but they were both burnt in 1824. 
Another factory was built in 1834, 
calculated for 4,000 spindles. It is 
of stone, five stories high, and 174 
by 45 feet. Other factories are con- 
templated. . This place, possessing 
such an exhaustless water power, 
and situated on navigable waters, 
and on a large and beautiful river, 
extending 140 miles into the heart 
of a fertile and healthy country, 
cannot fail of very soon becoming 
one of our largest manufacturing 

Brunswick was first settled in 
1627, and incorporated in 1739. It 
' has been the scene of much savage 
aggression. See Register, 

Brunswick, Vt« 

Essex CO. This town was first 
settled in 1780. Population, 1830, 
160. It lies on the W. side of 
Connecticut river, and has some 
excellent mill sites oa the waters 

of Nulhegan river, and Wheeler 
and Paul's streams. There are 
some beautiful ponds in town, and 
a mineral spring said to contain me- 
dicinal virtues. It is 55 miles N. E. 
from Montpelier, 14 N. from Guild- 
hall, and opposite to Stratford, 

Bnokileld, Me* 

Oxford CO. This town is finely 
watered by a branch of Androscog- 
gin river. It is bounded on the W. 
by Paris, and is 84 miles W. by S. 
from Augusta, and 50 N. by W, 
from Portland. Population, 1837, 
1,618. The soil of this town is very 
good. Among its agricultural pro- 
ductsin 1837, it yielded 5,613 bush- 
els of wheat. 

Buckland, Mass* 

Franklin co. This is a pleasant 
town and is separated from Charle- 
mont by Deerfield river. It lies 
102 miles W. by N. from Boston, 
10 W. from Greenfield, and 20 E. 
S. E. from Adams. Incorporated, 
1779. PopulaUon, 1837, 1,051.— 
This is a good farming town, and 
produces a considerable quantity of 

Bncksport, Me. 

Hancock co. This town lies oa 
the E, side of Penobscot river, 15 
miles below Bangor, 61 N. lEI, by 
£. from Augusta, and about 18 W. 
by N. from Ellsworth. It has a 
fine harbor for vessels of the larg- 
est class, and which is seldom ob-. 
structed by ice. The soil is good, 
and the town is watered by a num- 
ber of ponds and streams. Consid- 
erable shipping belong to this place, 
and the trade is quite extensive, 
particularly in the lumber business. 
It has some manufactures. From 
1792 to 1816, Bucksport was called 
Buckstown. Ths is a very beauti- 
ful town, elevated, healthy, and 
flourishing. It is situated just 
above the head of Orphan's island. 


on which a fort is to be erected. 
Popuiation,lS30, 2,23T ; 1837,2,825. 

Burlcey Vt. 

Caledonia co. A mouDtain, 3,500 
feet in height, divides this town 
from Victory, on the E. Branches 
of Passumpsic river pass through it, 
and afford a good water power. 
This is a place of some ^anufac- 
tures,particularly of oil stones. This 
stone (novaculite) is found on an 
island in Memphremagog lake. — 
The stones are brought in their 
rough state, and their quality is 
said to equal those from Turkey. 
The soil of the town is good, and 
abounds with hard-wood and ever- 
greens. A large number 6f sheep 
are kept here. Burke was first set- 
tled in 1780. Population, 1830, 
866. It lies 40 miles N. E. from 
Montpelier, and 19 N. £. from Dan- 

Burlington^ Me* 

Penobscot co. The number of 
inhabitants in this town in 1837, 
was 277. They produced the same 
year 2,106 bushels of wheat. See 
Barnard, Me, 

Burlington) Vt. 

This is the chief town in the 
county of Chittenden. , It is de- 
lightfully situated upon the tongue 
of land formed by the confluence 
of the Winooski,or Onion river, with 
lake Champlain. This is the most 
important town in Vermont. It 
lies in lat. 44° 27' N. and in Ion. 
730 15' W. It is 38 miles W. N. 
W. from Montpelier, 62 S. by E. 
from St. Johns, L. C, 80 S. S. E. 
from Montreal, 70 N. from White- 
hall, 22 S. E. from Plattsburgh, 10 
miles across the lake to Port Kent, 
N. Y. and 440 from Washington. 

Although some beginnings were 
made before that event, no perma- 
nent settlement was effected in this 
township till about the close of the 
revolution in 1783. The town was 
orgaoized by the election of town 

officers about the year 1786. The 
surface of the township is agreea- 
bly diversified, and is so much ele- 
vated above the lake that the air is 
pure and wholesome. 

This town is not surpassed in 
beauty of location by any one in 
New England. It lies on the east 
shore of Burlington bay, and occu- 
pies a gentle declivity, descending 
towards the west and terminated by 
the waters of the lake. The prin- 
cipal streets, running east and west 
are one mile in length, and these 
are intersected at right angles by 
streets running north and south, 
and cutting the whole village into 
regular squares. A large share of 
the business on lake Champlain 
centres at this place, and the town 
is rapidly increasing in wealth and 
consequence. There are regular 
daily lines of steam-boats between 
this place and Whitehall, between 
this and St. Johns and between this 
and Plattsburgh, besides numerous 
arrivals of irregular boats, sloops, 
&'c. Three extensive wharves, 
with store-houses, have been con- 
structed and most of the merchan- 
dize designed for the north-eastern 
section of Vermont is landed here. 
The trade is principally with the 
city of New York, although Mont- 
real and Troy have ^ share. For 
the safety of the navigation, a light- 
house has been erected on Juniper 
island, at the entrance of Burling- 
ton bay, and for the security of the 
harbor, a breakwater has been Com- 
menced here at the expense of the 
general government. There are 
four lines of mail stages which ar- 
rive and depart daily, besides three 
or four others which come in and 
go out twice or thrice a week. 

The public buildings are six 
churches, the University of Ver- 
mont, the Episcopal Institute, the 
court house, two banks, the Acad- 
emy and two female seminaries. 
The University consists of four 
spacious edifices, locatpcd upon the 
sumnxit at the eastern extremity of 


the village, more than 250 feet 
above the level of the lakeland com- 
mands one of the finest prospects 
in the United States. -The village, 
the lake, with its bays and islands 
-^its steam-boats and, sloops, — the 
Winooski' river^ dashing through 
frightful chasms and then winding 
among the beautiful meadows, and 
the distant and lofty mountains 
which form the great outline, 
render the view from the dome of 
the University one of the most va- 
riegated and interesting to be met 
with in our country. 

As a part of Burlington may be 
mentioned the village called "Win- 
ooski City." It is situated on both 
sides of the Winooski river, partly 
in Burlington and partly in Col- 
chester, and is one mile from the 
village of Burlington. The water 
power here is sufficient for propel- 
ling almost any amount of machine- 
ry, and is beginning to be employed 
to some purpose. Besides two saw 
mills, a large grist mill, a machine 
shop and numerous smaller works, 
there is a large satinet factory and 
m extensive block factory now in 
successful operation, and a woolen 
factory of the first class is to com- 
mence running the present season. 
A substantial covered bridge con- 
nects the two sides of the river ; a 
handsome church, and several stores 
have been erected, and < Winooski 
City* bids fair to become a place of 
business and importance. See Heg- 

IhMxUikgtovL, Mass* 

Middlesex co. This town is wa- 
tered by Vine brook, a branch of 
the Shawsheen nver. It lies 11 
miles S. E. from Lowell, 10 N. £. 
from Concord, and 13 N. W. by N. 
from Boston. Population, 1837, 
522. Some shoes are made here. 
The soil is light, and suitable for 
the growth of rye and hops. 

Burllngtony Ct. 

Hartford co. An agricultoral 

township, with a soil of gravelly 
loam, pleasantly diversified by hills 
and vales, 17 miles W. from Hart- 
ford, and 36 N. from New Haven. 
Population, 1880, 1,801. It is water 
ed by Farmington river,and was tak- 
en from Bristol in 1806. This town 
has some manufactures, and has 
been noted for the equality of ite 
inhabitants, in regard to property. 

Bumbam, Me. . 

Waldo CO. It lies 37 miles N. 
£. from Augusta, and about 80 N. 
W. from Belfast. It is bounded S. 
W. by Sebasticook river, and E. by 
Troy. Incorporated, 1S24. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 602. It produced 
2,297 bushels of wheat in 1837. 

Biimliain*s Rl-veryN.H* 

See Lyman, JST, H. 

Burnt Coat Island, Me. 

Hancock co. A large island, sur- 
rounded by others of a smaller 
size, lying off* Blue Hill bay, £. by 
S. from Deer island about 18 miles, 
and about 6 miles S. by W. from 
the town of Mount Desert. It has 
a light-house and good harbors, and 
is a fine location for the shore fish- 

BurrUirUle, R. I. 

Providence co. This town was 
taken from Gloucester in 1806. It 
is finely watered by Branch- river, 
with many branches; one branch 
of which rises in AUum pond, part- 
ly in this town and partly in Doug- 
las, Mass. This river is an im- 
portant tributary to the Blackstone. 
Manufacturing villages are scatter- 
ed over this large town in almost 
every direction, and a vast amount 
of manufactures of various kinds is 
annually produced. The face of 
the town is rough, but the soil ii 
adapted to grazing, and produees 
large quantities of beef, pork, but- 
ter, cheese, &c. Herring and Ed- 
dy's ponds are pleasant sheets of 
water. Burrilville Ue^ 24. nUii 





N. W. from Providence, and 27 S. 
by £. from Worcester. Population, 
1830, 2,196. 

tiW / 


Buxton^ Me* 

York CO. This town is bounded 
on the S. W. by Saco river. * At 
this place the Saco falls about 80 
feet, and produces a great hydrau- 
lic power, which is partly improv- 
ed f6r manufacturing establish- 
ments. It lies S miles N. W. from 
Saco, 16 N. E. from Alfred, 18 W. 
from Portland, and 71 S. W. from 
Augusta. Incorporated, 1772. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 2,883. 

Bnzzard^s Bay, Mass. 

>*rhi8 bay lies N. W. from Dukes 
inty, W. from BarnstaBle county, 

>uft4 S. by £. from the counties of 
Plymouth and Bristol. The length 
of the bay is about 30 miles from 
N. E. to S. W., and its average 
breadth about 7 miles. From the 

.head of this bay, across Cape Cod 
to Massachusetts bay, (the place 
proposed for a canal,) is 5 miles. 

Byfleld, Mass. 

See J>rewbury, 

Byram River* 

See Greenwich, Ct. 
Byron, Me. 

Oxford po. See Barnard, Me. 

Cabot, Vt. 

Caledonia co. On the height of 
land between Onion and Connecti- 
cut rivers. " The Plain" is delight- 
fully situated, having the Green 
and White mountains in prospect. 
Several branches of the Onion riv- 
er water this town, and afford it 
some water power. Here is Jo 
and Molly^s pond, and a sulphur 
•pring. The surface is broken and 
hard, but good for sheep, of which 
about 6,000 are reared. The town 
was first settled in 17S5. The first 
females who came here came on 
snow-shoes. This is the birth place 
of Zerah Calburn, the celebrated 

mathematician. Cabot lies 12 mileif 
N. £. from Montpelier, and bound- 
ed E. by Danville. Population, 
1830, 1,304. 

Calais, Me. 

Washington co. At the head of 
navigation on the Schoodic, or St. 
Croix river, nearly opposite to St 
Andrews, N. B. The Ujyper vil- 
lage, or Mill Town, is about two 
miles from tide water. At the 
Lower village, below the falls, is a' 
bridge lo the British side. Calais 
lies 28 miles above Eastport, about 
35 N. by E. from Machias, and 204 
E. N. E. from Augusta. This is a 
great mart for lumber of all kinds. 
About 40 saw mills and other ma- 
chinery are in operation . by the 
great fall of the river. The tide 
riiies here about 20 feet, and large 
vessels ascend to the lower village. 
A rail-road is in operation between 
the two villages ; it is to extend to 
Baring. Incorporated, 1809. Pop- 
ulaUon, 1830, 1,686; 1837, 3,027. 

Calais, Vt. 

Washington co. Abijah Whee- 
lock and others first settled this 
town in 1787. It lies 36 miles E. 
by S. from Burlington, and 12 N. E. 
from Montpelier. Population, 1830, 
1,539. Calais has a number of 
streams, branches of Onion river, 
and several fine ponds. Two thou- 
sand pounds of trout have been tak- 
en in a season. There is some man- 
ufacturing carried on in the town, 
and it feeds about 6,000 sheep. 

Caledonia County, Vt. 

Danville is the chief town. — 
Bounded E. by Connecticut river 
and Essex county; S* hy Orange 
county ; W. by Washington coun- 
ty, and N. by the county of Orleans. 
It contains about 700 square miles. 
Population, 1820, 16,669; 1830, 
19,943. Inhabitants to a square 
niile, 23. Incorporated, 1792. The ' 
eastern range of the Green moun- 
tains extends through the western 


part of (he county. It is watered 
by many fine streams, but the Con- 
necticut and Passumpsic are its 
chief rivers. A large part of the 
county is high and good land ; that 
along the rivers is excellent. Jt 
produces wheat and other grain, 
beef cattle, horses, and about 60,- 
000 sheep. There are some sul- 
phur springs in this county ; lime- 
stone and granite are abundant. 

Somerset co. In the year 1837 
the town had a population of 431, 
and raised, the same year, 2,890 
bushels of virheat. See Barnard, 

Cambridge, N. H., 

Coos CO., is an uninhabited town- 
ship, of 23,160 acres, granted May 
19, 1773, to Nathaniel Rogers and 
others. It is bounded N. by the 
township of Eri-ol and Umbagog 
lake, £. by the state of Maine, S. 
by Success and Milan, and W. by 
Dummer. This tract has an une- 
ven surface, but might be advanta- 
geously cultivated. Several streams 
rise here, and fall into the Ameris- 
coggin, which passes through the 
N. W. part of the town. 

Cambridge) Vt. 

Lamoille co. It lies 30 miles N. 
W. from Montpelier, and about 16 
W. from Hydcpark. Population, 
1830, 1,613. First settled, 1783. 
The Lamoille and other streams 
afford this town a good water pow- 
er. There is some good intervale 
in the town, but the land is rough, 
and chiefly valuable for grazing: 
it feeds about 7,000 sheep. 

Cambridge, Mass. ' 

Middlesex co. This town may 
be divided inta three parts: Old 
Cambridge^ the seat of the most 
ancient and best endowed college, 
in the United States, is 3 miles from 
West Boston bridge, which divides 
Cambridge from Boston. Com- 

bridge- Port is a compact, flourish- 
ing village, about midway between 
theUniversity and the bridge. East 
Cambridge's of newer growth, and 
is a* very flourishing place. It is 
the seat of the county courts, and 
is immediately connected with Bos- 
ton by Canal bridge and the viaduct 
of the Boston and Lowell rail-road, 
over Charles river. This town was 
incorporated by the name of New- 
ton in 1630. It took the name of 
Cambridge in 1638. The first print- 
ing press in America was establish- 
ed here, by Stephen Day, in 1689. 
The first work printed was /he 
" Freeman's Oath." In this town 
are various and extensive manu- 
factories. They consist of glass, 
hats, leather, boots and shoes, shoe 
blacking, tin ware, chairs and cabi- 
net ware, rail-road cars, chaises, 
coaches, and other carriages ; iron 
axletrees, harnesses, organs, car- 
penters* tools, clothing, pumps and 
blocks, cigars, brass and britannia 
ware, bricks, ropes and twine, soap, 
brushes, varnish, confectionary, 
stamped and stained paper, stoves, 
sheet iron, glue, pocket books, and 
medicine. The value of these man- 
ufactures the year ending April 1, 
1837, amounted to $930,066. The 
amount of glass, which is consid- 
ered of admirable quality, exceed- . 
ed $450,000. Cambridge is very 
pleasant, although not so elevated 
as some of the neighboring towns. 
Besides the buildings of the Uni- 
versity, it contains the United 
States' arsenal, other handsome pub- 
lic buildings, and many very ele- 
gant private residences. Pop. 18S0, ^. 
1,072 ; 1837, 7,631. See Register, 

Mount Auburn Cemetery, liea 
about a mile W. of the Univer- 
sity, in the towns of Cambridge and 
Watertown. It contains ab6ut 100 
acres of land, and is Inid out with 
gravelled walks, and planted and 
embellished with all the varieties 
of trees, shrubbery, and flowerq. 
Lots of ground, of 300 square fo^ 


at suitable distances along the { 
winding passages, are appropriated 
as family burial places, with the 
perpetual right to purchasers of 
enclosing, decorating, and using 
them for that purpose. Numerous 
monuments of exquisite woi*kman- 
ship are ah'eady erected, which 
add, if possible, to the melancholy 
grandeur of the scene. It is an en- 
chanting spot ; — a magnificent rest- 
ing place of the dead. This ceme- 
tery wa3 dedicated Sept. 24, 1831. 
We cannot deny ourselves the 
gratification of quoting a few lines 
from the descriptive part of Judge 
Story's admirable address on that 

" A rural cemetery seems to com- 
bine in itself all the advantages 
which can be proposed to gratify 
human feelings, or tranquilize hu- 
man fears; to secure the best re- 
ligious influences, and to cherish 
all those associations which cast a 
cheerful light over the darkness of 
the grave. 

" And what spot can be more ap- 
propriate than this, for such a pur- 
pose ? Nature seems to point it out 
with significant energy, as the fa- 
vorite retirement for the dead. — 
There are around us all the varied 
features of her beauty and gran- 
deur — the forest-crowned height; 
the abrupt acclivity ; the sheltered 
valley ; the deep glen ; the grassy 
glade, and the silent grove. Here 
are the lofty oak, the beech, that 
< wreaths its old fantastic roots so 
high,' the rustling pine, and the 
drooping willow, — the tree, that 
sheds its pale leaves with every 
' autumn, a fit emblem of our own 
transitory bloom ; and the ever- 
green, with its perennial shoots, in- 
structing us, that < the wintry blast 
of death kills not the buds of vir- 
tue.* Here is the thick shrubbery, 
to protect and conceal the pew- 
made grave ; and there is the wild- 
flower creeping along the narrow 
path, and planting its seeds in the 
vptumed earth. All around us 

there breaths a solemn calm, as if 
we were in the bosom of a wilder- 
ness, broken only by the breeze aa 
it murmurs through the tops of the . 
forest, or by the notes of the warb- 
ler, pouring forth his matin or his 
evening song. 

** Ascend but a few steps, and 
what a change of scenery to sur- 
prise and delight us. We seem, as 
it were, in an instant, to pass from 
the confines of death to the bright 
and balmy regions of life. Below us 
flows tke winding Charles, with its 
rippling current, like the stream of 
time hastening to the ocean of eter- 
nity. In the distance, the city, — 
at once the object of our admiration 
and our love, — rears its proud emi- 
nences, its glittering spires, its lofty 
towers, its graceful mansions, its 
curling smoke, its crowded haunts 
of business and pleasure, which 
speak to the eye, and yet leave a 
noiseless loneliness on the ear. — 
Again we turn, and the walls of 
our venerable University rise be- 
fore us, with many a recollection 
of happy days passed there in the 
interchange of study and friend- 
ship, and many a grateful thought 
of the affluence of its learning, 
which has adorned and nourished 
the literature of our country. — 
Again we turn, and the cultivated 
farm, the neat cottage, the village 
church, the sparkling lake, the rich 
valley, and the distant hills, are be- 
fore us through opening vistas ; and 
we breathe amidst the fresh and 
varied labors of roan. 

" There is, therefore, within our 
reach, every variety of natural and 
artificial scenery, which is fitted to 
awaken emotions of the highest and 
most affecting character. We stand, 
as it were, upon the borders of two 
worlds; and as the mood of our 
minds may be, we may gather les- 
sons of profound wisdom by con- 
trasting the one with the other, or 
indulge in the dreams of hope and 
ambition, or solace our hearts by 
melancholy meditations.^' 



Waldo CO. Thia acn-p 
]j located for navi^^ation, 
• beautiful harbora, on (lie W. sideof 
PenobscoE bay, 10 
Thomaiton, IT S. Tn 
40E. S. E. from Al . 
Jwion, 1837, 2,931. thU place has 
gome navigaliou ens^ngei in the 
coasting trade and fijheries, and 
considerable ship hullcllng U carrU 
edon; but tbe principal businei? 
la the ipanufaclore of lime from in- 
. eshau'tible quarries of marble, or 
lime stone. About 200,1)00 cask^ 
of lime ii annually chipped from 
thin place to all parts of the United 
States. Thi? Ii:ua ia noted for mak- 
ing a cement of a superior ijuality. 
The MeEuntJcook river waters a 
part of the town, and gives It a 
great water power, which might 
be well applied to manufacturing 
purposes. From a mountain in thr 

>r of tt 

lutiful p 

peel i! presented of Penobscot baj- 
and il9 nu ma reus inlands. Camden 


Cuuel'i BMk llonntaln, Vt. 

This most elevated aummit of the 
Green mountains lie* in Huntin;- 
' — '" miles W. from Monlpclier. 

f^unptou, N. H., 

Grafton CO., U bounded N. by 
Thornton, E. by Sandwich, S. by 
Holderness and Plymouth, W. by 
Sumney; is 60 miles from Con- 
cord, and 75 from Portsmouth. Its 
surface ia broken and uneven, 
abounding with rocky ledges, and 

Be«dca Pemigowasset river, run- 
ning rf. and S. through nearly the 
centre of the town, it ia watered by 
Mad and Beebe's rivers, which fall 
into (he Pemigcwasset on the E., 
and by West Branch river and Bog 

brook on tbe W. The land in the 

valleys is generally good, and thsro 
is some good intervale. The high 
land ii good for graiing. The Ipr- 
ett trees are mostly dodduous. Na 
white oak or pilch pine is found N. 
of the centre of the town. Iron 
quality ia Ibuod 


The t 

i beth 

Cnjnpton and Rumney n 
granted iaOot.l7(il.(oCapl... __ 
Spencer, of East Hnddain, Conn., 
but he dying beforo a settlemont 
was effected^ his heirs, in comuno 
tioD with others, obtained a new 
charter, Jan. 6, 1767. The Si«t 
settlement was made in 1765, by 
two families of the names of Foe 
and Taylor. The proprietors held 
their 6rst meeting Nov. 3, 1769, 
and the inhabitants tbuir^, De«. IS, 
17T1. From the circumstaoCB ef 
the first praprietors building a eai^ 
when they went to surrey Camp- 
ton and Kumnoy, t.*!!! town derivai 
its name. In the revolutianuy 
war, this lawn, though in its Inbo- 
cy, fiirniiiica nine or ten soldier*, 
ive of niiom dird in (he service, 
in:i tlirju vifve living in 1832. Pop- 
lialiou, in 1S3U, I.aiS. 
CuiHan, Me. 

Somerset CO. This town wasfini 
iet;led in 1774, and incorporated in 
17SS. I( formerly embraced tb« 
crritory of Skowhegsn and Btoma- 
ield. It is a gooil farming tawn, 
ind produced, in 1837, S,444 biisheli 
of wheat. I( ties on the east aide , 
of Kennebec river, IS mites E. frOM 
Norridgewock, and 34 N.from Jl»- 
gusU. Population, 1837, 1,847^ ^J 
Cuiuu, N. H^ 1^ 

Grafton . 

) gore 

'hich separate* ft 
E. by Orange ,S. 

from Doii-uujiei, c. nj urauge.o. 
ti; Ealicid, and W. by Hanov^, 
and ii situated on the height of lafei 
between the rivers Connecticut aal 
Merrimack. It is 16 miles E. frop 
Dartmouth college, 30 S. E. (imb 
Haverhill, 2S S. W. from Plyioovtl^ 


ind 40 N. W. from Concord. The 
only stream of consequence is the 
Mascomy, which rises in the N.W. 
part of Dorchester, and after a me- 
andering course of 8 or 10 miles, 
fjUls into Mascomy pond in Enfield. 
Indian stream river rises in the S. 
E. corner of Dorchester, and run- 
ning about 8 miles, mingles with 
the waters of Mascomy, near the 
centre of the town. Heart pond, 
80 called from its figure, is situated 
in the centre of the town, and upon 
a swell of land so elevated that 
at a distance it presents the appear- 
ance of a sheet of water on a hill. 
It is about 600 rods in length and 
200 in width, and the only natural 
curiosity of any note, is the mound, 
or bank of earth, which nearly sur- 
rounds this pond. It is from 4 to 
5 feet high, and from its uniform 
height and regular construction 
would seem to be the work of art; 
but from frequent annual observa- 
tion, it is found to have been pro* 
duced by the drifting of the ice 
when, breaking up in the spring. 
Besides this, there are Goose, 
Clark's, Mud and Bear ponds. The 
land is not so broken as in some of< 
the adjoining towns. There is but 
little not capable of cultivation. 
The soil is tolerably fertile, and 
produces wheat, rye, corn, flax, &c. 
Canaan was granted by charter, 
July 9, 17G1, to 62 persons, all of 
whom except ten belonged to Con- 
necticut. It derived its name from 
Canaan in that state. The first per- 
manent settlement was made in the 
winter, in 1766 or 7, by John Sco- 
^^ field, who conveyed what effects 
PK, be possessed the distance of 14 miles 
f/ over a crust of snow upon a hand- 
sled. Among others of the first 
settlers, were George Harris, Tho- 
maa Miner, Joshua Harris, and 
Samuel Jones. The first proprie- 
tors' meeting was held July 19, 
1768. Population, in 1880, 1,428. 

Canaan, Vi. 

CO. Bounded N. by Can- 

ada, and E. by Stewartstown, N. 
H. ; 81 miles N. from Guildhall, 
and 112 N. £. from Moutpelier. 
First settled, 1785. Populatioi^ 
1830, 373. The land in this town 
is broken and cold. Leed*s pond 
produces an abundance of fish. 
Canaan produces more fish than 

Canaan, Ct* 

Litchfield co. First settled in 
1738. Incorporated, 1739. Canaan 
lies 41 miles N. W. from Hartford, 
and 13 N. N. W. from Litchfield. 
Population, IS30, 2,301. The town 
lies on the £. side of Housatonick 
river, opposite to Salisbury. A 
ledge of lime.slone rocks crosses the 
river at this place, abou< 30 rods in 
length, c'dusinaj a perpendicular fall 
of 60 feet. The river is rapid, both 
above and below this beautiful cata- 
ract. The whole descent of the 
river, in Canaan, is about 130 feet, 
" nobly arranged and distributed, 
and comprehending a remarkable 
variety of beauty and grandeur.** 
The township is mountainous, with 
some arable land along the streams 
About 4,000 sheep are kept here. 
This section of country is noted for 
its excellent mutton. Limestone 
and iron ore are abundant ; the lat- 
ter is of a very tine quality. Iron 
works, on an extensive scale, are 
established here ; a satinet factory 
and other machinery. 

- Canals in New "Rngland. 

See Register, 

Candia, IT. H., 

Rockingham co.. Was detached 
from the N. part of Chester and in- 
corporated, 1763. The soil is natu- 
rally hard of cultivation ; but the 
industry of the inhabitants has made . 
it fruitful. It was originally cover- 
ed with a thick growth of oak, ash, 
maple, birch, &c. The site of this 
town is elevated, and commands 
an extensive view of the rich scene- 
ry of the adjacent country — the 


White Hitls, the Wachusett, and 
other mountains, the lights on Plum 
island, and the ocean being visible. 
In the W. part of the town is a 
ridge of land extending from N. to 
S., which is tlie highest elevation 
between Merrimack, river and the 
ocean. On the E. side of this ridge, 
two branches of Lamprey river 
take their rise. Candia, lies 15 
miles from Concord. This town 
among others contributed largely 
to the attainment of independence ; 
and the names of 69 soldiers of the 
revolution are found on its records. 
The inhabitants are mostly indus- 
ti'ious farmers, many of whom are 
wealthy. Population, 1830, 1,362. 

CtUkterbxueYf "N, H. 

Merrimack co. Canterbury, 
though an uneven township, is not 
mountainous. The soil is generally 
good; the more uneven parts af- 
^rding excellent pasturage. There 
are no large streams in this town ; 
but several ponds give rise to smal- 
ler streams, furnishing good mill 
sites, and near which are cut great 
quantities of hay. Two bridges over 
the Merrimack connect this town 
with Boscawen. The town was set- 
tled about 1727, and for along time 
the inhabitants were exposed to the 
inroads of the savages. The hus- 
bandman cleared and tilled his land 
under the protection of a guard, 
% uncertain whether the seed he com- 
mitted to the ground might not be 
watered by his blood, or that of an 
enemy. Canterbury lies 8 miles 
N. from Concord. Population, 
1836, 1663. 

The Hon. Abiei. Foster de- 
serves a particular notice. He pos- 
sessed in a great degree the esteem 
and confidence of the people ; and 
soon after he left the pastoral care 
of the church, he was called to ar- 
duous duties as a magistrate and 
legislator. In 1783, he Was elected 
to Congress; and for three years 
was a member of that body under 
the old confederation. Ho was suc- 

eessively returned a member bt 
nearly all the time until 1804; 
when he retired to private life and 
domestic traquillity. He was an 
ardent lover of his country, and 
faithfully served his constituents— 
by whom his memory will long be 
cherished. He died in Feb., 1806. 
Canterbury, from its elevated situa- 
tion, has ever been a healthy town. 
In the S. £. part of this town, 
on an elevated and beautiful site, is 
the village of the " Shakers.** At 
present it consists of more than two 
hundred members. They have a 
meeting-house open at all times of 
public worship, where any discreet 
and decent spectator is allowed to 
attend. They have a "Trustees* 
Office," where all their public busi- 
ness is transacted, and where stran- 
gers are at first received on their vis- 
its to the society. They have also 
neat dwelling-houses, of two and 
three stories, and several work- 
shops both for men and women. 
Their mills and various kinds of 
machinery are moved by water oi». 
an artificial stream. They manu- 
facture many articles for sale^ 
which are remarkable for neatnesiF 
and durability. Their gardens ar» 
perhaps the most productive of any 
in the country ; and indeed all their* 
improved lands exhibit the pleasio^ 
effects of industry and rural econ- 
omy. They cultivate garden seodss- 
and take much pains to phK 
pagate those of the best kind.-— ^ 
They occupy more than 1,600 acrefl^ 
of land, lying principally in a body^ir 
which they have * consecrated to^^ 
the Lord,' and which they enjoy — 
in common. They cheerfully -pa^^ 
their proportion of public taxes^^ 
and share all the burthens of gov-- 
ernment, except the bearing of 
aims, which they deem to be coo-' 
trary to the gospel ; and in return- 
they claim from government only 
that protection, and support guaran- 
tied to other citizens. The income 
of their manufactures, together 
with their agricultural i^roductSt 


yields their temporal support ; and 
what they become possessed of 
more than is necessary to their 
wants, they devote to charitable 
purposes, agreeably to their church 
eovenant. It should be mentioned 
Z3 a practice highly creditable 
to this s^ct, that the members 
of their societies never make use 
of ardent spirits, except in cases of 
sickness, being aware of the evils 
intemperance brings upon society. 
Another practice not unworthy of 
imitation is, they tefuse to be trust- 
ed even in the smallest sum. They 
to*ansact their secular concerns with 
great uprightness ; and though they 
may have suffered reproach from 
their singularity of life and man- 
ners,they have become a proverb for 
industry, justice and benevolence. 
For a particular account of the re- 
ligious tenets of this singular peo- 
ple, see Religious Creeds and Sta- 

Canterbnryy Ct« 

Windham co. The first settlers 
of this town were principally from 
Dorchester, Mass. and its neighbor- 
hood. They came here about the 
year 1690. The soil of the town is 
a. gravelly loam, generally fertile 
and productive. It lies 40 miles 
E. by S. from Hartford, and 6 S. 
from Brooklyn. Population, 1830, 
1,881, The Quinnebaug is here 
a large and beautiful stream. It 
annually overflows its banks, and 
fertilizes a large tract upon its bor- 
ders. There is fine fishing in Bates' 
pond. Considerable excitement 
manifested itself in this town, in 
1 1832, in consequence of a Miss 
Crandall proposing to open a school 
for the instruction of " Young la- 
dies and little misses of color." — 
Although no one seemed to question 
the purity of Miss CrandalPs mo- 
tlyes, yet the people doubted the 
expediency of the measure. 

Population, 1837, 827. It lies on 
both sides of the Androscoggin riv- 
er, 32 miles W. N. W. from Au- 
gusta, and 24 N. £. from Paris. 
Canton produced, in 1837, 3,114 
bushels of wheat. 

Norfolk CO. Neponset river and 
several large ponds give this town 
a great water power. It lies 16. 
miles S. W. from Boston, and 6 €. 
by E. from Dedham. Incorporated, 
1797. Population, 1830, 1,617; 
1837, 2,185. The manufactures of 
Canton the year ending 1st of 
April, 1837, amounted to $696,- 
180. They consisted of cotton and 
woolen goods, shoes, palm-leaf hats, 
copper, wicking, tliread, candle- 
sticks, hoes, iron casting, trying 
squares, and " shapes." The bells 
manufactured at this place are of 
superior metal and sound. This 
place is easily appros^ched from the 
capital by the Boston and Provi- 
dence rail-road. The viaduct, or 
bridge, on that road at this place, 
cost the company about $80,000. 
It is of massive hewn granite, 600 
feet in length ; 63 feet above the 
foundation, on 6 arches, with a suc- 
cession of arches at top. It is an 
admirable piece of workmanship. 

Canton, Ct. 

Hartford co. First settled, 1740. 
Incorporated, 1806. Population, 
1830, 1,437. Collinsville is the 
principal village in the town, at 
which a large amount of axes, of a 
superior quality, are annually made. 
It lies 16 miles N. W. by W. from 
Hartford, and 16 N. E. from Litch- 
field. This village presents a beau- 
tiful appearance, and is a noble 
specimen of individual enterprize. 
The soil of Canton is coarse and 
stony, and the surface hilly. Farm- 
ington river passes through its S. 
W. corner. 

Cantony Me* CarllslOy Mm** 

Oxford CO. Incorporated^ 1821. 1 Middlesex co. Thia town Um 


20 miles N. W. from Boston, and 5 
N. from Concord. Incorporated, 
1806. Population, 1837, 596. It 
is bounded S. E. by ^o^cord river. 
Tbis is a poor town, and its manu- 
factures are very trifling. 

Carmely Me* 

Penobscot CO. Population, 1837, 
610. Growth of wheat, same year, 
1,890 bushels. 71 miles from. Au- 
gusta. See Sowadabscook Stream, 

CarroU, N . II. 

A township in Coos county, ly- 
ing at the base of the White Moun- 
tains, on the N. W.,* having Jeffer- 
son and Whitefield N., Whitefield 
and Bethlehem AV., and the ungrant- 
ed lands, and Nash and Sawyer.'s 
Location on the S. It was granted 
Feb. 8, 1772, to Sir Thomas Went- 
worth, Bart., Rev. Samuel Langdon, 
and 81 others. Its surface is un- 
even, and its appearance dreary. — 
Population, in 1830, 108. 

Cartilage, Me* 

Franklin co. Incorporated, 1826. 
Population, 1837, 465. 46 miles 
from Augusta, and 73 from Port- 
land. See Barnard, J\Ze. 

Carver, Mass. 

Plymouth co. Set off from Ply- 
mouth in 1790. Population, 1837, 
990. 38 miles S. E. from Boston, 
and 8 S. W. by S. from Plymouth. 
There are a number of pleasant 
ponds in this town. The soil is not 
very productive. The manufac- 
tures of Carver consist of iron cast- 
ings, boots, shoes, boxes, and wil- 
low baskets ; annual amount about 

Casco Bay, Me. 

This is one of the finest bays on 
the American coast. Its western 
boundary is Cape Elizabeth ; its 
eastern. Cape Small Point. The 
distance between those capes is 
about 20 miles. Its indentation does 
not exceed 16 miles. Within it are 

some of the best harbors in the 
world. It is said that Casco bay 
contains as many islands as there 
arc days in the year ; however that 
may be, we know that they are 
very numerous, some very large, 
fertile, and well cultivated ; and 
that a survey of them from the high 
grounds in Portland, *FalmouUi, 
Cumberland, or Yarmouth, afibrds a 
treat of i^s^land and ocean scenery 
of transcendent beauty. 

Castine, Me* 

Hancock co. Castine derived its 
name from a French baron of that 
name, who resided here upwards of 
twenty years after 1667. This 
peninsula, jutting out into Belfast 
bay, at the mouth of Penobscot 
river, was formerly called " Major 
Biguyduce," pronounced, Baga- 
duce. The peninsula embraces 
2,500 acres of land, and was first- 
settled by the English, in 1760. 
The British occupied this place in. 
both of the wars with the U. S. It 
was the shire, or chief town, of the 
county from 1789 to 1838, when 
the courts were removed to'£lls« 
worth. Castine possesses an excel- 
lent maritime position, but its trade 
from the country is limited, beipg 
cut off by the more inland towns. 
Its trade, however, is considerable. 
The lumber and coasting trade, 
with the fisheries, give active em- 
ployment to its people. 78 miles 
£. from Augusta, and about 25 S. 
W. from Ellsworth. Population, 
1880, 1,165; 1837, 1,168. 

Castleton, Vt* 

Rutland, co. This is a flourish*/ 
ing town, watered by a river of the 
same name; 11 miles W. from Rut- 
land, 72 S. W. from Montpelier, 
and 14 E. from Whitehall. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,783. First settled, 
1770. The surface of the town if 
rough and hilly, but there is some 
rich land. It feeds about 9,000 
sheep. Mill streams abound in 
Castleton, on which are a wool^B 


and other manufacturing establish- 
ments. Lake Bombazine, 7 miles 
in length and 2 in breadth, is chief- 
ly in this town. It is stored with 
fish, and has an island near its cen- 
tre of exj]uisite beauty. The vil- 
lage of Castleton is elevated, neat- 
ly built, and presents a great vari- 
etur of rich and beautiful scenery. 

Cavendisli, Vt. 

"Windsor co. There are two flour- 
ishing villages in Cavendish, Dut- 
ton*8 villaf^e and Proctorsville. It 
is watered by Black river and Twen- 
ty Mile Stream, which a/ford a good 
hydraulic power. Here are in op- 
eration 4 large woolen factories, 
iron works, manufactures of tin, 
and many other branches of me- 
chanics. Along the streams the 
soil is excellent; the high land is 
good, but best adapted to grazing. 
Here are about 6,000 sheep. The 
channel of Black river,' at the falls, 
has been worn down. 100 feet. The 
effects of the water, at this place, 
are very curious. Hawk's moun- 
tain separates this town from Balti- 
more. Cavendish, in common with 
most of the towns in Vermont, pre- 
sents a great variety of mountain 
scenery. It lies 10 miles S. W. 
from Windsor, and 60 S. from Mont- 
pelier. First settled, 1769. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,498. 

Centre-Harbor, N. H.y 

Strafford co., is pleasantly situa- 
ted between Winnepisiogee and 
Squam lakes ; distant from Concord, 
39 miles, Portsmouth 60, Boston 
104. Measley pond is partly in this 
town. Squam lake furnishes fine 
trout, and has several islands valu- 
able for grazing. The soil is very 
good, mostly a rich loam. Centre 
Harbor is adelightful resting place, 
during the warm season, of tourists, 
to the White Mountains, and the 
great resort of those, visiting the 
Winnepisiogee lake and the great 
natural curiosities in the adjoining 
town of Moultonborough. The 

I first settlements were made by £b- 
enezer Chamberlain, in I76d, and 
Col. Joseph Senter, in 1767. Pop- 
ulation, in 1830, 577. 

Cluunplain I<«ke« 

This delightful expanse of water 
is the boundary line between New 
York and Vermont. Vermont em- 
braces about two thirds of its sur- 
face. New York is on the W. side, 
and the counties of Franklin, Chit- 
tenden, Addison, and a part of Rut- 
land, in the state of Vermont, lie 
on the £. At the N. it extends a 
fow miles into Lower Canada, and 
receives the waters of Pike river. 
It discharges into the St. Lawrence 
by the Richelieu, Sorel, or Chambly 
river. Among its tributaries from 
Vermont are the Missisque, Lam- 
oille, Onion, Otter, and Pawlet riv- 
ers. From New York it receives 
the waters of the Chazy, Saranac, 
Sable, Bouquet, and Wood rivers, 
and of Lake George. Its length is 
about 130 miles : its breadth varies 
from 1 to 12 miles : average breadth 
about 3 miles. It abounds with 
salmon, trout, pickerel and other 
fish. It is navigable for vessels 
of 90 tons burthen, and splen- 
did steamboats are continually ply- 
ing, in the season of navigation, 
from Whitehall, along its beautiful 
shores, to St. John's in Canada. — 
This lake contninH about 60 islands, 
is remarkable for its splendid scene- 
ry, and renowned in ancient and 
modern stoi ies for its scenes of war- 
like achievements. Lake Cham- 
plain is a great resort, both for bu- 
siness and pleasure. 

In the Register y under Burling' 
ton, may be found some notes for 

Cliapliny <3t. 

Windham co. Taken from Mans- 
field, Hampton and Windham, in 
1832. It is watered by Natchaug 
river, which passes nearly through 
its centre. The town is small, but 
(he soil is good, and populated by 



industrious farmers, who, by their 
practice of keeping a large number 
of sheep, seem to be convinced of 
the fact that wool is one of the most 
important staples of New England. 
It lies 10 miles W. by N. from 
Brooklyn, and 30 E. by N. from 

Cbarlenionty Mass. 

Franklin co. Deerficld river me- 
anders through this town, and gives 
it a good water power. Garriions 
were erected here in 1754, against 
the savage French and Indians. 
Their remains are now visible. In- 
corporated, 1765. Population, 1837, 
994. It lies 110 miles W. N. W. 
from Boston, and 14 W. by N. from 
Greenfield. Although this is a 
mountainous township, it contains 
much valuable land. It maintains 
about 5,000 merino and other sheep. 
Its manufactures consist of boots, 
shoes, leather, iron castings, axes, 
hoes, palm-leaf hats, saddlery, 
scythe snaiths, and lather boxes. 

Cliarles Ri-vers. 

Charles river, in Massachusetts, 
is the Quinobequin of the Indians. 
This river rises on the borders of 
Hopkinton and Milford, and after 
meandering through Bellingham, 
Franklin, Medway", Medfield,Sher- 
burne, Dover, Dedham, Need- 
ham, Natick, Newton, Waltham 
and Watcrtown, it meets the tide 
waters, and forms a part of Boston 
harbor. It is navigable to Water- 
town, 7 miles W. from Boston. 

Charles river, in R. I,, has its 
source in Warden's pond, in South 
Kingston, and empties into the 
Pawcatuck, at Westerly. 

Clutrleston, Me. 

Penobscot CO. At the source of 
Pushaw lake. Bounded W. by Gar- 
land. It lies 25 miles S. W. from 
Belfast, and 73 N. W. from Augus- 
ta. This townfhip is fine wheat 
land; it yielded, in 1837, 7,606 

bushels. Incorporated, ISULl. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 1,140. 

Cluurleston, Vi. 

Orleans co. Echo pond, the out- 
let of lake Seymour, waters this 
town. Lake Seymour is a large - 
sheet of water, and passes N. into 
lake Memphremagog. Charleston 
lies about 35 miles N.E. from Hyde- 
park, 55 N. N. E. from Montpelier, 
and 15 S. of Canada lii^e. Popula- t 
tion, 1880,564. l^^ , ,V' ^-V/Xi'^'^T 

Cluurlestowny N. H., 

Sullivan co., is situated on Con- 
necticut river, 51 miles from Con- 
cor.l, 100 from Boston, 100 from 
Albany, 110 from Hartford, Conn., 
and 18 miles from Windsor, Vt. 
The only rivers in Charlestown 
are the Connecticut and Little Su- 
gar rivers. In the former, there 
are three islands within the limits 
of this town, the largest of which 
contains about ten acres, and is call- 
ed SartwelPs island. The others 
contain about six ' acres each, and 
have a rich loamy soil. Sartwell's 
island is under a high cultivation 
There are no falls in this river with- 
in the limits of Charlestown which 
interrupt the boat navigation, al- 
though some little inconvenience 
is experienced in low water from 
what are called " Sugar river bars." 
Little Sugar river waters the north 
part of Charlestown, and empties 
into Connecticut river about two 
miles south of the S. line of Clare- 
mont. This town has but few fac- 
tory or hmII privileges. The soil 
is extremely various. West of 
the great road leading from Wal- 
pole to Claremont, are not less than 
1,500 acres of fine intervale land, 
generally of a deep, rich and loamy 
soil, and favorable for the culture 
and growth of most of the various 
kinds of grass and ^rsdn. In the 
E. and N. E. parts of the town, the 
soil of the upland is good — the nat- 
ural growth of w(wd, consistiiig 


principally of beech, birch, oak, 
maple and hemlock. There is a 
ridge of hard, broken, and in some 
parts stony, land, east of the river 
road, extending almost the whole 
length of the town, and which is 
eonMdered unfit for settlements. 
The south part of the town appears 
to have a different soil, and is favor- 
able for yielding the lighter grains. 
Charlestown contains two parishes, 
which are divided by a line run- 
ning from Cheshire bridge S. 87*^ 
£., to the corner of Acworth and 
Unity. In the south parish, there 
is a handsome village, delightfully 
situated, at the distance of about 
half a mile from Connecticut river, 
and parallel with it. In the north 
parish is a meeting-house and a 
small village. Cheshire bridgp, 
about 2 miles N. of the S. meeting- 
house, connects this town with 
Springfield, Vt. From this bridge 
Cheshire turnpike leads southerly 
through the principal village, to 
Keene. Charlestown was granted 
by IVtassachusetts, Dec. 31, 1735, 
by the name of JVtimber 4, which 
is sometimes applied to it at the 
present day. 

On the 2d July, 1753, No. 4 was 
inc6rporated by the name of Charles- 
town. The charter was granted by 
Gov. Benning Went worth to Jo- 
seph Wells, Phinehas Stevens and 
others, who were purchasers under 
the old grantees. In 1754,the French 
war commenced — and the inhabit- 
ants were obliged to take up their 
residence in the fort. The first set- 
tlers of Charlestown, like the first 
inhabitants of almost every frontier 
town in New England, were, prior 
to 17^0, the victims of savage cru- 
elty. For twenty years after the 
first settlement, theit neighbors on 
the N. were the French in Canada, 
«n the W. the Dutch, near the 
Hudson, on the E. the settlements 
on Merrimack river, and on the S/ 
few were found until arrived at 
^orthfield, in Massachusetts, a dis- 
. tance of more than 40 miles. The 

Indians were at peace but a small 
portion of that time. From .their 
infancy, the settlers had been fa-r 
miliar with danger, and had acquir- 
ed a hardihood unknown to poster- 
ity. When they attended public 
worship, or cultivated their lands, 
they sallied from the fort prepared 
for battle, and worshipped or labor- 
ed under the protection of a senti- 
nel. In their warfare, the Indians 
preferred prisoners to scalps, and 
few were killed but those who at- 
tempted to escape, or appeared too 
formidable to be encountered with 
success. The first child bom in 
Charlestown was Elizabeth, the 
daughter of Isaac Parker. She was 
born 1744, and died in 1806.— 
Charlestown has been favored with 
a number of eminent men, only 
one of which we have room to men- 
tion. Capt. Phinehas Stevens 
was one of the first settlers. The 
town when in its infancy was pro- 
tected by his intrepidity. He was 
a native of Sudbury, Mass., from 
whence his father removed to Rut- 
land. At the age of 16, while his 
father was making hay, he, with 
three little brothers, followed him 
to the meadows. They were am- 
bushed by the Indians, who killed 
two of his brothers, took him pris- 
oner, and were preparing to kill his 
youngest brother, a child four years 
old. He, by signs to the Indians, 
made them understand if they 
would spare him, fie would carry 
him on his back — and he carried 
him to Canada. They were redeem- 
ed and both returned. He receiv- 
ed severat commissions from Gov. 
Shirley, and rendered important 
services in protecting the frontiers. 
In 1747, whcr Charlestown was 
abandoned by the inhabitants, he 
was ordered to occupy the fort with 
30 men. On the 4th of April, he 
was attacked by 400 French and In- 
dians, under Alons. Debeline. The 
afisault lasted three- days. Indian 
stratagem and French skill, with 
fire applied to every combustible 



about the fort, had not the desired 
effect. The heroic band were not 
appalled. They refused to capitu- 
late. At length an interview be- 
tween the commanders took place. 
The Frenchman shewed his forces, 
and described the horrid massacre 
that must ensue unless the fort was 
surrendered. " My men are not 
afraid to die," was the answer made 
by Capt. Stevens. The attack con- 
tinued with increased fury until 
the end of the third day, whe^^the 
enemy returned to Canada, and left 
Capt. Stevens in possession of the 
fort. Capt. Stevens, for his gallant- 
ry on this occasion, was presented 
by Sir Charles Knowles with an el- 
egant sword ; and from this circum- 
stance the town«hip, when it was 
incorporated, in 1753, took the name 
of Charlestown. Population, in 
1830, 1,778. 

Charlestoivii, Mast. 

Middlesex co. The Indian name 
of this town was Mishawun. First 
settled, 1628. Incorporated, 1629. 
Population, 1820, 6,591 ; 1830, 
8,787; 1837,10,101. Charlestown 
is a peninsula, formed by Charles 
fuid Mystic rivers, and is united 
to Boston by Charles and Warren 
bridges. It is also united to Boston 
as a port of entry, and in its various 
commercial and manufacturing pur- 
suits. This town is noted for its 
sacrifices in the cause of liberty ; 
and its soil will ever be dear to the 
patriot's bosom. The town is not 
80 regularly laid out as Philadel- 
phia, yet it is neatly built, and con- 
tains many elegant public and pri- 
vate edifices. The streets are wide 
and airy, and many of them' have 
recently been 'planted with ti*ees 
for shade. Considerable shipping 
is owned here, engaged in foreign 
and domestic commerce. The an- 
nual value of the cod and mackerel 
fisheries is about $40,000. The 
value of the manufactures, in 
Charlestown, the year ending April 
1 , 1837, ezcldsiv* of a large aniount 

of leather, was $390,000. The ar 
tides manufactured were as fol- 
lows: soap, candles, boots, shoes, 
hats, morocco, chairs, cabinet ware, 
vessels, combs, tin ware, ai\d spirits. 

The United States* J^Tavy Yard 
was first established in this town 
about the year 1798. The yard is 
situated on the N. side of Charles 
river, on a plot of ground of about 
60 acres. It is enclosed by a high 
wall of durable masonry, and con- 
tains several ware-houses, dwell- 
ing-houses for the officers, and a 
large amount of naval stores, live 
oak and other timber. It also con- 
tains three large ship-houses, in 
which are the Vermont and Caro- 
lina of 74, and the Cumberland 
frigate of 44 guns. These ships 
can be launched and ready for sea 
in a very short time. 

The dry dock at this place is of 
hewn granite, and of unrivalled 
masonry. It is 341 feet in length* 
80 in width, and 30 in depth. It 
cost $670,089. This dock was com' 
pleted and received the Constiiw 
Hon on the 24th of June, 1833.-^ 
Connected with this establishmea'^ 
are a naval hospital and magazine ^ 
at Chelsea, and a large ropewalk if- 
the yard; other additions are con--^ 
templated. This is considered on^^ 
of the best naval depots in the Uni — *" 
ted States. 

McLean Asylum. This estab -^ 
lishment is located on a beautifu. ^ 
rise of ground, in Charlestown, nea ^ 
East Cambridge, and about a miU 
and a half from the City Hall,^ ii 
Boston. The buildings are large- 
and e3(ceedingly well adapted 
their philanthropic design. Thej^ 
cost about $186,000. This Hous^ 
was opened for patients on the 6tt> 
of October, 1818. 

Belonging to, and surrounding 
this Asylum, are about 15 acres el 
land, appropriated to courts and gar- 
dens. These are laid out with grav- 
elled walks* The former are ifunUflh* 


ed with summer houses, and the 
latter are ornamented with groves 
of fruit and ornamental trees, shrub- 
bery and flowers. Surrounding the 
lower garden and within the enclo- 
sure, is a carriage path, where pa- 
tients are taken to ride. In the 
centre is a small fresh water pond, 
containing several hundred gold and 
silver fish, and immediately contig- 
uous is a summer house, where the 
patients at times resort for games 
and amusements. 

The system of moral treatment 
adopted and pursued, is founded up- 
on principles of elevated benevo- 
lence and philanthropy, and an ac- 
quaintance with human nature and 
the capabilities and wants of the 
insane. The previous tastes, hab- 
its and pursuits, and the present in- 
clinations and feelings of each in- 
dividual, are habitually consulted. 
A library for the use of the patients 
has been purchased, and those of 
them who are disposed to read, are 
permitted at stated periods to send 
in their names and the number o.f 
the book desired ; the list is exam- 
ined and approved by the physician, 
and the books are distributed by the 
librarian; In the same way, writ- 
ing materials are distributed, and 
patients are engaged in keeping 
journals — writing sketches of their 
lives — poetry — addressing letters to 
their friends, drawing, &c. Some 
engage in games, as bowling — 
throwing the ring— battledore — gra- 
ces — jumping the rope — chess — 
draughts — back gammon, &c., or 
are occupied in walking and riding 
into the country, or in making fish- 
ing excursions in the pmpany of 
iheir attendants ; while others are 
working on the farm and in the 
garden. The female patients, be- 
mdes being employed in various 
kinds of needle and ornamental 
work, are engaged in various do- 
mestic labors. The quiet and con- 
valescent patients regularly attend 
the religious exercises of the fam- 
ily, and a portion of them join in 


the vocal and instrumental musie 
of the occasion ; a part of this num« 
her also attend church on the Sab- 
bathjin company with the nurses 
and attendants, and dine with the 
family. A regulated intercourse 
with the family and society is re- 
garded as an important auxiliary in 
the means of cure, and on suitable 
occasions they are invited into the 
house, where parties are made for 
their special amusement and bene- 

JOHJT McLlean-, Esq., late of 
Boston, an eminent merchant, be- 
queathed a large amount of prop- 
erty to this institution; hence its 

Bunker Hill Monument. On the 
17th of June, 1825, the corner stone 
of an Obelisk was laid on the heights 
in this town, by the illustrious La 
Fayette, to commemorate the battle 
between the Ameiicans and Brit- 
ish on the 17th of June, 1775. In, 
that battle, 449 AmeHcans and 
1,055 Britons were slain. Charles- 
town Was burnt by the British the 
.same day. The site of the Monu- 
ment is 62 feet above the level of 
the sea. It is of hewn granite, 
and, when completed, will be 80 
feet square at the base, 16 feet 
square at the top, and 220 feet in 
height. It is now raised about 60 
feet, and will probably be complet- 
ed in one or two years. The cost 
of it will be about $100,000. 

Tlie State Prison. This institu- 
tion was founded in ISOO, and soon 
after located on a point of land in 
this town, near East Cambiidge, 
and which is connected with Canal 
bridge by a lateral bridge of 1,820 
feet in length. After having strug- 
gled with many and great difficul- 
ties attendant on the establishment 
of an institution so entirely new, 
the state, by the agency of suitable 
men, have so placed it as to*eifect 
all the objects proposed, without 
any expense to the commonwealth* 


I, R.I. 

WiLshiagtoa ca. Charlestovrn lies 
on Ihe sea, opposite to Bloclc Isluid. 
It has live large ponds, which cov- 
er an area of T square miles. — 
Charlestown ami Conaquetogue 
ponds »pe salt water, and Posquis- 
Betl,Watchaug and Cochumpaug are 
fresh water. These waters aflunJ a 
great viKely of fi^ih. Near Ihe 
sea, the laod i) aral>le,bul the inte- 
rior of Ihe town is more fit for the 
growth of wood. This town con- 
lain; tiie graves of the hemnant of 
the tribe of the once powerfu) and 
dreaded N araginsel Indians. They 
posaossed a considerai>le tract of 
.land in this town, but owing lo 
a disUlie la agricultural pursuits, 
and by intermarriages with the 
whites and negroes, their race as a 
distinct people has long ^nce be- 
came extinct. Charles river pas- 
ses through Ihe town, and gives it 
mill privileges. Charleslown lies 
about 8 miles W. S. W. from South 
Kingston, and 4U S. W. from Provi- 
dence. Population, IS30, 1,284. 

Washington co. Incorporated, 
1825. Population, 1337,612. About 
SS miles N. V/. from Machias. and 
184 E. by N. from Augusta. Char- 

Clurlotto, Vt- 

This is a pleasant town, in Chit. 
tenden county, on lalie Cham- 
plain, and opposite to Essex, N. 
V. Id Essex, about 3 miles across 
the lake, is ^Ht Rock, a great nat- 
ural curionty. Charlotte lies 49 
miles W. of Monlpelier, 11 S. of 
Burlington and 21 N. W. of Mid- 
dlebury. A part of this town grad- 
ually slopes toward the lake, and 
is very productive. lis trade is 
chiefly with Canada.' From (he 
principal village, "The Four Cor- 

aers," the Inkc, and the mountalni 
that skirt its borders, present aver; 
[Omanlic appearance. Population, 
in 1B30, 1,7U2. 

durltim, AlBii, 
Worcester co. Charlton was set 
air from Oxford, 17Q4. It lies 53 
mile' S. W. from Vo-ton, and II 
W. N. W. from Worcester. Pop- 
ulation, 1S3T, 2,469. There Is a 

manufactures of leather and shoes. 
CluUum, ar. H., 
Strafford ro., is situated on the 
E. side of Ihe White Mountains, 
and adjoining the line which divides 
this stale from Maine. It has Con- 
way on Ihe S., Bartlett and Jackson 
on the W., Mount Royse on the 
H: Chatham was granted to Peter 
Livius and others, Feb. 7, ITtTT. 
I There are several p-mds in Chll- 

I rocky, and c;in never sustain a 
I great population. Between Chil- 

, Carter' 

prevent Ihe 
opening a road between the two 
towns; so that in holding an inter- 
rour«e with the rest of the county, 
the inhabitants arc obliged to pass 
"' ough part of the slate of Maine. 

pulation, in 1830, 419. 
ChsUumi, lUiua., 

Barnstable co., lies on the el- 
bowof Cape Cod, south side. Pleas- 
ant bay, in>lde of Chatham beach, 
forms a good harbor. Chatham is 
20 miles E. from Bornalable, p.nd 
32 S. S. E. from Provincelown. 
Incorporated, 1712. Population, 
1887, 2,271. The value of the cod 
and mackerel fisheries, Ibrthe year 
ending April 1, I83T, was ^66,- 
100;— value of salt made, $8,220; 
— value of boots and shoes made, 
Jl,500. There are, belonging t> 
this place, about 20 sail of fishef 



Middlesex co. The township of 
Chatham embracea Chtthaai par- 
ish, (rornierly East Mlddlelawn,) 
(he grealerpart of Middle Haddam 
parish, the parish o( East Hamptaa 
■nd a part of the parish of West 
Cheater. It lies 16 miles S. fiixn 
Haiiford.uid opposite to Middle- 
town, from whicli it was taken in 
1T6T. Population, 1830, 3,64fi. 
Chatham i* watered by Salmon and 
Pine brooks and several panda. — 
Job's pood, about 2 miles in cir- 
cumferonce, has no oullel. It rises 
■nd falls about IS feel. It rises for 
■ii or twekeiuoalhs.andthea faild 
about (he same period. It Is high- 
est in the driest season of the year, 
and lowest when there is most rain. 
Il ia from 4U to 6U feet deep. Chat- 
ham is noted for Its valuable quar- 
riesof freestone. " Forforty years 
past it has been flitensivety improv- 
ed, and the sloue, to ttic depth of 
thirly feetfrora the surface, are now 
removed over an aren of an acre 
and a half, back from the river. 
The atoQe in this quarry is covered 
in some places with four or five 
feet of earth, and in othera with 
four or five feet more of shelly rock. 
It is not perfectly solid, but Ilea in 
blocks, eight or ten feel thick, and 
fifty and siity feet long. The aeama 
and joints facilitate the procesa of 
removing these froni their beds; 
and when removed, they are reduc- 
ed by the wed){e and chisel to any 

.r fom 

vhich il 


, irry thirty hands have been 
employed for several years, eight 
months in the ynar, and from four 
to six teams. The quantity of stone 
prepared for market, and sold to the 
inhabitants of this aud the neigh- 
boring towns, and exported to dis- 
tant parts of the country, has been 
very great; and has yielded ahand- 
■ome profit. Fifty rods south of 
this quarry an opening was mode 
about 1TS3, now spreailing over 
hall in Mre. Here the stone is 

employed. Vessels come to this 
and the above quarry, and load from 
the bank. The bed of elone in 
nhich these and the smaller open- 
ings in the neighborhood have been 
made Is immense, and lies at diSer- 
ent depths from the surface in dif- 
ferent places. It has been disoov- 
ered in sinking wetts, for half a 
mile in northern and southern di- 
rections, and has been opened at a 
greater distance eastward. Where- 
ever found, the stone poasesses the 
aaiao general properties, but varies, 
like the freestone in Middletown, 

Cbeimsford, ]Uui. 

Middlesex co. On the south side 
of Merrimack river, and connect- 
ed with Dracut by a bridge. — 
First settled, 1T53. Incorporated, 
1655. Population, 1S3T. 1,6IS. - II 
lies 25 miles N. W. frotn Boalon, 
and 4 S. W. from Lowell. Chelmsr 
ford abounds in limestone and gran- 
ite; considerable of the latter is 
transported to Boston by the Mid- 
dlesex canal, which passes th tough 



[his town, during the yea 

April 1, tS37, amounted id aooui 

$100,000 ;— principally of glass and 

dulnm, Tt. 

County town of Orange county. 
First settled, 1T8S. Chelsea is ■ 
township of good land, with a pleas- 
ant village in the centre. It is wa- 
tered by the head branches of White 
river and has agood hydraulic pow- 
er. Its manufactures consist of 
casiimere, satinet, leather.iron, Ac- 
Chelsea proiluces all the various 

and feeds about 0,000 sheep. Il lies 
20 miles S. by E. from Mootpelier. 
Population, 1S30, I,9fig. 


CltelSMt, Hms. Mtts, and W. by Vermont. ' TUf 

Suffolk CO. This town was for- Sf °ty ^°''}^^ '^l '•>"»" •""*»• 

merly a ward of Boston. Incor- I''~"S^°"/. *« ,"''»'? "J*"" "■ 

porated. 1788. Population, 1837. the west, it is watered by the Con- 

i;669. The centre of the town lies necUcut.the western bjmlc of which 

f^m Boston about 3 miles N. E.. S™' *« boundary line between 

across Charles river, and 8 miles New Hampshire and Vermont 

E. of Charlestown. The manufac Ashuelot river is a considerable 

tares of Chelsea consist of aphol- '.'"»■".' »■«' '^ tributary to Connec 

stery, stone ware, snuff, segars, *"="' "y^-Zp It has its source from 

wocrf and copper engravinss. car- » popd in Washington, and after re- 

riages. bricfa. vessels, salt, boots, ceiving two branches in Keene jmd 

shoes, &c. ;-annual value, about Swanzey, and several smaller 

^90 000 streams in Winchester, empties 

' ' ' into Connecticut river at Hinsdale. 

The United States Marine Hos- SpaSbrd's Lake, a beautiful collec- 

pital in this town, is on a large plot tion of water, of about 8 miles in 

of ground, in a delightful and airy circumference, is situated in Ches- 

situation, and affords a comfortable terfield. There is a pleasant island 

retreat for sick and disabled seamen, in the lake, contaiuin<r about eight 

Point Shirley, extending southeast- acres. The Grand Monadnock, in 

erly,forms the northern partof Bos- Dublin and Jaffrcy, is Ihe highest 

ton harbor. Winnesimet Ferry ,lead- mountain, its attitude having been 

ing fr(vn the foot of Hanover street, repeatedly found to be more than 

in Boston, to this town, is probably 3,000 feet above the level of the 

the oldest establishment of the kind sea. Bellows' Falls' in Connecti- 

in America. The first grant was cut river, at Walpole, have been 

given to Thomas Williams, in 1631. regarded as one of the greatest nat- 

The distance across Charles river is ural curiosities in this county, 

about a mile and a half. Neat and The earliest settlement in this 

commodious steam-boats are con- county was made about t^e yeai- 

tinually running across this delight- 1732, at Hinsdale, then a part of 

ful stream, making the Winnesi' Northfield, and under the govern- 

met of the Indians the Hoboken of mentof Massachusetts. The coun- 

Boston. ty was formed March 19, 1771, and 

cii rxfk Id M *^ probably received its name from 

^ * * Cheshire, one of the western coun- 

Washington co. At the head of ties in England. The population 

tide water, on Ijoth sides of Narra- of Cheshire county in 1790, was 

guagus river, with a handsome vil- 19,665, in 1800, 24,288, in 1810, 

lage, and considerable trade. Incor- 24,673, in 1820, 26,843, in 1880, 

porated, 1815. Population, 1837, 27,016. It has 22 towns :~39in- 

1,000. 116 miles E. by N. from habitants to a square mile. K'eene, 

Augusta, and about 35 W. from the chief town, is nearly in the 

Machias. centre of the county, and lies in 

ClieslUre County, isr. H. N. lat. 42° 67'. 

Cheshire is one of the western CUesHlre, Mass. 

counties in this state. Its length Berkshire co. Cheshire has ren* 

is 81 miles : its greatest breadth 26 dered itself worthy of its name by 

miles : and its least breadth 16. It its production of .cheese of fine flft- 

is bounded N. by the county of vor and quality. Inl801, the good 

Sullivan, E. by Hillsborough coun- people of this place sent a cheese 

ty> S. by the state of Massachu- to Mr. Jefiferson, weighing about 


1200 poouds. The value of wool, 
the growth of 1836, sold for $5,622. 
The Hoosack river passes through 
the town. Although a mountain- 
ous township, the soil has been 
rendered productive by the industry 
of the people. It has some manu- 
factures of leather and siloes. 125 
miles W. N. W. from Boston, and 
16 N. by £. from Lenox. Popula- 
tion, 1837^ 924. Incorporated, 1793. 

Cbeslnlre, Ct. 

New Haven co. Taiken from 
Wallingford in 1780. It lies 14 
miles N. from New Haven, and 25 
S. E. from Hartford. Population, 
1830, 1,780. The Quinnipiac river 
and Farmington canal pass through 
the town. Cheshire has an un- 
even, but good soil, with a very 
plc€isant village, and an Episcopal 
academy, 54 by 34 feet; — a brick 
building of considerable taste. Ag- 
riculture is the chief occupation of 
the inhabitants. 

Cl&eitery Me. 

Penobscot co. Incorporated, 1834. 
Population, 1837, 323. See Bar- 
nard, Me, 

Cl&estery X. H.y 

Rockingham co. j is 17 miles W. S. 
W. from Exeter, 30 W. S. W. from 
Portsmouth, 17 N. W. from Haver- 
hill, and 23 l§. E. from Concord. 
A -branch of Exeter river, called 
«« The Branch," flows through the 
N. E. part of Chester, beside which 
there is no stream deserving men- 
tion. Massabesick pond is the larg- 
est body of fresh water in the coun- 
ty, and contains about 1,500 acres. 
The line between this town and 
Manchester passes more than 2 
miles through the westerly part of 
this pond. The Indians had a set- 
tlement of 10 or 12 wigwams on an 
island in this pond, vestiges of 
which, it is said, may still be seen. 
A considerable portion of the town 
possesses a good soil, and many of 
the laree swells yield in fertility to 


none in the state. There are sever- 
al large and valuable meadows. In 
this town are two caves, sometimes 
visited by strangers. That which 
was earliest noticed, is situated in 
Mine hill, near the east side of 
Massabesick pond. The entrance 
is about 5 feet high and 2 1-2 wide.. 
The cavern extends into the hill, in 
a northern direction, about 80 feet, 
of sufficient dimensions to admit a 
person to pass. Its form is very ir- 
regular, and its height and breadth 
various, from 2 to 12 feet. The oth- 
er is in the westerly side of Rattle- 
snake hill, in the S. W. part of the 
town, in a ledge of coarse granite, 
nearly 40 feet high. It has two 
entrances. The north entrance is 
about 11 feet hish and 4 broad. 
Native sulphur is lound in this town 
in small quantities, imbedded in 
tremolite. Granite and gneiss are 
the prevailing rocks, and handsome 
specimens of graphic granite are 
sometimes found. The village in 
this town is pleasant, and stands 
chiefly on a long street. It is the 
principal place of business in this 
part of the county, and is situated 
on an elevated nse, commanding 
one of the most extensive prospects 
in New England. From this hill, 
the ocean, though more than 20 
miles distant, may, in a clear day, 
be distinctly seen. Population, 
.1830, 2,039. Incorporated, 1722. 

Cl&eatery Vt. 

Wind«or co. First settled, 1764. 
Population, 1830, 2,320. Three 
considerable streams form William's 
river and give Chester a good water 
power. The land is uneven, but 
fertile and productive. This is a 
very pleasant town, with two hand- 
some villages, manufactures of va- 
rious kinds,and about 10,000 sheep. 
This is a great thoroughfare for trav- 
ellers from the eastern part of New 
England to the Hudson river, near 
Troy, N. Y. The passage over the 
Green Mountains, from Chester to 
Manchester, is considered the best 


in this part of the state. Chester 
lies 16 miles S. S. W. from Wind- 
•or, 79 S. from Montpelier, and 
about 30 £. "Hf. £. from Manchester. 

Cliestery Mmis. 

Hampden co. Thi« is a moun- 
tainous township, but ^ood for graz- 
ing. In 1837, it had 3,720 sheep ; 
their wool weighed 10,326 pounds, 
and sold for $5,818. There are 
2 cotton mills in Chester, 3 tanne- 
ries, and a window blind factory. 
Total amount of manufactures, in 
one year, $47,975. Branches of 
Westiield river pass through the 
town. Incorporated, 1765. Popu- 
lation, 1837, i;290. 115 miles W. 
by S. from Boston, and 20 N. W. 
from Springfield. 

Clieaterfleldy N. H., 

Cheshire co., is 11 miles S. W. 
from Keene, and 65 S. W. from 
Concord. Few towns on Connec- 
ticut river have so little intervale 
land. For the whole six miles that 
it lies upon the river, the hills ap- 
proach near the river's side. There 
is much good upland, well adapted 
for grazing and the production of 
Indian corn. The chief articles 
carried to market are beef, pork, 
butter and cheese. Cat's Bane 
brook is a stream of great import- 
ance, as it furnishes many mill seats. 
Spafford's lake is a beautiful collec- 
tion of water, situated about one 
mile N. from the meeting-house. 
it contains a surface of about 626 
acres. It is fed by springs in its 
bosom. Its waters are remarkably 
clear and pure, its bed being a white 
sand. In this lake there is an isl- 
and of about six acres, which forms 
a delightful retreat. On its £. side 
issues a stream called Partridge's 
brook, sufficiently large to carry 
the machinery of a cotton factory, 
saw-mills, &c. West river moun- 
tain lies in this town and Hinsdale. 
It is supposed to have been once 
•abject to a volcanic eruption, and 

there is at present a contiderabto 
quantity of lava near its crater. It 
is said by those who live nemr the 
mountain, that it frequently trem- 
bles, and a rumbling noise is heard 
in its bowels. Chesterfield has 3 
villages. The principal one, lead* 
ing from Hartford to Hanover, is sit- 
uated near the centre of the town, 
and 3 miles £. from Connecticut riv- 
er. Here are several dwelling- 
houses, the meeting- house and a 
flourishing academy, which was 
opened Aug. 14, 1794. The first 
settlement was made Nov. 25, 176I| 
on the banks of the Connecticut, by 
Moses Smith and William Thomas, 
with their families. At that peri- 
od, the river afforded abundance of 
shad and salmon, and the forests 
were well stocked with deer, bears 
and other game, so that the inhab- 
itants did not experience those pri* 
vations so common in new settle- 
ments. Population, 1830, 2,04U. 

Clieaterfleldj Mass* 

Hampshire co. A township oi 
rough., elevated land, 97 miles W. 
from Boston, and 11 W. N. W. from 
Northampton ; watered by a branch 
of Westfield river. It has a good 
water power, 1 woolen mill, 2 tan- 
neries, some curious minerals, and 
a water course, worn very deep 
through solid rock. Population, 
1837, 1,158. There were sheared 
in Chesterfield, in 1837, 7,100 
sheep, producing 20,800 pounds of 
wool, valued at $12,480. A noble 

CliesterTllley He. 

Franklin co. Wilson's stream 
passes through this town, and emp- 
ties below the falls of Sandy river. 
First settled, 1782. Incorporated, 
1802. Population, 1837, 1,040.— 
This is an excellent township of 
land. It yielded, in 1837, 4^046 
bushels of wheat. It lies ed)out 84 
miles N. £. from Augusta, and 18 
N. £. from Farmtng^n. 

myr EHautcD QAxtTint. 


k lAka, Uc, 

In the county of Pi4ca(B.qui^, is 
a large sheet of water ifiroiigli 
triiicb the P^DobsCDl river p3tii<E.q, 
It also receives the KahlH^uamook 
intl Umbazooiskus rivers. Thin 
lake if about 25 rnlle^ Ion;; and 3 
miles wiile. The country afounil 
tliis fine lake is very fertile, and aa 
wpll adapted to the growing of woul 
and wheat as any portion of the 
globe. Its central point is about 
ISO miles W. N. W. from Augusta. 

CUoheiter, N. H., 

Merrimack ro., is situated ^ tniles 
E. from Concord. It was ^riiiilcJ 
May 20, 1727, to Nathaniel Gookin 
and others; but the setllemcul wai 
not commenced until 17S8. ivlitn 
Paul Morrill aetlled in the wood". 
The noil is good, and richly rep.'iys 
the cultivator. There U little wa-tc 
land, nor are there any considerable 
elevations. The east part of the 
tonn is watered hy (be Simcook 
river, which aftords its mill isat^ 
and some productive intervale. — 
Papulation, ISSO, 1,081. In vim- 
aus parts of the town are still to !ie 
seen traces of Indian settlcmi'nl.H ; 
and implements of stone, cbiielv 
axes, '&c., have frequently been 
found. The vicinity was once tiie 
residence of a powerful tri1)e, tlie 
Penacooks, and (heir plantations of 
corn, &c., were made on the banks 
of the Suncook. 

Cblekop<B Siver, Maa>> 

Tbi* river rises In Spcncei-, Loi- 
cester and Paston, and receU-ti llie 
waters of Quaboag pond, in Bmok- 
field. It paues through Vl arren. 
At Palmer it receives the waters 
of Ware and Swift rivers, 9n<< en- 
ters the Connecticut at the !K. part 
ofSprin^eld,7mIlesS.troia South 

OliUmarli, Hbh. 

yard. Oay Head, in this town, 

is (he south point of the ialand ; It 
is 150 feet above (he sea, and is 
crowned with one of the five lighl- 
houses In this county. 

Gay Head is about 60 miles E 
N. E. of Montauk, on Long Island, 
and bears marks of having been 
subjectto volcanic eruptions. The 
place abounds in specimens of min- 
erals worthy the notice of geolo- 
gists. This part of the islaud is in- 
habited by some descendants of the 
native Indiana, whoown part of the 
lands. There is some sal) manufac- 
tured at this place, and about T.OflO 
sheep are hcpt. C!hilmark was in- 
corporated in 1714. Population, 
1S37, 700. It lies 92 miles fi. E. 
from Boston, S3 W. from Nantucket, 
23 S. E. by S. from New Bedford, 
and 12 S. W. by S. from Edgarton. 
Chlnm Sle. 
Kennebec co. This i? o town- 
ship of excellent land, which pro- 
duced, In 133T, 12,953 bushels of 
wheat. China is watered by a lake, 
or "Twelve Mile Pond," a line 
miniature of the beautiful Skane- 
atelen, in the stale of New York. 
At the outlet of tbi? pond, into the 
Kennebec, are excellent mill priv- 
ileges. On (he bank of (he pond 
is a very nourishing village, a steam 
saw-mill, and an academy. A vis- 
it (o this place, Albion, Clinton, 
Diimont, and the neighboring , 
(owns, where wheat is worth a dol- 
lar and a half a bushel in the barn, 
is a good specltic against (he west- 
emfeoer. A (np from Bo3(on to 
China and back again may be per< 
formed in (he same number of hour* 
that it takes to go up either of the 
eanaU 100 miles, tvv>ard) an un- 
seen country. China lies 20 miles 
N". E. from AugusU, 18S. W. from 
Bangor, and IStJ from fioeton. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 2,641. 

Clilttenden Caiuit;r, Tt. 

SurUngton Is the chief town. 

Tbi« county ii bouadad N. by 


f< y 

Franklia county, E. by Washing- 
ton county, S. by Addison county, 
and W. by Champlain lake. Area, 
500 square miles. Population, 1820, 
16,055; 1830, 21,765. Population 
to a square mile, about 44. A 
few settlements commenced in this 
county before the revolution, but 
they were all abandoned during the 
war. Incorporated, 1782. Its soil 
varies from rich alluvial meadows 
to light Bind sandy plains. The 
beautiful Champlain washing its 
western boundary gives it great fa- 
cilities for trade to New York and 
Canada. Its agricultural and man- 
ufacturing products are consider- 
able. In 1837 there were in this 
county about 80,000 sheep. La- 
moille river passes through its N.W. 
corner, and Onion river pierces its 
centre. These streams, with sever- 
al others of smaller size, afford the 
county a good water power. 

Cliitteiideii, Vt. 

Rutland co. Mo«t of the lands 
in this town lie on the Green moun- 
tains. Some of the branches of 
White river pass through it. Near 
the head of the Philadelphia branch, 
so called, is a mineral spring, said 
to contain some good qualiiies.r— 
Manganese of an excellent quality 
is found here. In 1837 there were 
in Chittenden about 700 people, and 
3,000 sheep. About 12 miles N. 
by E. from Rutland, and 40 N. by 
E. from Montpelier. 

Claremonty X. H.^ 

Sullivan co., is 12 miles N. from 
Charlestown, 8 W. from Newport, 
47 N. N. W. from Concord, and 97 
W. N. W. from Portsmouth. This 
town is watered by Connecticut and 
Sugar rivers, besides numerous 
Drooks and rivulets. Clareraont is 
a fine undulating tract of territory, 
covered with a rich gravelly loam, 
converted into the best meadows 
and pastures. The hills are sloping 
acclivities, crowned with elegant 
summits. Th« intervalea on the 

rivers are rich and luxuriant. The 
agricultural products are large and 
.valuable. I'he houses and build- 
ings present a very favorable ap- 
pearance, and indicate the wealth 
and prosperity of the town. In this 
town are a number of manufacto- 
ries of cloth, paper, leather, &c. 
Claremont was granted in 1764. — 
In this town are fine beds of iron 
ore and limestone. It received 
its name from the country seat of 
Lord Clive, an English general. 
The first settlement was made in 
1762, by Moses Spafibrd and David 
Lynde. Many eminent men have 
resided in this town. The Hon. Ca^ 
leb Ellis came to reside in Clare- 
mont about 1800. In 1804, he was 
chosen a member of congress from 
this state ; in 1809 and 1810, a mem- 
ber of the executive council: in 
1812, an elector of president and 
vice-president of the U. S. In 1813, 
he was appointed judge of ihe su- 
perior court, in which office he re- 
mained till his death, May 9, 1816, 
aged 49. Population, 1830, 2^,526. 

ClarendeUy Vt* 

Rutland co. Otter creek. Mill 
and Cold rivers and several brooks 
give this town good mill privileges. 
Here are good marble, a mineral 
spring, and a curious cave. The 
soil is a gravelly loam, with con- 
siderable alluvial meadow along its 
streams. There are some manu- 
facturing establishments in Claren-' 
den, and about 13,000 sheep. Pop- 
ulation, 1.S30, 1,585. It lies 55 miles 
S. from Montpelier, and 7 S. from 

Clarksburgli, Mass. 

Berkshire co. A branch of IStoo- 
sick river passes through this moun 
tainous township. It lies 125 mile» 
W. t)y N. from Boston, and 27 N. 
by E. from Lenox. Incorpora- 
ted, 1798. Population, 1837, 386. 
Clarksburgh has a small cotton mill, 
5 saw mills, and 256 sheep. 


Clarkrrilla, K. H. 

This town was incorporated in 
1832. Ithad before thattioie bome 
the name of the First College 
Grant. It was granted lo the truB- 
teea of Dartiromh College, Feb. 6, 
lTg9. It rontalDs 4U,960 acres, and 
[9 situated on Connecticut river, in 
Coos county, N. of Stewartslown. 
lU population, in 1330, nas S8. 

ship is houndeJ on the E. by Ken 

nebec river. The Sebaaticook pais 
et (l)rough the town, end, at ihi 


anil large agricultural (inylucls. la 
1837 this town produced a coDsid- 
erable quantity of wool, and 10,807 
bushels of wheat. Incorporated, 
1795. Population, 1837, 2,G43. 
CliMon lies 24 miles N, by E. .'i-om 
jlugusla, and about 12 S. by E. 
Inim Skowhegaa. 
CsblHUM antes 'Waters, Ha. 
The pond ii a fine sheet of wa- 
ter, lying \V. of Hallowell, and 
connected with smaller ponds in 
Monmouth, WinthrOp, Readfield, 
and Mount Vernon. The outlet 
of the pond is a river of the time 
nanib, which passes into a beauti- 
ful pond we see on the stage road in 
. Kichniond, and empties into the 
Keiineliec gt Gardiner. The»e na- 
tera afford a great hydraulic power, 
an abundance of fish, and much de- 
lightful scenery. 

Cobsoook Ba^, Ma. 

A large bay, the recipient of a 
number of targe ponds, on the S. 
W. side of Eislport, in FasBama- 
qtioddy hay. See Eaatporl. 
Cod, Cape and Ear- 
Having brieHy described this 
cape, under Harnitabtc eountj/, we 

hareonlyto add that Cape Cod light 

is in P:. lal. 4iJ''2'22"; W. Ion. 
70° *.• 22". 

Capi Cod bag it in Masaachu- 

extended arn 
Samttable ci 


, Norfolk CO. A towi 
chusetts bay, noted I 
coast and numerous shipwrecks. 6 
miles E. from Ilinghani, 2(1 E. by 
S. from Dcdhain, and about 16 SI 
E. from Boston, by water. Incor- 
porated, 1770. Population. 1887, 
1,331. This place has about 41) sail 
of merchant, coasting and fishing- 
veaacls, and a large tide- water pow- 
er. Cohosset has become a great 
resort for citizens and sir-angers, in 
summer months, to enjoy the ma- 
rine si^nery, exhilarBting nir, and 
all those pleasures for which JVa- 
bant is celebrated. The value of 
(he fisheries, for (he year ending 
April 1, 1BB7, was $70,636. Tha 
value of salt, vessels, boot.4, tlioes, 
and wooden ware manufactured, 
was f Sit,»20. 

Colekutcr, Vt., 

Chittenden CO., is pleasantly sit- 
uated at the head of a bay on Che 
E. side of lake Champlain, 30 miles 
N. W. from Montpelier, and 6 N. 
from Burlington. This town is well 
watered by Onion river, and some > 
smaller streams. Colchester has 

trade on the lake, and about 4,000 
sheep. First settled by Gen. Ira 
Allen, in 1774. Population, 1S30, 

New London co. This is a plea- 
sant town; the site of Kacon acad- 
emy. It lies 20 miles N. W. from 
New London, and 23 S. E. from 
Hartfonl. First settled, 1701. Pop- 
ulation, 1S3U, 2,068. The surface 
of the town is uneren, with a strong , 


gravelly soil. Excellent iron ore 
is found here. 

Rev. John Bulkley, a grandson 
of president Chauncy, was the tirst 
settled minister in this place. Mr. 
Biilkley was a very diitinguished 
scholar. He. died in 1731. He 


published a curious treatise, in 
which he contended that the In- 
dians had nojust claims to any lands 
buc such as they had subdued and 
improved by their own labor. The 
following story is told in an old book. 
" The Rev. Mr. Bulkley of Col- 
chester, Conn., was famous in his 
day as a casuist and sage counsel- 
Aor. A church in his neighborhood 
had fallen into unhappy divisions 
and contentions, which they were 
unable to adjust among themselves. 
They deputed one of their number 
to the venerable Bulkley, for his 
services, with a request that he 
would send it to them in writing. 
The matters were taken into serious 
consideration, and the advice, with 
much deliberation, committed to 
writing. It so happened, that Mr. 
Bulkley had a farm in an extreme 
part of the town, upon which he 
entrusted a tenant. In superscrib- 
ing the two letters, the one for the 
church was directed to the tenant, 
and the one for the tenant to the 
church. The church. was conven- 
ed to hear the advice which was to 
settle all their disputes. The mod- 
erator read as follows ; Vou will see 
to the repair of the fences, that they 
be built high and strong, and you 
will take special care of the old 
black bull. This mystical advice 
puzzled the church at first, but an 
interpreter among the more dis- 
cerning ones was soon found, who 
said. Brethren, this is the very ad- 
vice we most need ; the directions 
to repair the fences is to admonish 
us to take good heed in the admis- 
§ion and government of our mem- 
bers : we must guard the church 
by our Master's lawa, and keep out 
strange cattle from the fold. And 
we must in a particular manner set 

a watchful guard over the DevU^ 
the old black bull, ^ho has done so 
much hurt of late. All perceived 
the wisdom and fitness of Mr. Bulk- 
ley's advice, and resolved to be gov* 
erned by it. The consequence was, 
all the animosities subsided, and 
harmony was restored to the long 
afflicted church." 

Colebrook, N. H.y 


Coos CO., on Connecticut river, 
about 35 miles N. of Lancaster. It 
is watered by the Mohawk river 
and Beaver brook. The soil here 
is rich, and capable of culture. In- 
tervales of good quality stretch 
along the Connecticut. Colebrook 
was originally granted to Sir George 
Colebrook and others, and was in- 
corporated Dec. 1. 1790. There is 
an academy in this town, incorpo- 
rated in 1833. Population, 1S30, 

542. ; 

Colebrook) CU 

Litchfield co. An elevated town- 
ship of a hard gravelly soil and un- 
even surface, on the line of Mas- 
sachusetts ; 31 miles N. W. from 
Hartford, and IS N. E. from Litch- 
field. The eastern part of the town 
is watered by Farmington river. 
Here are a number of good mill 
seats, and a manufactory of broad- 
cloth. The village is very plea- 
sant, having Mount Pisgah in the 
rear. First settled, 1765. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,332. 

Coleraiue, Mass* 

Franklin co. This town was first 
settled by a colony from the north 
of Ireland, about the year 17S6. It 
lies 105 miles N. W. from Boston, 
and 9 N. W. from Greenfield. It 
is watered by a branch of Decrfield 
river, which produces a water pow- 
er for 3 cotton mills and several 
other manufactories. The mana- 
factures consist of cotton goods, iroa 
castings, leather, hatj, chairs, cab- 
inet ware, ploughs, spades, shoveli» 
forks, and hoes ; total value, in one 


year, $91,000. This is a fine graz- 
ing town-ihip, and produced, in 
1837, 16,123 pounds of wool, valu- 
ed at $i>,]38, the fleeces of 5,754 
sheep. Population, 1837, 1,998. 

C oUe^es tn. Nei¥ Xlnglancl. 

See Register, 

Colnmlriay Me* 

Washington co. At the head of 
tide water, on the W. side of Plea- 
sant river. It is a very large town- 
ship, well provided with mill seats, 
and was settled so6n after the rev- 
olutionary war. It lies 15 pniles W. 
from Machias, and 120 E. by N. 
from Augusta. Columbia has con- 
siderable trade, particularly in lum- 
ber. Population, 1837, 793. 

Columbia^ N. H., 

In the county of Coos, lies on the 
E. bank of Connecticut river, 30 
miles N. of Lancaster, and 147 N. 
of Concord. The surface of the 
town is quite uneven, the moun- 
tains of Stratford lying along the 
S. From these a number of streams 
descend north-westerly into the 
Connecticut, furnishing many tine 
mill seats. There arc also several 
small ponds in town. On the bor- 
ders of one, called Lime pond, vast 
quantities of shells are found, from 
which a species of lime is made 
that answers fbr some uses. It 
was incorporated 1797. Population, 

Columbia, Ct. 

Tolland co. Taken from Leba- 
non, in 1800. It is 22 miles E, from 
Hartford, and about 14 S. by E. 
from • Tolland. Population, 1830, 
962. Columbia is watered by a 
branch of the Willimantic, aiid has 
a satinet factory, and other ope- 
rations by water. The surface is 
uneven ; the soil hard and gravelly, 
but excellent for grazing. In this 
place, aboutthe year 1741, the Rev. 
Dr. Ele^zar Wheelock, the first 
president of Dartmouth College, 

opened a school for the instruction 
of Indian youth. He removed his 
family and pupils to Hanover, N. 
H., in the autumn of 1770. The 
snow was very deep, and Hanover 
was a wilderness. << Sometimes 
standing in the open air, at the head 
of his numerous family. Dr. Whee- 
loQk presented to God their morn- 
ing and evening prayers : the sur- 
rounding forests, for the first time, 
reverberated the solemn sounds of 
supplication and praise." This good 
man died in 1770, aged 69. t 

Concord, Me* 

Somerset co. Incorporated in 
1821. Population, 1837, 524. Con- 
cord lies on the W. side of Kenne- 
bec river, 55 miles N. from Augus- 
ta, and about 20 N. from Norridge- 
wock. This is a good township, 
and produced, in 1837, 3,121 bush- 
els of wheat 

Concord, N. H., 

The capitol of the state, and shire 
town of the county of Merrimack, 
It lies on both sides of the Merri- 
mack river, in N. lat. 43° 12' 29'', 
and W. Ion. 71^29'; and is 146 
miles S. W. from Augusta, Me. ; 
97 S. E. from Montpelier, Vt.; 153 
N. E. from Albany, N. Y. ; 65 N. 
N. W. from Boston, Mass.; 103 N. 
from Providence, R. I. ; 139 N. N. 
E. from Hartford, Conn., and 474 
N. E. by E. from Washington. 
There are five ponds in Concord, 
the largest of which are Turkey, in 
the S. W., and Long pond in the 
N. W. parts of the town, on the 
streams passing from which are 
some valuable mills and privileges. 
The Contoocook river enters the W. 
comer of the town, and uniting 
with the Merrimack on the N. W. 
line, forms at its junction the cel- 
ebrated Duston^s Island. On the 
borders of the Merrimack, which 
is the principal river of this region, 
are rich intervale lands, highly val- 
ued by the inhabitants, and well 
cultivated. Soon after entering 


Conconl, the river passes overSew- 
h\V» falls, or rapids, .below which n 
Sewall's island. From Ihence the 
river has no natural obstruction un- 
til it reaches the falls at the S. E. 
extremity of the town, where is a 
water power, now owned by the 
Amoskiiag Manufacturing Cony;>a- 
ny, almost sufficient to move tlie 
machinery of another Lowell.— 
Locks are here constructed, and 
navigation by boats has been open 
since 1S15 during the boating sea- 
sou, adding much to the business and 
importance of the place. The riv- 
er is about 100 yards wide opposite 
the town; but during the great 
freshets which sometimes occur 
here, the river rises 20 feet above 
the ordinary level, presenting to 
the eye a body of water a mile in 
width. There are two handsome 
bridges thrown across the river. 

The principal village, and scat 
of most of the business of the town, 
is on the western side of the river, 
extending nearly two miles between 
the two bridges ; and is one of the 
most healthy and pleasantly situa- 
ted villages in New England. The 
.?tale house, state prison and court 
house, and five very commodious 
and himdsome structures for public 
worship, are in this village. The 
state house occupies a beautiful site 
in the centre of the village, and is 
constructed of hewn granite. It is 
126 feet in length, 49 in width, 50 
feet of the centre of the building 
having a projection of 4 feet on 
each front. It rises two stories 
above the basement. The height 
from the ground to the eagle qn the 
top of the cupola is 120 feet. The 
cost of the building and appenda- 
ges, $80,000. The state prison is 
also a solid structure of massive 
granite. On the east side of the 
river is the second principal village, 
where the SewalPs Falls Locks and 
Canal Company, recently chartered, 
have commenced their works, 
which, by taking the waters of the 
river in a canal trom Sowall's falls. 

will create a vast %nd valuable wa- 
ter power at this village, that must 
ultimately prove of immense im- 
portance to the town. Another 
handsome village has grown up in 
the west part of the town. The 
intercourse with Lowell and Boston, 
by way of the canal on the Merri- 
mack, has been open since 1815, 
and a very large amount of busi- 
ness in freights has been done on 
the river. The Concord rail^road, 
to codnect with the Lowell. rail- 
road, has also been surveyed, and 
will doubtless soon ,be put in pro- 
gress. This is a link in the great 
chain of northern railways, which 
must ultimately extend from Boston 
to connect with the western waters 
at the outlet of lake Ontario. The 
importance of extending the rail- 
road to the heart of New Hamp- 
shire has by no means been fully 
estimated by the public. Concord 
is the great thoroughfare for trav- 
ellers from the north, and the freight 
by horses and baggage wagons is 

The soil of this town is general- 
ly good, and the intervales very 
productive. Large masses of gran-, 
ite suitable for the purposes of build- 
ing exist here, the most important of 
which is The JVetff Hampshire 
Ledge, a name by which in an act of 
incorporation un immense mass of 
granite in the N.W. part of the town 
has been designated. This ledge is 
situated about 1 1-2 miles N. W. of 
the state house, and about 200 rods 
distant from Merrimack river,which 
is navigable to this place withbo&ts. 
The course of the ledge is from N. 
E. to S. W. and its rise about 45^ 
from a plane of the horizon, an^ its 
height about 350 feet. It presents 
a surface of massive primitive 
granite, of more than 4,600 square 
rods. The rift of this stone is very 
perfect, smooth and regular ; splits 
are easily made to the depth of 12 
to 20 feet, and of almost any re- 
quired length. And unlike much 
of the building atcme now in tbe 


market, it has been ascertained by 
a recent examination (made by Mr. 
A. H. Hayes, of Roxbury, Mass., 
and other eminent chemists and 
geologists,) that the stone from this 
quarry is perfectly free from those 
oxides, or other mineral substances, 
which on exposure to the atmos- 
phere, mar the beauty of much of 
the New England granite. This 
stone quarries easily ; the great ele- 
vation and dip of the ledge, and its 
proximity to the river, giving it facil- 
ities of working and transportation, 
it is believed unequalled. From the 
base of the ledge to the bank of the 
Merrimack, a rail-way is contem- 
plated, the proprietors of the ledge 
having already obtained a charter 
for that purpose. As the great fa- 
cility of transportation by way of 
the river to the markets, becomes 
known, together with the fact, that 
the upward freight would, during a 
great portion of the year, go Tar 
towards remunerating the cost of 
transportation of this stone to the 
seaboard — the situation, extent, and 
value of this quarry will be seen 
and appreciated. On several large 
perpendicular faces of the ledge, 
protected by shelving rocks from 
vegetable stains, but exposed for 
ages perhaps to the atmosphere, the 
stone is found to be entirely free 
from any coloring or stain, preserv- 
ing its natural color. The amount 
of the whole mass, when wrought, 
can scarcely be estimated. This 
representation is derived from gen- 
tlemen of Concord not at all in- 
terested in the quarry, and is here 
given, with the sole qualification, 
that if the quality of the stone is as 
pure as is stated, there is no danger 
of over-estimating the value of the 
quarry. A specimen of this granite 
is with the editor for examination. 
Concord, originally called Pena- 
eook, was granted by Massachu- 
setts to a company of settlers, 17th 
Jan., 1725, and the settlement began 
the year following. In 1733, the 
plantatioD was incorporated by the 


name of JRun^ord, which nam* 
it retained until 7th June, 1766, 
when the town was incorporated 
by*its present name. This town 
suflfered much from incursions of 
the savages. Several of the inhab- 
itants were killed, and others taken 
into captivity, between the years 
1T40 and 1750. The manufactures 
of Concord are numerous and val- 
uable. They consist of books, fur- 
niture of all kinds, boots, shoes, 
granite, lumber, and a variety ol 
other articles. The manufacture 
of books is very extensive, and an- 
nually increasing. 
Population in 1775, 1,052 ; in 1790, 
1,747; in 1800, 2,052; in 1810, 
2,393 ; in 1820, 2,838 ; and in 1830, 
3,727. The present population is 
between 4 and 5 thousand. 

Among the early inhabitants and 
distinguished citizens of this town, 
may be mentioned the following : 

Hon. Timothy Walker, son 
of the first minister of Concord, an 
active patriot during the revolution, 
member of the convention of 1784, 
a legislator, and judge of the com- 
mon pleas. He died May 5, 1822, 
aged 85. 

Dr. Philip Carrigaix, an 
eminent physician, who died in 

Hon. Thomas W. Thompson, 
a distinguished lawyer and politi- 
cian, who died 1 Oct., 1821, aged 

Sir Bentjamix Thompson 
(known to the world as Count 
Rumford) settled and married 
here in early life. 

John Farmer, Esq., an emin- 
ent antiquary and genealogist, re- 
sided here for the last seventeen 
years of his life, and died 13 Aug., 
1838, aged 49. Mr. Farmer's health 
was always exceedingly delicate : 
he therefore, partly of necessity and 
partly of choice, adopted a very 
sedentary mode of life. He col- 
lected around him books of ancient 
date — gathered together early rec- 
ords of tQwns — notices of the first 


settlers of the country — inquired 
into the names, ages, characters, 
and deaths of distinguished men of 
every profession — entered into ex- 
tensive correspondence with men 
who might be able to furnish him 
with facts relative to the subjects of 
his inquiry. In short, Mr. Farmer 
soon became known as an Anti- 
quarian, distinguished far beyond 
all his fellow citizens, for exact 
knowledge of facts and events rel- 
ative to the history of New Eng- 
land. His mind was a wonderful 
repository of names and dates and 
particular incidents, not stored up 
indeed for private gratification, but 
always open for the benefit of oth- 
ers. So general and well establish- 
ed was his reputation for accuracy^ 
that his authority was relied on, as 
decisive in historical and genealog- 
ical facts. 

Feelings of personal attachment 
and obligations for numerous inval- 
uable tokens of friendship, received 
by the editor, would seem to require 
a full length portrait of the charac- 
ter of this distinguished man and 
estimable christian — even in a work 
of this kind ; and it should be giv- 
en, had not an abler pen performed 
that act of justice. See American 
i^arterly Register. 

Concord, Vt. 

Essex CO. First settled, 1788. 
Population, 1830, 1,031. On the 
W. side of Connecticut river: 38 
miles E. by N. from Montpelier, 
and 18 S. W. from Guildhall. Moose 
river, a branch of the Passumpsic, 
waters the north part of the town. 
Hall's and Mile ponds are beau- 
tiful sheets of water, and afford a 
variety of fish. The soil of the town 
is pretty good, and keeps about 3,000 

Concord, Mass. 

One of the chief towns of Mid- 

dlesex county. This town is situ* 
ated on the river of the same name, 
17 miles W. N. W. from Boston, 
14 S. S. W. from Lowell, and 30 E. 
N. E. from Worcester. Incorpo- 
rated, 1G36. Population, 1820, 
1,788; 1837,2,023. This town was 
the first inland settlement in the 
colony of Massachusetts Bay. The 
township was originally six miles 
square, and derives its name from 
the harmony in which it was pur- 
chased of the natives. Its Indian 
title was Muskeiaquid. It took an 
active part in the prosecution of the 
war against king Philip, in 1676-6, 
and in April of the latter year, 10 
or 12 of its citizens were killed, in 
the attack made by the Indians on 
the neighboring town of Sudbury. 
The general court has frequently 
held its sessions in this town, and 
in the year 1774 the provincial con- 
gress selected it as their place of 
meeting. On the 19th of April, 
1775, a detachment of British troops, 
sent out by Gen. Gage for the pur- 
pose of seizing a quantity of mili- 
tary stores which were deposited 
here by the province, were met at 
the North bridge by the citizens of 
Concord and the neighboring towns, 
and forcibly repulsed. It was at 
this spot that the first regular and 
effectual resistance was made, and 
the first British life was taken, in 
the war of the revolution. The 
graves of two of the British soldiers, 
who were killed at this place, are 
still marked, and a suitable monu- 
ment is erected near the site of the 
bridge, to commemorate the event. 
The monument is of granite, in the 
form of an obelisk ; its height about 
25 feet; the base, which is square, 
is a large block 5 1-2 feet broad, 
and about 3 in height. On the west 
side of the next block, is inlaid a 
slab of white Italian marble, on 
which is engraved the following in- 
scription : — 

On the oppoa 
Suwd Ibe Ameri 

To these United States. 
In gratitude la God, 

Fonsiat of cotton goods, ratiDet ind 
flan Del, bi>at9, shoes, hats, ploughs, 
lead pipe, chairs and cabinet wars. 
The whole value, id one year, ei- 
clii^^ive of cotton goods, amounted t» 

This river is formed by the uiJoa 
of Aasabel and Sudbury rivers at 
Concord: after passing through tlio 
towns of Bedford, Billerica, aitd 
Chelmsford, it falls into the Mer- 
rimack between Lowell and Tewbs- 
bury. Thisrivcr fumishestheHid- 
dlesBi caoal with most of it* w»- 

Commntcnt I(lKiid> 
See Jamestovin, R. I. 


Thb state Is bounded N. by Massachusetts, E. by Rhode Island, 
8. tiyLong Island Sound, and W. by New York. Situated between 
40« 68' and 42° I' N. lat. and 72° 37' and Tl° 43' W. Ion. 


The territory of Connecticut was formerly two colonies — Conneetieut 
and JVew Haven, The colony of Connecticut was planted by citizens 
of Massachusetts, at Windsor, in 1633, and at Hartford and Wethersfield, 
in 1635 and 1636. The colony of New Haven was settled by English- 
men, in 1638. In 1665, the two colonies were united by a charter 
granted by Charles the Second. This charter was the basis of the gov- 
ernment till 1818, when the present constitution was formed. 

The executive power of this State is vested in a Governor, and a Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, who is also President of the Senate. 

The legislative power is vested in a Senate and a House of Represen- 
tatives, which together are called 21ie General Assembly. The Senate 
consists of not less than 18 and not more than 24 members. Most of the 
U>wns may choose two Representatives ', the others one each. All the 
above are elected annually by the people on the first Monday of April. 
The General Assembly has one stated session in each year, commencing 
on the first Wednesday in May. These sessions are held alternately, in 
the years of even numberdat New Haven, and in the years of odd num- 
bers at Hartford. 

The electors are all the white male citizens, of twenty-one years of 
age, who have resided in the town in which they vote six months next 
preceding, and have a freehold estate of the value of seven dollars ; or 
who have performed regular military duty in said town for one year next 
previous to the voting ; or who shall have paid a tax within a year of his 
voting. Those entitled to be electors, before voting must be qualified by 
taking the oath prescribed by law. 

No person is obliged to join any religious society ; but having joined 
one he is liable by law to pay his proportion of the charges for its sup- 
port. He may separate himself from such society by leaving with the 
clerk thereof notice of his determination to close his connextion with 

The judicial department of the government embraces the Supreme 
Court of Errors, the Superior Court, a County Court in each county, a 
City Court in each city, a Court of Probate in each probate district, and 
as in other states in New England, an indefinite number of Justices of 
the Peace in each county. 

^ The Supreme Court of Errors consists of five Judges, who are ap- 
pointed by the General Assembly, and hold their offices during good 
behavior, but not after seventy years of age. They are subject to re- 
moval by impeachment, and by the Governor, on the address of two thirds 
of the members of each House of the General Assembly. This court 
has final and exclusive jurisdiction- of writs of error, brought to revise 
the judgment on decrees of the Superior Court, in law or equity, wherein 


tiie erran complained of appear from the files and records. It holds one 
term in each county annually. Though this body, as a court, has cog- 
nizance only of writs of error, yet, as all the members are Judges of the 
Superior Court, a conyenient opportunity is afforded, while they are 
thus assembled, for hearing arguments on motions for new trials and cases 
stated. These, of course, occupy a considerable portion of the term 
The opinions of the Judges upon them are given by way of advice to 
the Superior Court, in which the cases are respectively pending. This 
advice is always followed, it being understood as settling the law. 

A Judge of the Superior Court of Errors, designated by that court 
for the purpose, constitutes the Superior Court; two terms of which are 
held in each county annually. This court has cognizance of civil actions 
at law .brought by appeal from the County, City, and Probate Courts, 
and of suits for relief in chancery, wherein the value of the matter in 
demand exceeds $335. In criminal causes it has exclusive jurisdiction 
of oflfences punishable with death or imprisonment for life ; and, concur- 
rent with the County Courts, of all other offences not committed to the 
jurisdiction of the Justices of the Peace. It has also cognizance of 
writs of error brought to revise the decisions of inferior tribunals ; of 
petitions for divorce, and of writs of scire facias, audita querela, and 
petitions for new trials relative to matters in or issuing from the court. 
In capital cases, the Judge holding the court is to call to his assistance 
one or more of the other Judges. 

The County Courts consist of one Chief Judge and two Associate 
Judges, who are appointed annually by the General Assembly. This 
court has original jurisdiction of all civil actions at law, wherein the 
value of the matter in demand exceeds $35, and appellate jurisdiction 
of all such actions wherein the value in demand exceeds $7. It has 
also original and final jurisdiction of suits for relief in equity, wherein 
the value in demand does not exceed $335, except suits for relief against 
a judgment rendered on a cause depending at law in the Superior 

In criminal jurisdiction, it has cognizance of all offences above the 
jurisdiction of a Justice of the Peace, and not exclusively within that 
of the Superior Court. It is also vested with powers relative to the 
laying out of roads, granting licences, the appointment of survey- 
ors, &c. 

Justices of the Peace have cognizance of all actions at law of a civil 
nature, wherein the value in demand does not exceed $35, and of all 
ofifences and crimes punishable by fine not exceeding $7, or by impris- 
onment not exceeding thirty days, or both. 

In each of the six cities — Hartford, New Haven, New London, Ner- 



wich, Middletown, and Bridgeport— there is a City Court, consisting of 
the Mayor and two senior Aldermen, having cognizance of aU civil 
actions wherein the title of land is not concerned. 

Saccession of Crovemon since the Union of the Colonies under 

the Charter in 16G5. 

John Winthrop, 1665—1676. William Leet, 1676—1683. Rohert 
Treat, 1688—1698. Fitz-John Winthrop, 1698—1707. Gurdon Sal- 
tonstall, 1708—1724. Joseph Talcott, 1725—1741. Jonathan Law, 
1742—1751. Roger Wolcott, 1751—1734. Thomas Fitch, 1754—1766. 
William Pitkin, 1766—1769. Jonathan Trumbull, 1769—1784. Mat- 
thew Griswold, 1784—1786. Samuel Huntington, 1786—1795. Oliver 
Wolcott, 1796, 1797. Jonathan Trumbull, 1798— 1809. John Treadwell, 
1809—1811. Roger Griswold, 1811, 1812. John Cotton Smith, 1813— 
1817. Oliver Wolcott, 1817—1827. Gideon Tomlinson, 1827—1831. 
John S. Peters, 1831—1833. Henry W. Edwards, 1833, 1834. Samuel 
A. Foot, 1834—1836. Henry W. Edwards, 1836— 

Saccession of Chief Justices* 

Richard Law, 1785—1789. Eliphalet Dyer, 1789—1793. Andrew 
Adams, 1793—1797. Jesse Root, 1798—1807. Stephen M. Mitchell, 
1807—1814. Tapping Reeve, 1814, 1815. Zephaniah Swift, 1815— 
1819. Stephen T. Hosmer, 1819—1833. David Daggett, 1833—1835. 
Thomas S. Williams, 1835— 

Connecticut is divided into the eight following counties — Hartford, 
New Haven, New London, Fairfield, Windham, Litchfield, Middlesez, 
and Tolland. The face of the state is greatly diversified by hills and 
valleys. In general it is so exceeding undulating or uneven, as to pre- 
sent an everchanging variety of objects. The ranges of mountains from 
the north, which terminate near New Haven, are not remarkable for their 
elevation in this state. Connecticut is finely watered by the noble river 
fit>m which it derives its name, by the Thames, Housatonick, Nauga- 
tuck, and other smaller streams. The soil varies from a gravelly loam 
on the hills, to a rich and exceedingly fertile alluvial in the valleys. The 
former is more particularly adapted to grazing, the latter to tillage. These 
lands, in possession of an industrious class of freemen, yield, in great 
abundance, all the varieties of products common to a northern climate. 
The mineral resources of the state are not yet fully developed ; but 
iron and copper ores of excellent qualities are found ; also, lead,/!obalt, 
marble and freestone. The mineral waters at Stafford are the most 
celebrated. Manufacturing establishments are scattered over the state. 


on its numerous delightful streams ; and foreign commerce, the coasting 
trade, and fisheries, enjoy an enviable position on the waters of Long 
Island Sound. 

Blessed with a salubrious climate and fertile country, the people 
of Connecticut probably enjoy as much happiness as is allotted to 
any part of the human family. Her population is always full, and although 
her domain is not extensive, no Atlantic state has sent so many of her 
children, or so large a share of intellectual wealth, to the western 
country, as Connecticut. 

If the love of liberty, literature and the arts, of social feeling and 
moral worth has an asylum on earth, Connecticut may boast that it it 
to be found within her bosom. See Register, 

Conneetleitt River. 

This beautiful river, the Quonek- 
taeut of the Indians, and the pride 
of the Yankees, has it sources in 
New Hampshire and the moun- 
tainous tracts in Lower Canada. Its 
name in the Indian language is said 
to signify Long JRiver, or, as some 
render it. River of Pines, Its 
general course is north and south. 
After forming the boundary line 
between New Hampshire and Ver- 
mont, it crosses the western part of 
Massachusetts, passes the state of 
Connecticut, nearly in its centre; 
and, after a fall of 1,600 feet, from 
its head, north of latitude 45°, it falls 
into Long Island Sound, in latitude 
41° 16'. The breadth of this river, 
at its entrance into Vermont, is 
about 150 feet, and in its course of 
60 miles it increases to about 390 
feet. In Massachusetts and Con- 
necticut, its breadth may be esti- 
mated from 460 to 1,050 feet. It is 
navigable to Hartford, 45 miles, for 
vessels of considerable burthen, and 
to Middletown, 30 miles from the 
sea, for vessels drawing 12 feet of 
water. By means of canals and oth- 
er improvements, it has been made 
navigable for boats to Fifteen Mile 
Falls, nearly 260 miles above Hart- 
ford. The most considerable rapids 
la this river, are Bellows' Falls, the 

falls of Queechy, just below the 
mouth of Waterqueechy river ; the 
White river falls, below Hanover, 
and the Fifteen Mile Falls, in N. H. 
and Vt.; — the falls at Montague and 
South Hadley, in Mass., and the 
falls at Enfield, in Ct., where it 
meets the tide water. The perpen- 
dicular height of the falls which 
have been overcome by dams and 
locks between Springfield, in Mass., 
and Hanover, in N. H., a distance 
of 130 miles, is 240 feet. Bars of 
sand and gravel extend across this 
river in various places, over which 
boats with difficulty pass in low 
water. The most important tribu- 
taries to the Connecticut, in New 
Hampshire, are Upper and Lower 
Amonoosuck, Israel's, John's, Mas- 
comy, Sugar, and Ashuelot rivers: 
in Vermont, Nulhegan,Passuropsic, 
Wells, Wait's, Ompomponoosuck, 
White, Waterqueechy, Black, Wil- 
liams, Sexton's, and West rivers : 
in Massachusetts, Miller's, Deer- 
field, Agawam, Chickopee, and 
Westfield rivers ; and the Farming- 
ton, in Connecticut. 

The intervales are generally 
spread upon one or both sides of the 
river, nearly on a level with its 
banks, and extending from half a 
mile to five miles in breadth ; but 
its borders are in some places high. 

McW >nd precipitous. Id (he 
■priDg It overflows its banka, aod, 
through it* winding course of nearly 

I ferlili 
TUt tract of rich meadow. la print 
of length, utility, and beauty, this 
river forms a dislinguished feature 
of New England. 

Large quantitiesof shad are lalcen 
in this river, but the salmon, which 
ibrmcrly were very plenty, have 
CQlirely disappeared. Connecticut 
river uasscs through a basiu or val- 
ley of abotit 12,OU0 square miles; 
it is decorated, od each side, with 
towns and villages of superior 
beauly, and presents la the eye a 
wonderful variety of enchanting 

Csunectloiit Idtlie, 
The source of one of the prii 
pal branches of Connecticut ri' 
li situated in latitude 41° 2' ; ar 
fi 1-2 miles in length, and 2 1-: 
width. It is supplied by several 
Buall streams, rising In the high- 
lands norih of (he lake. 

CDnMocook RlTcr, X. tt., 
A stream of considerable length 
and importance, waters most of iht 
towns in the W. part of the county 
of Hillsborough, llhas Its origin 
from several ponds In JaSrey and 
Rindge, and in its course north re- 
ceives numerous streams from Dub- 
lin, Peterborough, Sharon, Nel- 
son, Sloildard, Washington, Antrim , 
Deering, and Hillsbarough. In 
Hillsborough It takes a N. E. and 
easterly direction, and proceeds 
through Henniker to Hopkintoo, 
where it receives Warner and Macli- 
water rivers. From HopkinCoD, 
it pursues a meanderinfc course 
through Concord, and discharge* 
itself into the Merrimack between 
Concord and Boscawen, Near Ih-a 
mouth of this river is Datttnia 
/sioiui, celebrated as the spot wheie 
Mrs. Duston destroyed several In- 
dians, in I69S. 


Strafibrd CO., on Saco river, 1«.T3 
niilesN.N. E. from Concord, _60 
N. by W. from Dover ,and6T^" 

N. W. 

from Portland, Me. Swift river, a 
■onsiJcrable and very rapid elream, 
Pequawketl river, and a streaoi tak- 
.ag iU rise in Walker's pond, the 
:wo last affording mill privileges, 
discharge themselves into Saco riv- 
r in this town. . Saco river here Is 
om 10 to 12 rods wide, and about 
_ feet deep; its current rapid and 
broken by falls. Thit river has 
-- ' - 27 and even 
30 feel iu Ibe course of 2-t hours. 
The largest collections of water in 
Conway are a part of Walker's 
pond, and Little Pequawkett pond, 
which lie in the south part of the 
(own. There is a detached block 
of granite on the eoutliern side of 
Pine hill, tlie largoat perhaps i- "-- 

S. spring nea 


„. ._. _,._ Ihebankof Cold brook, 
strongly impregnated with sulphur, 
has been visited frequently by the 
inllrm, and in many instances found 
beneficial. There are also in this 
town tai^e quantities of magne^a 
and fuller's earth. The intervale 
along the river is from 60 to 228 
rods wide. The plain, when prop- 
erly cultivated^ produces large 
crops of corn and rye. Conway is 
quite a resort for travellers from Iha 
cast and south to (he White Moun- 
tains. From Conway village to 
Crawford's bouse, at the Notch, is 
34 miles N. W. Daniel Fi»(er,in 
176B, obtained a grant of this town- 
ship, containing 21,040 acres, on 
condition that each grantee ehould 
pay a rent of one ear of Indian com 
annually for the space of ten yean, 
ifdcmanded. Pop. 1S30, 1,601. 
Coavr>]r, niui. 
Franklin co. This town is divid- 
ed from Sheiburne, on the north, 
by Deerfield river. It lies 100 mile* 
W. by N. from Boston, and 7 S. W. 
from Greenfield. Incorporated, 


1767. Population, 1837,1,446. A 
tributary of Deerfield river passes 
its northern border. The manu- 
factures of Conway consist of cotton 
and woolen goods, leather, boots, 
shoes, hats, chairs and cabinet 
ware. Total amount, year ending 
April 1, 1837, $22,475. The value 
of wool grown, the same year, was 
$5,072, comprising 4,830 fleeced, 
weighing 14,490 pounds. 

Cooper, Sle. 

Washington co. Denny's river, 
emptying into Meddybemps lake, 
and both discharging into the river 
St. Croix at Baring, water the north 
part of this town. It lies 164 miles 
£. N. £. from Augusta, and about 
36 miles N. from Machias. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 671. 

Coot County, N* H. 

Coos is the largest county in New 
Hampshire, and within its limits 
are situated the contested Indian 
Stream territory and the greater 
part of the ungranted lands. Large 
portions of this county are exceed- 
ingly mountainous, cannot be culti- 
vated, and will probably never be 
settled. This county extends from 
lat. 43° 68' to the extreme north 
part of the state — being 76 miles in 
length, and having a mean width 
of about 20 miles. The area of 
this county is estimated to contain 
1600 square miles, or, in round 
numbers, 1,000,000 of acres. It is 
bounded N. by Lower Canada, £. 
by Maine, S. by the county of 
Strafford, W. by Grafton county 
and the state of Vermont. Besides 
the stupendous pile of the White 
Mountains, which distinguishes this 
county, there are several other 
mountains of no inconsiderable 
height. Those in Shelburne, Jack- 
son and Chatham, on the east side 
of the White Mountains, are bold 
and abrupt. The Peak and Bow- 
back mountains in Stratford ; the 
elevations in Dixville, Columbia 

and Kilkenny; Pilot and Mill moun- 
tains in Stark ; Cape Horn in North- 
umberland, and Pondicherry, S. W, 
of Jefferson, are all of considerable 
magnitude, and partake of the gran- 
deur of the White Hills. In the 
neighborhood of high mountains are 
generally found the sources of our 
greater rivers. Three of the prin- 
cipal rivers of New England, the ^l 
^^"IfittifH^T Androscoggin and Sa- ^M^ 
CO, take their rise in this county. 
There are numerous other streams 
which become tributary to these 
rivers, the principal of which are 
the Mohawk, Amonoosuck, Israel's 
and John's rivers. The Margalla- 
way, afte-r receiving the waters of 
Dead and Diamond rivers, unites ^ 
with the Androscoggin, near Um- 
bagog lake. This lake lies princi- 
pally in Maine. Lake Connecti- 
cut is situated north of the 46th de- 
gree of latitude, and is one of the 
sources of Connecticut river. The 
largest pond in this county lies N. 
cf lake Connecticut, and is connect- 
ed with it by an outlet. 

The first settlement in the coun- 
ty was made at Lancaster in 1763. 
The county was incorporated Dec. 
24, 1803, and the name is of Indian 
origin, although the same name oc- 
curs in the New Testament. The 
population in 1820 was 6,649 ; and 
in 1830, 8,390. Coos contains 23 
towns, and five inhabitants to a 
square mile. Lancaster, Shiretown. 

Corinna, Me* 

Somerset co. Situated 63 miles 
W. N. W. from Augusta, and about 
36 N. W. from Norridgewock. In- 
corporated, 1816. Population, 1837, 
1,613. In 1837, 8,864 bushels of 
wheat were raised in this valuable 

CorliiUiy Me. 

Penobscot co. This delightful 
township lies 81 miles N. W. by W. 
from Augusta, and about 26 S. W. 
from Bangor. It is watered by 


Kepduskeag stream, and produced, 
in 1887, 9,017 bushels of wheat. 
Population, same year, 1,232. 

CorinUi, Vt« 

Orange co. Two branches of 
Wait's river water this town. It is 
20 miles S. £. from Montpelier, and 
10 N. E. from Chelsea. First set- 
tled, 1777. Population, 1830, 1 ,953. 
Corinth is pleasant, with a rough, 
strong soil, and very healthy ; it 
has some water power and keeps 
about 7,000 sheep. 

Comiatkf Me. 

York CO. Bounded N. by the Saco 
and Great Ossipee rivers. 83 miles 
S. W. from Augusta, 32 W. by N. 
fi*om Portland, and 25 N. from Al- 
fred. Incorporated, 1794. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 1,180. Cornish produces 
good crops of wheat and some wool. 

Comiglii N. H.9 

Sullivan co., is 17 miles N. 
from Charlestown, 60 N. W. by W. 
from Concord, and 12 N. W. from 
Newport. Connecticut river waters 
^e west part of this town, and by 
means of a bridge connects Cornish 
with Windsor, Vt. The soil is gen- 
erally fertile. The town is hilly, 
with the exception of that part 
which lies on the river. Blow-me- 
down and Bryant's brooks are the 
only streams of any magnitude — 
these afford good mill privileges, 
which are improved for a woolen 
factory, a large number of saw, and 
other mills. The agricultural pro- 
ducts of this town are very consid- 
erable. Cornish was granted June 
21, 1763, to Rev. Samuel McClin- 
tock, of Greenland, and 69 others. 
The town was settled in 1766. — 
Population, 1830, 1,687. 

Comvilley Me. 

Somerset co. This town is well 
watered by the Wessaransett river, 
a branch of the Kennebec. There 
is much choice land in Cornville. A 
few of the inhabitants, in 1837, by 

way of experiment, raised TOOil 
bushels of wheat. Incorporated* 
1798. Population, 1837, 2,112. 
Bounded S. by Skowhegan: 88 miles 
N. from Augusta, and about 13 N. 
£. from Norridgewock. 

ComiTttll, Vt. 

Addison co. This is a level town- 
ship of excellent land, watered by 
Otter creek and Lemonfair river, but 
without any good mill sites. Not- 
withstanding there is a very large 
swamp in this town, the people are 
healthy, and many live to a very 
great age. Very beautiful calca- 
reous spar, in rhomboidal crystals, is 
found here. The population of 
Cornwall, in 1830, was 1,264. The 
number of sheep, in 1837, was about 
16,000. It lies 60 miles S. W. from 
Montpelier, and bounded N. E. by 
Middlebury. First settled, 1774. 

Comiralli Ct. 

Litchfield co. This mountainous 
township lies on the east side of 
Housatonick river, 38 miles W. 
from Hartford, 48 N. from New Ha- 
ven, and 13 N. by W. from Litch- 
field. Fii-st settled, 1740. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,714. The scenery 
about thc^south village is very beau- 
tiful. *' The cheerful appearance 
of the church and the little cluster 
of white buildings surrounding it, 
at the bottom of a deep valley, is 
uncommyonly pleasing. The moun- 
tains and lofty hills which rise ini- 
mediately ou almost every side, 
shutting out,in a sense, the most of 
the world from this apparently re- 
tired spot, present a bold and most 
striking feature in the landscape." 
This village is the place where a 
Foreign Mission School was estab- 
lished in 1818. " This school had 
its rise from the attempt to qualify 
Obookiah, a pious Owyheean youth, 
and others, for missionaries to their 
native lands. Obookiah was brought 
to this country in 1808, and came to 
New Haven. While here, Samuel 
J. Mills, a student in Yale Col- 


lege, and other pious persons, com- 
miserating his condition, instructed 
him in the Christian religion. — 
Obookiah floon became hopefully 
pious, and strongly advocated a mis-' 
sion to his countrymen. Other na- 
tives of his island were found, and 
a school was established for their 
benefit at Cornwall. In 1S20, the 
number of pupils in this school was 
29, of whom 19 were American In- 
dians, and 6 from the islands of the 
Pacific ocean. Obookiah sickened 
and died in Cornwall in 1818. The 
following is the inscription on his 
monument in the village grave 

**In memory of Henry Obookiah, 
a native of Owyhee. His arrival in 
this country gave rise to the For- 
eign Mission School, of which he 
was a worthy member. He was 
once an Idolater, and was designed 
for a Pagan Priest ; but by the grace 
of Grod, and by the prayers and in- 
structions of pious friendSjhe became 
a Christian. He was eminent for 
piety and missionary zeal. When 
almost prepared to return to his na- 
tive isle to preach the gospel, God 
took him to himself. In his last 
sickness he wept and prayed for 
Owyhee, but was submissive. He 
died without fear, with a heavenly 
smile on his countenance and glory 
in his soul, Feb. 17th, 1818, aged 

Ooventry-y N. H«f. 

Grafton co., is 70 miles N. N. 
W. from Concord, and 12 E. S. E. 
from Haverhill. This town is wa- 
tered by branches of Oliverian brook 
and Wild Amonoosuck rivers. In 
the S. E. part of Coventry is Moose- 
hillock mountain. Owl-head moun- 
tain lies in the W. part of this town. 
Coventry presents a rough and 
mountainous aspect, and the soil in 
several parts is not capable of cul- 
tivation. This town was granted 
Jan. 31, 1764, to Theophilus Fitch 
and others, and was settled after the 

commencement of the revolatkmarj 
war. Population, 1830, 441. 

Coventry, Tt« 

Orleaai co. This is a good town- 
ship of land, and is watered by Bar- 
ton's and Black rivers, two good 
mill streams, running north into 
Memphremagog lake. First set- 
tled, 1800. Population, 1830, 728. 
The south part of the lake lies in 
Coventry, and gives i-t some trade 
to Canada. Here are about 2,500 
sheep. Coventry lies 47 miles N. 
by E. from Montpelier, and has Iras- 
burgh on the south. 

Coventry, R« I* 

Kent CO. This is a very large ^ 
township, extending to the north 
line of Connecticut, and admirably 
watered by numerous ponds and by 
Flat river, an important branch of 
the Pawtucket. Coventry has long 
been noted for the number and va- 
riety of its manufactures, particu- 
larly of cotton and wool. The soil 
of the town is well adapted to agri- 
cultural pursuits : it is well improv- 
ed, and a large amount of the pro- 
ducts of the dairy, &c., is annually 
produced. There are a number of 
pleasant villages in Coventry, all 
of which are flourishing, both in 
manufacturing and trade. This 
town was distinguished for its pat- 
riotism during the revolutionary 
contest. Coventry was incorpora- 
ted in 1742. It lies 10 miles S. W. 
from Providence, and 8 N. W. from 
East Greenwich. Population, 1830, 

Coventry, Ct. 

Tolland co. The Wangombog, a 
beautiful pond, and the Skungamug, 
Hop and Willimantic rivers, give 
Coventry a good water power. In 
the south part of the town are two 
cotton and two woolen manufacto- 
ries, a machine shop and other im- 
portant mechanical operation?" by 
water. ^ This town was the gift of a 


Mohegan Sachem, and was first set- 
tled in 1700. The surface is un- 
even, and the soil a gravelly loam. 
Coventry lies 18 miles £. from 
Hartford, and hounded N,' by Tol- 
land. Population, 1830,2,119. This 
town is celehratcd as the birth place 
of Capt. Nathan Hale, who vol- 
unteered his services to Washington 
to discover the position of the ene- 
my on Long Island. He fell a mar- 
tyr to American liberty, Sept. 22, 
1776, aged 22. 

LoREJVzo Dow, an itinerant 
preacher, celebrated for his eccen- 
tricity was bom in Coventry, Octo- 
ber, 16, 1777. It is said that during 
the 38 years of his ministry he travel- 
led in this and foreign countries two 
hundred thousand miles. He died at 
Georgetown, D. C, Feb. 2, 1834. 

Craftsbnry, Tt« 

Orleans co. Col. Ebenezer Crafts 
was the father of this little repub- 
lic. He died, much honored, in 
1810, aged 70. Craftsbury was 
settled in 1789. It lies 25 miles S. 
of the Canada line, 25 miles N. from 
Montpelier, and about 15 S. S. W. 
from Irasburgh. Population, 1830, 
982. This town is finely watered 
by Black river. Wild Branch, and 
5 lai'ge natural ponds well stored 
with trout. The village in the cen- 
tre of the town is elevated, com- 
manding a delightful prospect. 

Cranberry Islands. 

Hancock co. These islands were 
attached to the town of Mount 
Desert until 1830, when they were 
incorporated. They lie a few miles 
E. by S. from Mount Desert, and 
embrace Great and Little Cranber- 
ry, Sutton's and Baker's islands. 
These islands afford good harbors, 
and are well located for the shore 
fishery. Population, 1837, 183. 

Cranston, R. I. 

Pr^idence co. The soil of this 
town is more favorable for the pro- 

duction of fruite and vegetable! 
than for grain. Some parts of the 
town are very fertile, but considera- 
ble of the land is rough and uDeven. 
Providence market is supplied with 
a considerable amount of the pro- 
ducts of. the town. The manufac- 
ture of cotton is very extensively 
pursued. The water power of the 
Pawtuxet and Powchasset are con- 
stant and abundant. Cranston is a 
very pleasant town, and its proxim- 
ity to Providence, (only five miles 
south west) gives it peculiar privi- 
leges. Population, 1830, 2,663. 

CraMrfordy Me. 

Washins^ton co. Incorporated, 
1828. This is a good township of 
land, and was formerly called Ad- 
ams. A large pond in Crawford 
and a part of another are the sour- 
ces of a branch of East Machias 
river. Population, 1837, 811. Lo- 
cated about 30 miles N. from Ma- 
chias and 140 £. N. E. from Au- 

Croolced Rlvery lUe.y 

Rises in ponds in Oxford county; 
passes through Harrison, Otisfield, 
and Raymond, and joins the outiet 
of Long pond into Sebago lake. 

Cross Island, Me* 

A large island, off Machias bay, 
attached to the town of Cutler. 

C'oydon, Ji, Il.y 

Sullivan co., is 44 miles N. N. 
W. from Concord, and 8 N. from 
Newport. The N. branch -of Su- 
gar river waters this town. On this 
stream is a woolen factory and other 
mills. Croydon mountain is of con* 
siderable elevation, on which are 
two small ponds. The soil of Croy- 
don is moist and rocky, and produ- 
ces valuable crops. Croydon was 
granted by charter to Samuel Chase, 
and others, May 31, 1763. It was 
settled in 1766. Population, 1830, 


Portland, chief town. Bauadei] 
N. by Oxford coanty, E. by Lin- 
cola county, S. by the Atlaolir 
Dceui, and York eonnly aad 
B part of Oifbnl. Area about 99u 
•qnare miles. Population, 1H20. 
49,44S; lS3U,60,llSi 1837,67,619, 
This la an axcclleat county of land, 
iad under ^ood cultivation. The 
commerce and majiufactures of 
Portland and neighboriDg towni 
is very eitcnsive. Ca«o bay h 
witbin the county, and aftbrda h 
unriralled privileges for navigatioD 
and the fisheriea. It 19 watered by 
several large mill atreann; and the 
Cumberland and Oxford canal to 

iuland trade, Id 1837 tbcre were 
37,803 bushels of wheat raised hi 
the county, and it contained 7I,IKIhj 

CncvberlAnd, tSt* 

Cnmberland co. Setoif from (be 
westerly part of North Yarmouth 
Id 18Z1, Papulation, 1837, lji25. 
H miles S. W. from Aiiguala, and 
10 N. from Portland. C it id be rl ami 
is pleasantly situated on Casco bay. 
and enjoya many navigable faciL- 

CnmtierlBad, R. I. 

Providence co. The nnniifac- 
ture of cotton and boat building {■< 
eitenaively pursued In this lawn. I 
Pawtucket, Mill aad Peter's livers. ' 
and Ablwt's run, aflbrd the (own 
• good hydraulic power. Tberc is 
some good land in Cumberland. 

Sroducing a variety of artictea for 
'ravideoce market; from which ii 
ii distant 8 miles N. Population, 
1330, 8,675. See Siaitlffitld. 

Hampshire CO. Located 110 miles 
W. from Boston, and ZO W. N. V. 
from Northampton. Incorporated, 
1779. Population, 1837, 1,20i. In 
(hit (own are good mill leata on 

I Weitfield river. It 1* a moanttln- 

' 0U8 townabip but excellent for grax- 
ing. It produced, in 1837, 12,486 
pounda of merino Wool, Ibe weight 
of 4,162 fleeces, valued at t7,4»a. 
The manufactures of Cummington 
consist of cotton and woolen goods, 
leather, palm-leaf hats, and scythe 
snaiths. Total value. In one year, 
^,000. Iron ore and wapsttne. 
CuUBg, He. 
Lincoln CO. Siiuated on Saint 
George's river, opposite to the town 
of St. Ueorge; MmileaN. E. from 
Augusta, and about 12 mileaS. from 
Warren. This place was settled by 
emigrants fiom Ireland, aa early as 
17S3. Here was the celcbi-ated 
stone fort, erected by Maj. Burloa. 
Incorporated, 1TS9. Popuiatioa, 
1337, 733. 

Omtler, He. 
Washington co. Bounded S. by 
the Atlantic Ocean, and about 20 
milea S. W. from W. Quoddy Head. 
It contains Little Macbias bay and 
Little river, and is hounded W. by 
Machiaa bay. Cotlcr has a good 
harbor, and a papulation of 667 
164mileaE. by N. from Augusta, 
and 10 S. E. (mm Machias. 

Coos CO., lies between Lanou- 
ter and Littleton, on Connecticut 
river, and is 110 miles N. by W. 
from Concord. Tbe Great, or Fir- 
teen Mile Fails, on ConnecUcut 
river, commence in Dalton, and 
rush tumulluously along its north- 
west boundary. The town is also 
watered by John's river and sever- 
al large brooks. The weatern and 
southern parts of thb town ara hilly. 
Along the borders of John's river 
the majestic white pioe abounds. 
The soil on tbe highlands is deep, 
and well adapted to grazing — <■ 
generally pM>d,and in some ^rti 
easyirf cultivation. Blake's pc^, 
th« only one In town, lies at the S. 
E. comer. Moses Blake and Wal- 


terBloiswere the firat setlleraor 
D*ltan, and, nilh their fainiliei, lor 
a ]ang time the only inhabiianui. 
DaliuD vi»3 iocorporaled Nov. -i, 
ITSl. PopuloUoo, 1S30, 632. 

Bluke nag a Uniouii hunter, hud 
ibe nioote which frequented ilie 
ponil called by his oanie oftcD Tell 
by the accuracy of hia shots. Blako 
and Capt. lluekmuu, (one ofttic 
Grit settlers of LancastiT,) cm a 
hunting excursion, fired at a mark, 
on asujall beL Buckuain Qreil lirat, 
and cut, at the distance of tweJ:ily 
roils, near the cenlre of a maik 
not larger than a dollar. Btnkc 
then fired, and on going to the tree 
on which the mark was made, do 
trace of the ball could bo discovei- 
ed. Bucbnam exulted: "Cuto'il 
your ball," said Blake, "and you'll 
find mine o'top on't." The opera- 
tion being performed, the (wo balh 
Wero found, the one safely lodged 
upon the olber. 

Berkshire co. DaKon lies I2U 
miles W. from Boston, and 13 N. 
by E, from Lenox. Incorporated, 
1TS4. Population, 1837, 830. tl 
is watered by tlie E. branch of Hou- 
BBIonick river. Its manufeclurcB 
consist of woolen cloth, iron cast- 
ings, paper, ($37,500,) leather, 
hoots and shoes. Total amount In 
one year. $47,915. In 1337, .lie 
product of 4,238 sheep was ll,H.i2 
pounds of wool, valued at ^6,7^5. 
DsnuilHfttte River, Ue. 

in Jefferson and Noble borough ; ii? 

S^neral course issoutherly between 
ewcastle, Edgecomb and Boolh- 
hay, on the west, Snd BHitol on the 
«ast. It is navigable lor vsssels of 
any burthen 16 miles, to the bridi^e 
which crosses it between Nen- 
ctatlc and Nobleborou<;h. Lai'se 
quaotilies of lumber descend, and 
Biany merchant ships are built on 
this broad and navigable arm of the 

Worcester co. Dana lies SB mllu 
W. from Boston, and «T W. N. W. 
from Worcester. A branch of 8«iA 
river pa^es through the town.^ 
Some leather is tanned in Dana; 
and 70,000 palm-leaf bats were 
made in 1836, valued at (110,600. 
Incorporated, 1781. PopuiatiiH], 
IS37, 660. 

DuilmiT, H, H., 
ts In the S, part of Granon county, 
and lies in the form of a diamond. 
It is 16 miles S. by W. from Ply- 
mouth, and 30 N. W. from Concord. 
This town is generally hilly, al- 
though there are some intervales. 
In the N. E. part is a large MIL 
The eastern section is watered by 
Smith's river. The first seltle- 
ment was maclein Nov, ir71, and 
incorporated June 18, 179S. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 7S6. 

DaolmTj', Ct. 

One of the shire towns of Fair- 
lield connty. Daubury, the Pah- 
quiaque of the Indians, was first 
settled in 1B84. The soil of ths 
town la good, and agreeably diver- 
sified by hills and valleys. Tha 
borough or village i^ very pleasant- 
ly situated in a valley, and Is me- 
morable tot; its sacrifices in the 
revolutionary war. It was neariy 
destroyed* by (he British, with ft 
large amounl of continental atorei, 
April, 1777. It lies 32 miles N. 
from Norwalk, 36 8. S. W. fnm 
Litchfield, and 59 8. W. by W. 
from Hartford, 

HoBEBT Sandeuan, the foun- 
der of a religious sect,died atDanbu> 
ry inl7Tl,aged63. See Selhtl.Ol. 

Rutland co. Situated near tha 
head watersofOtterurcck, 17 miles 
S. from Rutland, and 68 8. S. W. 
from MonlpBlinr. First settled, 
1768. Population, 1830, 1,362.— 
The furtaoe of tha town U niu^ 


and mountainous, but productive 
of extraordinary feed for cattle. 
Some of the best dairies in the 
country are in Danby. Large quan- 
tities of butter and cheese, of supe- 
rior quality, are annually sent to 
market. There are soine curious 
caverns in this town, — one of great 

' Dfinvers, Blass. 

Essex CO. This flourishing town 
lies 2 miles N. VV. fi'om Salem, to 
which it was attached until 1757, 
and called " Salem Village." It is 
very pleasant, and has some mill and 
navigable privileges. The manu- 
factures, for the year ending April 
1, 1837, amounted to $854,300. 
The articles manufactured were 
boots and shoes (^435,900,) leather, 
($264,400,) nails, bricks, pottery 
ware, glue, lasts, morocco, choco- 
late, shoe pegs, shoe and soap boxes, 
soap and candles. Population, 1830, 
4,228; 1837,4,804. 

DanviUey Me. 

Cumberland co. This town, for- 
merly called Pejepsco, was set off 
fit)m the westerly part of North 
Yarmouth, in 1802. Population, 
1837, 1,282. It lies 32 miles S. W. 
froin Augusta, and 29 N. from Port- 
land. Farming is the principal 
business of the inhabitants ; — they 
raised, in 1837, 1,218 bushels of 

DanTiUe, N. H. 

Rockingham co. It was incorpo- 
rated February 22, 1760 ; formerly 
a part of Kingston, and until re- 
cently known by the name of 
Hawice. The soil is uneven, but in 
some parts good. Acchusnut river 
passes over the north west corner. 
Long pond lies in the east part, and 
Cub pond on the west side. The 
first settlements were made by Jon- 
athan Sanborn, Jacob Hook, and 
others, between 1735 and 1739. 
Dauville lies S3 miles S. £. of Con- 

cord , and 10 S. W. of Exeter. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 528. 

Banirllley Tt. 

Chi^f town of Caledonia county. 
Danville village is very pleasantly 
situated near the centre of the town, 
and is surrounded by a beautiful 
farming country : first settled, 1784. 
Charles Hacket brought the first 
woman into town, in 1785. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 2,631. It lies 28 miles 
N. E. from Montpelier. Here is a 
medicinal spring ; and Jo^s pond, 
covering 1,000 acres, lies mostly 
in the town. Several tributaries of 
the Passumpsic give the town a good 
water power. This is a place of 
considerable manufactures and do- 
mestic trade. 

Darien, Ct« 

Fairfield co. Until 1820, Darien 
was a parish in the town of Stam- 
foi-d. The soil is excellent, and well 
adapted to tillage and grazing. It 
lies 5 miles W. from Norwalk, and 
42 S. W. from New Haven. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,201. 

During divine service, on Sun- 
day, 22d of July, 1781, a party of 
British troops surrounded the meet- 
ing house at this place, and made 
the whole congregation prisoners. 
The males were tied, two and two, 
and the Rev. Moses Mather, D. D., 
a man distinguished for his learning 
and piety, placed at their head. 
They wore marched to the shore, 
taken to Long Island, and after- 
wards to New York, where they 
suffered a cruel imprisonment- 
Some of them never returned. 

Hartmoutliy Mass. 

Bristol CO. The Aponiganset of 
the Indians. A sea-port on Buz- 
zard's bay, on the W. side of Ac- 
cushnet river, 56 miles S. from Bos- 
ton, and 3 W. from New Bedford. 
Incorporated, 1664. Population, 
1837, 3,968. There are 5 vessels 
belonging to this place engaged in 


the whalii\^ business, and a num- 
ber in coasting, and oUier fisheries. 
The product of the whale, cod and 
mackerel fisheries the year end- 
ing April 1, 1837, amounted to 
993,10s. The value of woqI grown 
was $2,110. The value of salt 
manufactured, of vessels built, of 
leather tanned, and of boots and 
shoes made, was $27,910. 

0e«a Rtvem. 

Dead rivers in Maine, is an im- 
Bortant tributary to the Kennebec. 
It rises on the border of Lower 
Canada, in the county of Franklin. 
It passes in a S. £. direction 40 or 
HO miles ; then N. about.lO ; it then 
changes to the £., and after passing 
about 15 miles it falls into the Ken- 
nebec, about 20 miles below Moose 
Head lake. The lands on Dead 
river and its numerous tributaries 
are very fertile and heavily wooded. 

Dead Stream, in Maine, is a ccin- 
Mderable tributary to the Penob- 
scot, from the west. It empties at 
Orono, opposite to the Indian vil- 

Dead rtver, in New Hampshire, 
rises in the N. W. comer of the 
state, in Coos county, and after re- 
ceiving several tributaries it falls 
into the Margallaway. 

Deftnileldy Me. 

Located at the N. W. corner 
of Hancock county, between Pas- 
sadunikeag river and Olammon 
stream. See Barnard, Me, 

I>eaKf»om9 BEe. 

Kennebec co. The soil of this 
town is excellent, particularly 
around Great pond, which covers 
a large portion of the surface, and 
has a number of islands of great 
beauty. This pond is connected 
with other large sheets of water 
in Belgrade, Mount Vernon, and 
Rome, which render this part of 
the county highly picturesque. 
Dearborn was iAcorjMwated in 1812. 

Population, 1837, 799. 16 nUlas 

N. from Augusta. 

Dedluun^ He* 

Hancock co. Incorporated, 1887. 
It is bounded on the W. by Ells- 
worth. Union river passes through 
its N. W. corner. In 1887 it had 
a population of 427, and produced 
1,550 bushels of wheat. 

Dedluutty Mass. 

Norfolk CO. County town. Thli 
town is on Charles riyer, withja:gQod 
water power. It is 10 miles S. W. 
frpm Boston, 35 £. from Woteester, 
35 N. W. fi-om Plyjnouth, 26 N. bf 
W. from Taunton, and 30 N. £. 
from Providence. It has a. beauti- 
ful court house of hewn granite. 
Its Indian name was Tiot, A rail* 
road f^m the centre of the town 
meets the Boston and PrDvidenbe 
rail-road, about two miles -at the 
eastward. The manufactures of 
Dedham the year ending Ajh^I ), 
1837, amounted to $510,755. They 
consisted of cotton and woolen goods, 
leather, bopts, shoes, paper, ihar- 
hled paper, Irom castings, chairs, 
cabinet wares, straw bonnets, palm* 
leaf hats, and silk goods. The ¥«}• 
ue of silk goods manufactured wns 
$10,000. Dedham village is very 
pleasant, and possesses every Ui* 
duoement to render it a desirable 
residence for the mechanic or men 
of leisure. Population, 1837,8,538. 

Deexfleldt W« H.^ 

Rockingham co., is 18 miles E. 
S. £. from Concord, and 30 W. by 
N. from Portsmouth. This towa 
has a number of very pleasant ponds 
which afford fish of various kindfc 
Moultou*s pond is situated at the 
W. part of the town. This pood* 
although small, is noted on account 
of its having no visible inlet, apd 
therefore is supposed to he supptted 
by a subterraneous passage,, as tbft 
water is always of nearly an equal 
depth, '^he outlets of the pood lUH 


in oppoiite directions. This pond | 
is also remarkable on account of 
having been often sounded with- 
out discovering any bottom. A 
branch of Lamprey river passes S. 
and S. £. through Deerficld. The 
surface of this town is uneven, tbe 
soil durable and fertile, although 
hard to cultivate. The Tuckaway, 
between Deerfield and Netting- 
ham,tbe Saddleback,between Deer- 
iicld and North wood, and Fort 
mountain on tbe W., are the prin- 
cipal elevations. In the W. part 
of this town, on the southerly side 
of a ridge of rocks which extend 
3-4 of a mile, is a natural formation 
in the rock, for sixty years desig- 
nated as the <* Indian Camp.*' Its 
sides are irregular, and the top is 
covered by a canopy of granite 
projecting about 14 feet, affording 
a shelter fi*om the son and rain. 
On the £. side of this camp is u 
natural flight of steps, or stones 
resembling steps, by which per- 
sons may easily ascend to the top 
of the rock. Decrfield was once 
a place of favorite resort for deer, 
great numbers of which were tak- 
en. While the petition for the 
town was pending, a Mr. Batchel- 
der killed a deer, and presenting it 
to Gov. Went worth, obtained the 
act under the name of Deer-field. 
The town was settled in 1756 and 
1758, by John Robertson, Benja- 
min Batchelder and others. Dur- 
ing the Indian wars the inhabitants 
lived in garrisons, but no serious 
mischiefs were experienced. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 2,086. 

Deerlleldy Mass. 

Franklin co. At the junction of 
Connecticut and Deerneld rivers, 
on the west side of the former, and 
on both sides of the latter. The 
Poeumtuek of the Indians. It is 
95 miles W. by N. fcora Boston, 4 
S. from Greenfield, and 17 N. from 
Northampton. First settled, 166S. 
Incorporated, 1682. Population, in 
1887, 1,952. A very pleasant town, 


and a place of considerable com* 
merco. The manufactures- of this 
place, for one year, amounted to 
$147,190. They consisted of leath- 
er, boots, shoes, cutlery,($100,000) 
chairs, cabinet ware, palm-leaf hats, 
lead pipe, hair clotli aud beds, wug- 
ons and carriages, pocket books, 
wallets,»and corn-brooms. The val- 
ue of wool grown, the same year, 
(18.36) was $2,708. From the 
mountains in this vicinity, delight- 
ful views are obtained. Deerfield 
Mountain is 700 feet above the 
plain. »Sugar Loaf Mountain resiTB 
its conical peak of red sandstone 500 
feet above the river, and overlooks 
the ground of many sanguinary 
battles between the whites and In- 
dians. This is a place of great in- 
terest. While the traveller lingers 
here, enjoying the beautiful scene- 
ry, and hospitality of the people of 
this quiet town, he cannot fail of 
contrasting the present scenes with 
those of former years ; particularly 
with that at Bloody Brook, in 1675, 
when a company of 90 young men 
from the county of Essex were slain 
by ruthless savages. A monument, 
commemorating this event, was 
erected in 1838. 

I>eejrileld River* 

This beautiful and important In- 
dian stream joins the Connecti- 
cut between Greenfield and Deer- 
field. It rises in the high grounds 
of Windham county, near Strata 
ton, Dover and Somerset, Ver- 
mont ; and proceeding in a S. E. 
course, it passes through Monroe, 
Florida, Rowe, Charlemont, Haw- 
ley, Buckland, Shelburne and Con- 
way. The most important tributa- 
ries to this stream are Cold river ; 
a river from Heath and Coleraine ; 
one from Leyden, via Greenfield, 
and a river from Conway. Its whole 
length is about 50 miles. In some 
places Deerfield river is rapid, and 
its banks very precipitous. Its pas- 
sago through the mountains is veij 
curious and romantic» 


Hillsborough cc, 23 miles S. W. 
from Concord, and 22 N. W. from 
Amherst. It is diversified ivith 
hills and valleys; is well watered, 
and its soil is favorable to the seve- 
ral purposes of agriculture. There 
are three ponds, Dudley, Pecker's, 
and Fulton's. The two former are 
sources of the N. branch of Piscat- 
aquo^ river. There are some man- 
ufactures in this town, and bricks 
aro made in a considerable quanti- 
ty. Dccrin^ was incorporated Jan. 
17, 1774. The name was g;iven by 
Gov. John Wcntworth, in honor of 
his wife, whoso maiden name was 
Daring. The first permanent set- 
tlement was made in 1765,byAle3C- 
andor Robinson. Population, 1830, 

Deer Isle, Itle. 

Hancock co. This town is con- 
stituted of three principal Islands-— 
Deer Island, Little Deer Island, 
and the Isle of Haut. They com- 
prise about 17,000 acres, and were 
inhabited before the revolutionary 
war. Incorporated, 1789. Popu- 
lation, 1887, 2,473. The principal 
island lies about 2 miles S. W'. from 
Sedgewick ^ai;bor„and 95 miles £. 
by S. from Augusta*. These islands 
have good harbors., and are well lo- 
cated for the shore fishery. Al- 
though they are situated near the 
sea they produce good crops and 

In Connecticut river, between 
Lyman and Darnet, Vt., are five 
in number. The largest contains 
88 acres. 

Oxford CO. Incorporated, 1807. 
Population, 1897, 1,082. It lies 35 
miIe9''S'. W. by W. from Augusta, 
about 28iS. W. from Paris, and 47 
N. W. from PoKlaad. Denmark is 
finely watere<l by Ssido river and 

several beautiful ponds. The prin- 
cipal business of the inhabitants is 
agricultural, for which they have 
a fertile soil, and which produced, 
in 1837, 2,560 bushels of wheat. 

Deiu&iSy J&Iass* 

Barnstable co. This town crosses 
the rape, and was taken from Yar- 
mouth in 1793. Population, 1887, 
2,750, It lies 8 miles E. by N. 
from Barnstable, and 7 W. from 
Harwich. The first salt produced 
by solar evaporation in this country 
was made in this town, by John 
Sears and others, in 1776. About 
7,000 tons of shipping belong to this 
town, principally engaged in fish- 
ing and coasting, and all manned by 
natives of the town. Bass river, 
rising from a pond, affords a small 
water power. 1 50 «hip-masters be- 
long to this town, sailing from va- 
rious ports in the Union. The pro- 
ducts of the cod and mackerel fish- 
ing, in one year, amounted to $50,- 
899. The manufacture of com- 
mon salt, Epsom salts, vessels, and 
lampblack, amounted to $25)975. 

DeAnysTilley BZe*. 

Washington co. This towii is 
bounded on the S. by Cobseook 
bay, and watered by a river of the 
same name. It Kes 172 miles E. 
N. E. from Augusta, and 22 N. E.. 
from Machias. Population, 1837, 

Desby-y Tt* 

Orleans co. First settled, 1795. 
It is bounded on the N. by Lower 
Canada, and on tho Mem- 
phremagog lake. Clyde river, the 
outlet of Salem pond, afi^rds it a 
good water power. This town is 
very pleasant, level and fertile ;-:— 
it has some manufactures; — the 
fanners are industrious and rear a 
large number of sheep. Derby b 
50 miles N. N. £. from Montpe- 
lier, and 15 N. N.E. from Irasburslu 
Population, 1880, 1,469, 

Mmw Hnu M. The lodiait 
BUM af UA town ms PmHgtam. 
It WB pDrchued of the Indiaus. 
and iDootpcmudiD 18TS. The itir- 
face <rf the town u uoeren, iciiii 
■ome feHile tneadotronlho b>Dhsaf 
the riven. Derbr isvalcred hjthe 
HoumCoiuelc and Niugaluck rivore. 
Depbj LindlDg, Smithville mid 
Homphreysville, are the principal 
place* of busine^i. 

The Landing U on the east nido 
of the Houaatonick, juBt below ilii> 
junction of that rner with tfio 
Nau^tuck, and is 8 mile* N. W. 
Inno New Haven, and 14 Troin the 
mouth of the river at Stratford, on 
Long Island Sound. Vessels of 10 
foet draught of water can pass in 
the Landing, from wbleh wood nnrl 
other commodilies are tnmsporU'il 

Sntitkmllt 15 located in view of 
(he Landing, and commands a bcnn- 
liful ppcKpect. II liB9 extcn<iivG 
maDnfacturea of copper, in ghecLa 
and wire, augurs, carriage aprjn^v 
and'ailetreeg, nails and tackj", flan- 
nels, satinets, and other operaiions 
by ths waters of the NauEatutk. 
passing through a canal of about 
a mile in length. Tb<9 village was 
ceinmeDced in 1834, and Is very 

Hua^reyniUe Is located in a 
Mnail valley, on the Naugata*k 
Hver, about 4 miles from the Land- 
in;. The Hamphreysville Hanu- 
factnriag Company wai tncorpon- 
ted in 1810. Tba building u 4 ■to- 
nes high andlOU feetlong. In lbi> 
village and anund it i> aaaif of th^ 

rj in Kew Eneland. This viira;;.- 
dcri««i its nana from the Ho-n. 
DkvtD HinfPBneTa, a native ',( 
I>eTbr, a poet, aa i 

tovBili^ takm 6«ai LBniM<>n» 
ini9«S. Th«prindp«l nuuhn. 
turrs are linen Ihrvad and flMk, 
palm-leaf hall and sh«p«. The 
village in vrry hanit<uuip, and • 
"reat thorough fare I'of Irjtrellrnk 
The schI is very pruduclive. and ibM 
inhabiianltan' n'uiarkahlo fur ihoir 
industry, itenoral wrulih and luif 
seviiy. Ihrry lies IS mllra W. 
S. W. front txctor. and 31 S. U, 
from CoiK'onl. PopulalloHi IMO, 


Penolmcol rn. Thin town wu 
lirst selllcd In IMUI. InnirlHiraliid, 
ISIS. It tics «1 niltun N. v. from 
Aujuwa, nml U N. W. from linn- 
gar. I'opulaticin,lH»T, l,4Ul. l)i>l' 
lor is a vniuabtii lowniliip of iulid. 
Tho rirrrium rvH|i a rich n-ivaril liir 
Ihcir lalioni. In IHXt, IIKK) hliahuU 
sf whi'at wiuralud. In this iiiwu 
Ik a pund covurlng; SOU aFri^i, at 
tho outlet of which ara uillio and a 
beautiful vlllajce, 

DlMuond RiTer, ff. II. 
Diamonil river ha« ll) pritiripal 
"oureo in Diamond pott't, In Hluw- 
irUlown. Krr^n thviKin U pawait 
Ihroueh Uixvillo, and aOer riti'clv- 
ing several Iriliutarien, falls Irilii lli« 
Dead river ni:ar lu juncllun wilh 
ihe Marian aw ay. 

mghimm, VUmn. 
Brirtol CO. A port of nntry.nn 
a weilsidnnrTautilDn rivnr, MpiCM 
■He to Berkley, fupulatiofi, 11-IT, 
1,15^. 40 miles K. frotu Hmton, It 
S. from Taurilon, and Xfl .\. W. hy 
W. from .\ew hedlonl. Tlwrxar* 
in this place thrte cMumi firMrin, 
■■i wookn mill, a lunur.K, atcl Mlier 
imo work<i. laniu%K of lb* '(ii- 
irict,B,ii32i«n<. ThK niAr.A •• W\ie\i. 
foD Hock," m called, on whif h am 
rnscriplion* •iiftcult la dcKyiiher, 
ia (act Hr* M tb« UKtkky tuit. i4 
tb« river. The vafiM «r cfUim %mi 
mm>\tiu ^Mtt, ImlM awl tliMf, 
pill tnm tad wMdcs war* m-^tutr 


Pictured, and ressels built in Digb- 
ton, in one year, was $30,000. 

Dixfieldy Me* 

Oxford CO. Thi^ is a good farming 
town on tlie north bank of th3 An- 
droscoggin river, 42 miles N. W. 
by W. from Augusta, and 26 N. by 
£. from Paris. Incorporated, 1803. 
Population, 1837, 1,148. In 1837, 
5,522 bushels of wheat was raised 
in Dixfield. 

Dixmioiity Me. 


Penobscot CO. This town deriv- 
ed its name from Dr. Elijah Dix, 
late of Boston, one of the original 
proprietors, and from a hill or moun- 
tain in the town, beautifully wood- 
ed to its summit. It is on the height 
of land between the Kennebec and 
Penobscot. The suKace of the 
town is undulating ; the soil excel- 
lent and of easy cultivation. It an- 
nually produces large quantities of 
hay, some corn, rye and wool. — 
In 1837, a bounty of $649 40 was 
obtained for raising 932 1-2 bushels 
of wheat. There is a pond in the 
town and some mill privileges. 
Dixmont lies 44 miles N. E. from 
Augusta, and 24 S. W. from Ban- 
gor. Incorporated, 1807. Popu- 
lation, 1880, 1,323. 

Dlxville, Sr . H., 

Coos CO., was granted in 1805, 
to the late Col. Timothy Dix, 
jr., of Boscawen. It comprises 
31,023 acres of uneven land. Nu- 
merous streams meander through 
this town from the surrounding 
heights. Dixville lies about 40 
miles N. N. E. from Lancaster, 
[n 1810 it had a population of 12 ; 
and in 1830, of only 2. 

Dorcliester, Si*. If., 

Grafton co., is situated on the 
highlands between Ccnnecticut 
and Merrimack rivers, 12 miles 
from' the former, and 8 from the 
latter. It is 23 miles S. by E. 
from Haverhill, 50 N. W. from 

Concord, and 90 N. W, by W. from 
Portsmouth. The principal streams 
arc the S. branch of Baker's river, 
a branch of Mascomy, and Rocky 
branch. There are two considera- 
ble ponds, both in the W. part of 
the town. The soil in same parts 
ii very fertile ; particularly the in- 
tervales on the branch of Baker's 
river. The highlands are very un- 
even, and the greater part rocky. 
First settled about the year 1772. • 
Population, 1830, 702. 

Doreliettery Mass. 

Norfolk CO. This ancient and 
respectable town lies on Dorches- 
ter b^y, in Boston harbor, 5 miles S. 
from Boston, and 7 N. £. from Ded- 
ham. Population, 1837, 4,664. It 
was first settled by a party of Puri- 
tans from England. These pilgrims 
landed from the ship Mary and 
John, at Nantasket, on the 11th of 
June, 1630, and on the 17th day of 
that month they located themselves 
at the Indian Mattapan, and called 
it Dorchester, in honor of their pi- 
ous and learned friend, the Rev. 
John White, of Dorche^er, 120 
miles W. from London. Tile town 
was incorporated on the 7th of 
September following, and included 
most of the territory of the towns 
of Milton, Canton, Stoughton, Sha- 
ron, and that part of Boston on which 
stand " Dorchester Heights," me- 
morable for their sudden conversion 
into a fortress, for the protection of 
Boston harbor, by order of Wash- 
ington, on the night of March 4, 
1776. These lands were obtained , 
from the Indians by purchase, not 
by combat. The present limits of 
the town arc about 6 by 8 1-2 
miles. Dorchester furnished pio- 
neers for the settlement of many 
parts of the country. A party from 
this town crossed the trackless wil- 
derness in 14 days,and settled Hart> ^ 
jfordj on Connecticut river, in 1636. \ 
In 1695, another party emigrated ^ 
from this place, and settled Dor- 
chester, in South Carolina, tad ai^ 


torwards Medway, in Georgia^ The 
■oil of Dorchester is rocky, but ve- 
ry fertile and under a high state of 
cultivation. It is exceedingly pro- 
ductive, particularly of vegetables, 
fruits and flowers. Its surface is 
greatly variegated, presenting a 
continual succession of picturesque 
and delightful views of the coun- 
try, city, and sea. its hill-tops and. 
valleys are decked with farm hou- 
ses and tasteful villas, and nO'Where 
can be found the union of town and 
country enjoyments more complete. 
The beautiful Neponset washes the 
whole of the southern border of 
the town, and besides its navigable 
privileges, afibrds it.a large and val- 
uable water power. The first wa- 
ter ipill in America was erected in 
this town, in 1633 ; and here, about 
tiie same time, the cod fishery, the 
boast of New England, was first 
commenced. There are now 4 ves-^ 
sels employe<l in the whale, and 16 
in the eod and other fisheries. To- 
tal tonnage, 2,210 tons. Capital 
invested, $190,000. Product, in 
one year, $138,349. The manu- 
facturot of Dorchester consist of 
cotton goods, boots, shoes, hats, pa- 
per, cabinet ware, block tin, tin 
ware, • leather, wearing apparel, 
0oap, candles, chocolate, and play- 
ing cards ; the aggregate amount of 
which, in one year, was $457,400. 
The first settlers of Dorchester 
came aregularlyorsranized church, 
with Its pastor and officers. They 
floon erected a house of public wor- 
ship ; but it is a singular fact that 
'*none can tell the precise spot 
wliere tiie first meeting-house was 
located, nor does a single stone re- 
main to designate the site of the 
original burying ground." There 
are, however, some mementos of, 
dden times. The earliest date in 
the present ancient cemetery that 
ean be distinctly traced,is 1644. We 
copy the following from among ma- 
ny singular effusions, found on the 
grave-stones in that cemetery, in 
amunemoration of the dead. 

'' Here lies our Captain and Mi^or of 

Suffolk was withal, 
A Godly Magistrate was he and Ma* 

jor General, 
Two troops of horse with him here 

came, such worth his love did crave, 
Ten companies of foot also, mourning 

marchcKi to his grave. 
Let all that read be sure to keep the 

faith as he lias done ; 
With Christ he lives now crowned, his 

name was Humphrey Atherton.'^ 

On the grave of three brothers, by 
the name of Clarke, 

'' Here lies three Clarks, their accounts 

are even, 
Entered on earth, carried up to heav- 



Johnson, in his " Wonder Work- 
ing Providence," thus speaks of 
Dorchester in 1654. 

" The forme of this Towne is al- 
most like a Serpent turning her 
head to the Northward ; over 
against Tomp<ion''S Island, and the 
Castle, her body and wings being 
chiefly built on, are filled some- 
what thick of Houses, onely that 
one of her Wings is elift, her Tayle 
being of such large extent that 
Shee can hardly draw it after her. 
Her houses for dwelling are about 
one hundred and forty; Orchards 
and Gardens, full of Fruit-trees, 
plenty of Corne Land, although 
much of it hath been long in tillage, 
yet hath it ordinarily good crops ; 
the number of trees are near upon 
1500. Cowes and other Cattell of 
that kinde about 450. Tlfus hath 
the Lord been pleased to increase 
his poore dispersed people, whose 
number in this Flock are near about 
150. Their first Pastor called to 
feede them was the Reverend and 
godly Mr. Maveruck." 

Among the first settlers of Dor- 
chester was George Minot, a rul- 
ing «lder of the church for thirty 
years.* He erected a dweDing-house 
in that part of Dorchester where 
the pleasant village of Neponset 
now stands. That house is now 
staxidilig, and is douhtless one of 


the oldest houses in the country. 
It is in good repair, and has ever 
remained in possession of Mr. Mi- 
not's lineal descendants. Mr. Mi- 
not died December 24, 1671, aged 
78. This house is more celebrated 
for the female heroism displayed 
within its walls, than for its anti* 
quity. A party of Narraganset In- 
dians, hunting on the borders of Ne- 
ponset river, stopped at elder Mi- 
not's house and demanded food and 
drink. On being refused they 
threatened vengeance, and the sa- 
chem, or chief of the party, left an 
Indian in ambush to watch an op- 
portunity to effect it. Soon after, 
in the absence of all the family, 
except a young woman and two 
small children, the Indian attacked 
the house and fired at the young 
woman, but missed his mark. The 
girl placed the children under two 
brass kettles and bade them be si- 
lent. She then loaded Mr. Minot*s 
gun and shot the Indian in the 
shoulder. He again attacked the 
house, and in attempting to enter 
the window, the girl threw a shovel 
full of live coals into his face and 
loilged them in his blanket. On 
this the Indiftn fled. The next day 
he was found dead in the woods. 
The Indian's name was Chicka- 
taubut, but not the Narraganset sa- 
chem of that name. The govern- 
ment of Massachusetts bay present- 
ed this brave young woman with a 
silver wristband, on which her name 
was engraved, with this motto, — 
** She slew the JVarrhaganset hun- 

Dorsety Tt. 

Bennington co. This town was 
first settled in 1768, and organized 
the following year. Paulet and 
Battenkill rivers rise in this town, 
and, with the waters of Otter creek, 
which pass the. northern part, afford 
some mill privileges,which are used 
for manufacturing purposes. There 
are two mountains partly in this 
town* the Dorset and Equinox. 

There is a cavern in the south part 
of the town of some note. It is 
entered by an aperture nearly 10 
feet square, " which opens into a 
spacious room nine rods in length 
and four wide. At the further end 
of this apartment are two openings 
which are about 30 feet apart. The 
one on the right is three feet from 
the floor, and is about 20 inches by 
six feet in length. It leads to an 
apartment 20 feet long, 12 wide and 
12 high. From this room there is 
an opening sufficient to admit a man 
(o pass through sideways about 20 
feet, when it opens into a large hall 
80 feet long and 30 wide. The 
other aperture from the first room 
is about as large as a common door, 
and leads to an apartment 12 feet 
square, out of which is a passage to 
another considerable room, in which 
is a spring of water. Thb cavern 
is said to have been explored 40 or 
50 rods without arriving at the end.'* 
Dorset lies 26 miles N. from Ben- 
nington and 91 S. S. W. fit>m Mout- 
pelier. Population, 1880, 1,507. 

Douglas, Mass. ' ^ 

Worcester co. This town lies 
47 miles W. S. W. from Boston, 17 
S. E. from Worcester, and 21 N. 
W. from Providence. Populatio|i» 
1830, 1,742. Here is good mead* 
ow land, iron ore, and valuable 
water privileges on Muraford river. 
In this town was manufactured, in 
1886, $55,000 value of cotton goods; 
boots and shoes, $5,250; leather, 
$1,500 ; and $116,400 of axes and 
hatchets; besides large quantities 
of hatchet handles and shoe lasts. 
Incorpoitited, 1731. 

Dover, Me* 

Piscataquis co. Bounded N. by 
Piscataquis river, S. by Garland, 
W. by Sangerville and E. by Atkii^ 
son. It lies 77 miles N. by E. from 
Augusta, and about 85 miles N. W. 
from Bangor. Incorporated, 1822. 
Population, 1887, 1,042. Dover if 
the shire town of this new couAt|F» 


•Dd remarkable for its beauty. It 
produced, in 1837, 10,290 bushels 
of wheat 

Dover, Ji, H* 

This is one of the most interest- 
iug and important towns in New 
Hampshire. It is one of the county 
towns of Strafford county, and lies 
40 miles £. from Concord, 12 N. 
W. by N. from Portsmouth, and 45 
S. W. from Portland. Population, 
1830, 6,549. The principal strcuiris 
of DoFer, are the Cocheco, and 
Bellamy Bank, or Back river. They 
take a S. £. course through the 
town, and unite with other waters 
to form the Piscataqua. 

Cocheco t or Quoehecho river, 
has its rise from several small 
streams in New Durham, which 
unite in Farmington, whence the 
river meanders throusch Rochester, 
there receiving; the Isinglass, a trib- 
utary, and thence passes through 
Dover into the Newichwannock,nr 
Salmon Fall river, the principal 
branch of the Piscataqua. The 
Cocheco is a beautiful river, and 
very important to the inhabitants of 
Rochester and Dover. Passing over 
this town in any direction, the trav- 
eller finds no rugged mountains, nor 
extensive barren plains, but occa- 
8ion.ilIy ascends gentle swells of 
land, from the height of which the 
eye meets some delightful object; 
a winding stream, a well cultivated 
farm,, or a distant village. In the 
S. part of the town is a neck of 
land about 2 miles long and half a 
mile broad, having Piscataqua on 
one side, and Back river on the 
other. From the road on either 
hand, the land gradually descends 
(o the rivers. It commands a very 
ielightful, variegated, and exten- 
sive prospect of bays, adjacent 
shores, and distant mountains. On 
this neck the first settlement of 
the town was made, in 1623, by a 
company in England, whose design 
it was to plant a colony, and estab- 

lish a fishery around the Piscati* 
qua ; for which purpose they sent 
over, with several others, Edward 
and William Hilton, fishmongers, 
of London. These men commenced 
their operations on the Neck at a 
place by the Indians called Wini" 
c?iahanat, which ihey called JVbr/A- 
am, and afterwards Dover, For 
several years, this spot embraced 
the principal part of the population 
of tlie town ; here was erected the 
first meeting-house, afterwards sur- 
rounded with an entrenchment, and 
iiankarts, the remains of which are 
still visible ; here the people as- 
sembled to worship, and to transact 
their public business. In process 
of time, the business and popula- 
tion of the town began to centre 
around Cocheco falls, about 4 miles 
N. \V. from the neck. These falls 
are in the river whose name they 
bear, and give to the water that pas- 
ses over them a sudden descent of 
32 1-2 feet. Situate at the head of 
navigation, about 12 miles from the 
ocean, having a fertile country on 
the north, we^t, and south, they are 
considered among the most valu- 
able in New England. Around 
these falls the beautiful village of 
Dover is situated, containing many 
handsome buildings. 

The Dover "Cotton Factory Com- 
pany,'* at Cocheco falls, was incor- 
porated in 1820. They have one 
brick mill of 420 feet by 45, 7 stories 
high, and two other niilln of the 
same material, 154 by 43 feet, one 
5 and the other 6 stories high. — 
These mills contain 25,040 spindles 
and 768 looms, and manufacture an- 
nually 5,000,000 yards of cotton 
cloth ; the principal part of wliich 
is bleached, and printed into calico 
by the company. Thi* company 
employ a capital of more than a 
million of dollars, and about 1,000 
persons. There are other manu- 
facturing establishments at Dover, 
but thU is the principal. 

/^ society of Friends was estab* 


lished here at an early period, and 
formerly comprised about one third 
of the population. 

A congregational church was or- 
ganized in 1688. A Mr. Leverich, 
a worthy puritan, was their first 
minister, and probably the first or- 
dained minister that preached the 
fospel in New Hampshire. Mr. 
•everich soon removed, and until 
the settlement of the pious Daniel 
Maud, in 1642, the church was 
much oppressed by the bad charac- 
ter of their ministers. 

The Rev. Jeremy Belkxap, 
D. D. the celebrated historian of 
New Hampshire, was ordained in 
this town in 1767. He removed to 
Boston, and was settled there April 
4, 17S7. He died in Boston, June 
20,1798, aged 54. 

This town in its early years was 
greatly frequented by the Indians ; 
and experienced many sufferings 
in theiy repeated attacks upon the 
inhabitants. In 1670, Maj. Wal- 
dron by a stratagem secured about 
200 Indians at Dover, who had at 
times exhibited signs of hostility. 
Seven or eight of them, who had 
heen guilty of some atrocities, were 
immediately hanged, and the rest 
sold into slavery. The Indians 
abroad rega-ded this act of Waldron 
as a breach of faith, and swore 
against him implacable revenge. 
In 1689, after a lapse of 13 years, 
they determined to execute their 
project. Previous \o the fatal night 
(27th of June) some hints had been 
thrown out by the squaws, but they 
were either misunderstood or dis- 
regarded ; and the people suffered 
them to sleep in their garrisons as 
usual. In the stillness of night the 
doors of the garrisons were opened, 
and the Indians, at a concerted sig- 
nal, rose from their lurking places, 
and rushed upon the defenceless in- 
habitants. Waldron,though 80 years 
of age, made a gallant defence, but 
was overwhelmed by the superior 
numbers of his adversaries, who 
literally cut him to pieces. In this 

affair, 28 persons were killed, and 
29 made prisoners. The Indiani 
were soon overtaken and nearly the 
whole party destroyed. 

Dover, Vt« 

Windham co. This town was a 
part of Wardsborough, until 1810. 
It lies 12 miles N. W. from Brattle- 
borough, 17 N. £. from Benning- 
ton, and 120 S. by W. from Mont- 
pelier. The land in Dover i^ high 
and uneven '^ — more fit for pastur- 
age than tillage. It is the source 
ot several branches of West, and a 
branch of Deerfield rirer. Ser- 
pentine and chlorite slate are found 
here. Population, 1830, 831. 

Dover, Mans* 

Norfolk CO. Dover lies 5 miles 
W. frdm Dedham, and 14 S. S. W. 
from Boston. It was taken from 
Dedham in 1784. This town is 
bounded northerly by Charles liver, 
and in it are manufactures of nails, 
iron hoops and rods, ploughs, brash- 
es, boots and shoes. Total amount 
of manufactures in 1886, $99,558. 
The surface of Dover is unevett, 
and a large part of it covered with 
wood.' Population, 1887, 518. 

Domrn Bast, Me. 

We crave the favor qf a letter 
from our friends "Down East" 
See Barnard, Me. 

Dracat, Illau* 

Middlesex co. Dracut is united 
to Lowell by a bridge over Merri- 
mack river. The town is pleasant)- 
ly situated on the N. side, on the 
line of N. H., with a tolerable boU 
and some water power, by Beaver 
river. It lies 27 miles N. from Bos- 
ton, and 16 N. by E. from Concord. 
Incorporated, 1701. Population, 
1837, 1,898. The manufactures (Sf 
Dracut consist of woolen goods, 
leather, cutlery, boots and shoefl. 
Annual amount, exclusive of wool* 
en goods, about $25,000. 


Uncoln CD. On the E. bank of 
Kennebec river, near the head of 
Swan laland, » miJea N. W. fram 
Wigeasset, U 8. from Augusta, and 
69 N. £. from Portlani]. This ia a 
l3r|^ agricultural toiriuhip, with 
■Dme trade nn the river. Previous 
to the division of the count;, in 
1T89, Dresden was the shire town 
or plice where all the rourts in 
Maine were holden, £. of Kenne- 
bec river. Dresden was incorpo- 
rated as a town in 1T94. Popuia- 
(ion, 183T, 1,670. 

DrefnvUle, S, H. 
See Walpole. 

DnbUn, IT. H. 
Cheshire co. It ia 10 milei E. 
.^ by 8. from Keene, and HO S. W. 
• ' from Concord. Dublin is situated 

- on the heightof land between Con- 
oecHcat and Merrimack rivers. Its 

'. dreams are ainal) ; those on the W. 

tide run into the Ashuelol, (liose on 
i the E. into Conloocoot river. The 

fain which fills .on the roof of the 

- church ia shared by the rivers. — 
^ There is a pood near the middle of 

die ti>wa called Centre pond, one 
^ mile in length and about the same 
_ in breadth. A large portion of the 
;■ Grand Monadnockliesinlhe N.W. 
,^ [lart of Dnblin, and near the cen- 
,. (re of the town is Breed'd moun- 
tain. Moaadnock was formerly co- 
' vered with a growth of small lim- 
her and shnibbf ■ - 

T it a 




bushes, which produce great quan- 
tities of fruit of a very rich flavor. 
The season for ripening is the tat- 
ter part of August, and (o those 
who ascend the summit at this sea- 
son they are peculiarly grateful. 
This motiataiD is not dilEcuil of ac- 
cess. The view from its sammlt 
la subUme. Its hei^htia 3.718 Teat 
above the level of the a«k' The 

laikd in general i« much better ftr 
grazing than tillage. The late Rev. 

EdwaiS Sprague bequeathed near- 
ly 8.0U0 dollars for the support of 
public Bchoola, the annual interest 
of which is to be applied Co this ob- 
ject. He alsoleftthctown $B,UOO, 
the interest of which, paid quarter- 
ly, is to be applied to the support 
of an ordained congregational mia- 
iiter, who sfaall ilatedly preach in 
Dublin. The first aettlemonla were 
in 1T62, by John Alexander, and 
others. Population, 1B30, 1,218. 
Dadlcy, Mbh. 

Worcester co. This good farm- 
ing town was called by the Indians 
Vkabanakimgkomum. It Is finel; 
walked by the Quinncbaug and 
Other streams, and po.ise^aea excel- 
lent mill privileges. During the 
year ending April 1 , 1S3T, the vaU 
ue of the inanufjcluros of Dudley 
amounted lo $:{.l6,3a6. The arti- 
cles ntnniifictiired were w<>o1en 
goods, leather, 'hoes, scythe snnit ha, 
ohairi, amt caliincl ware. The val- 
ue of wool grown nas jll,689. 

Dudley lies &d mllea S. W. from 

Boslon, 18 !j. from Worcester, and 

31 N. W. from Providence. Incorpo- 

t&ted, 1T31. Population, 18ST, 1,41B. 

Duke** Conntr. Blau. 

Bdgarton is the county town. 
ThiA county Is formed of the isludi 
of Martha's Vineyard, Chappe quid- 
die, Elizabeth Islands, and No 
Man's Land — (he latter of which 
ia Iho southern extremity of Mas- 
sachusetts. These islands lie off 
and S. of Barnstable county and 
Buzzard's bay, and contain about 
120 square miles. The principal 
island, Martha's Vineyard, the In- 
dian JVope, or Capaieock, was Grat 
actded by the whites, at Edgarton, 
in 1611, and is 21 miles in length 
and 6 in breadth. Although a large 
portion of this county is woodland, 
and many of the people engaged 
in the fisherioa and coasting tr^t, 
yet coD^dBrable exporta ar« anitn* 


tlly made of wool, woolen cloth, 
salt and grain. This county suffer- 
ed much during the revolutionary In 1778, the people were 
compelled to surrender their lire 
arms and 2,300 head of cattle to the 
British. Incorporated, 1695. Pop- 
ulation, 1820, 3,292; 1830,3,518; 
1837, 3,785: 32 inhabitants to a 
square mile. There were on these 
islands, in 1837, 11,281 sheep. 

Coos CO., is bounded N by Mills- 
field and Errol, and comprises 23,- 
040 acres. It was granted March 
8, 1773, and is watered by the Am- 
monoosuck and Androscoggin. — 
Population, 1830, 65. 

Dunuikerstoiiy Vt« 

Windham co. West river passes 
through this town and gives it a 
good water power. The surface is 
rough and hilly, but adapted to graz- 
ing. Black mountain, near the cen- 
tre, is a vast body of granite. Good 
slate for «buildiugs, and primitive 
limestone are found. There are in 
Dummerston some manufacturing 
concerns.and a considerable number 
of sheep. Population, 1830, 1,592: 
90 miles S. from Montpelier, and 8 
S. £. from Newiane. 

Dimbartoi&y "N, H. 

Merrimack co. This town lies 
9 miles S. W. from Concord, and 7 
S. E. from Hopkinton. Population, 
1830, 1,067. The situation of the 
town is somewhat elevated, though 
there stre but few hills, nor any 
mountains. The air is clear, the 
water is good, and the health of its 
inhabitants is seldom interrupted by 
sickness. The soil is good, pecu- 
liarly suited for corn, wheat and or- 
charding.^ Almost every lot in town 
is capable of making a good farm. 
The farmers here Have good build- 
ings and are excellent husbandmen. 
The advantages in point of water 
privileges are not great. The in- 
aiAitants ara principally descend- 

ants of Scotch Irish, so called, from 
the North of Ireland. Their pos- 
terity still retain many traits of 
character peculiar to that people. 
Dunbarton was granted in 1751, to 
Archibald Stark and others. Its 
present name is derived fiom DutA* 
barton,in Scotland, from whence 
Stark emigrated. The first settle- 
ment was made about 1749. Wil- 
Ham Stinson, born in Ireland, came 
to Londonderry with his father. He 
was much respected and was a use- 
ful man. James Rogers was from 
Ireland, and father to Major Robert 
Rogers. He was shot in the woods, 
being mistaken for a bear. 

Dunmore I^akey Vt« 

See Salisbury. 

Duustabley Miunu 

Middlesex co. Nashua river wa- 
ters the N. W. part of the town, 
and passes into Nashua, N. H. The 
surface of the town is level ; — some 
part of it is good land, but general- 
ly it is light and sandy. It has no 
manufactures, and only 315 sheep. 
Population, 1837, 5t0. Incorpora- 
ted, 1683. Dunstable lies 27 miles 
N. W. from Boston, 18 N. by W. 
from Concord, and 6 S. from Nashua. 

Durliain, He* 

Cumberland co. Located on the 
S. side of Androscoggin river, and 
united with Lisbon by a bridge. 
This is a township of good land, and 
farming is the principal occupation 
of the inhabitants. Durham lies 
25 miles N. from Portland and 31 
S. W. from Augusta. Population, 
1837,1,832. Incorporated, 178d. 

Strafford co., is 32 miles E. by* 
S. from Concord, 11 W. N. W. from 
Portsmouth, and 7 S. from Dover. 
Population, 1830, 1,606. The situ- 
ation of this town, upon the Piscat- 
aqua and its branches, is very favor- 
able both as to water power and 
transportation. Oyster river* one of 


the branches of the Piscataqua, is- 
sues from Wheelwright's pond, in 
Lee, and after running nearly its 
whole course in Durham, furnishing 
in its progress several convenient 
mill seats, falls into the main river 
near Piscataqua bridge. This bridge 
is 2,600 feet in length and 40 in 
width. It cost $65,400. The tide 
flows in this branch of the river up 
to the falls Hear the meeting-house 
in the village, where business to a 
large amount is annually transacted. 
This village is a very central depot 
for the lumber and produce of the 
adjacent country. Lamprey river, 
another branch of the Piscataqua, 
runs through the westerly part of 
this town, over several falls remark- 
ably well adapted for mill seats, into 
the town of New Market, where it 
falls into the Great Bay. Upon bolh 
sides of Oyster river, a deep argil- 
laceous loam prevails, which is pe- 
culiarly favorable to the production 
of the grasses, of which very heavy 
crops are cut, and bay is an article 
of considerable export. Extensive 
ledges of excellent granite, with 
which this town abounds,have been 
the source of much profitable em- 
ployment to the inhabitants. A 
large block of detached granite in 
the southeast part of this town was 
formerly placed in a very singular 
situation. Its weight was 60 or 70 
tons, and it was poised so exactly 
upon two other stones as to be visi- 
bly moved by the wind. It was 
some years since dislodged from 
this eltraordinary position by the 
barbarous curiosity of some visit- 
ors. Durham was originally a part 
of Dover ; but soon after its settle- 
ment was formed into a distinct par- 
ish by thf. name of Oyster river, 
from the stream which passes 
through it. From the abundance 
of excellent oysters found in its 
waters, this river probably derived 
its name, and it was a famous ren- 
dezvous of the Indians. For many 
years this place suffered exceeding- 
ly by Indian depredations and mur- 

ders. In 1694, when a large part 
of the inhabitants had marched to 
the westward, the Indians, who 
were dispersed in the woods about 
Oyster river, having diligently ob- 
served the number of men in one 
of the garrisons, rushed upon eigh- 
teen of them, as they were going 
to their morning devotions, and hay- 
ing cut off their retreat to the bouse, 
put them all to death except one, 
who fortunately escaped. They 
then attacked the house, in which 
there were only two boys, beside 
the women and children. The 
boys kept them off for some time 
and wounded several of them. At 
length the Indians set fire to the 
house and even then the boys would 
not surrender till the Indians had 
promised to spare their lives. The 
latter^ however, perfidiously mur- 
dered three or four children, one 
ef whom they fixed upon a sharp 
stake in the view of its mother. 
The next spring the Indians nar^ 
rowly watched the frontiers, to de- 
termine the safest and most vul- 
nerable points of attack. The 
settlement at Oyster river was se- 
lected for destruction. Here were 
twelve garrisoned houses, amply 
sufficient for the reception of the 
inhabitants ; but not apprehending 
any danger, many of the families 
remained in their unfortified houses, 
and those who were in the garrisons 
were indifferently prepared for a 
siege, as they were destitute of 
powder. The enemy approached 
the place undiscovered and halted 
near the falls. One John Dean, 
whose house stood near the falls, 
happening to rise very early for a 
journey before the dawn of day, 
was shot as he came out of his 
door. The attack now commenced 
on all points where the enemy was 
ready. The enemy entered the 
house of a Mr. Adams without 
resistance, where they murdered 
fourteen persons, whose graves can 
still be traced. The house of John 
Buss, the minister, was destroyed 


together with his valuable library. 
He was absent at the time, and his 
wife and family fled to the woods. 
Many other cruelties were perpe- 
trated, when the Indians, fearing 
that the inhabitants from the neigh- 
boring settlements would collect 
against them, retreated, having 
k.lled or captured between 90 and 
100 persons, and destroyed 20 
houses, 5 of which were garrisoned. 
Minute accounts of these disasters 
are given in Belknap's valuable His- 
tory of New Hampshire, to which 
the reader is referred. The first 
preacher who statedly officiated in 
Durham was John Buss; but he 
never was ordained. He died 1736, 
at the age of lOS. Rev. Hugh 
Adams settled March 26, 1718. 

Maj. Gen. John Suljlivait, of 
the revolutionary army, was a res- 
ident of this town, and died here 
Jan. 23, 1795. He was a native of 
Berwick, Me. ; was a distinguished 
commander during the war; was 
president of the state three years, 
and afterwards district judge of 
New Hampshire. On all occasions 
he proved himself the firm support- 
er of the rights of the country. 

Dnrluunt, Ct. 

Middlesex co. This town was 
first settled in 169S. Its Indian 
name was Coginehaug. It lies 7 
miles S. by W. from Middletown, 
and 20 S. from Hartford. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,116. Agriculture is 
the principal employment of the 
people of Durham, for which they 
have rather an uneven but fertile 
soil. << This town has been distin- 
guished many years for a very fine 
breed of cattle. Two oxen, pre- 
sented by some of the inhabitants to 
General Washington, furnished a 
dinner for all the officers of the 
American army at Valley Forge, 
and all their servants. These oxen 
were driven almost five hundred 
miles, through a couutry nearly ex- 
hausted of its forage ; yet one of 
them, a steer, five years old, weigh- 

ed two thoumnd two hundfed 
seventy pounds." ' 

Capt. Israel Camp, a noted psalm- 
odist died in Durham, in 1778. 

Diuton's Islaady If* H« 

This small island in the Merrimack 
at the mouth of Contoocook rirer» 
between Concord and Boscawen» 
has become celebrated on accouirt 
of an exploit of a lady whose nam* 
it bears. On the 15th March, 1698^ 
the Indians made a descent on Ha^ 
verhill, Mass. where they took Mrs. 
Hannah Duston, who was confined 
to her bed with an infant only six 
days old, and attended by her nurse, 
Mary Niff. The Indians took Mrs. 
Duston from her bed and carried 
her away with the nurse and infant. 
They soon despatched the latter by 
dashing its head against a tree. 
When they had proceeded as far ai 
this island, which has been justly 
called Duston's island, on their way 
to an Indian town situate a consid- 
erable distance above, the Indians 
informed the women that they must 
be stripped and run the gauntlet 
through the village on their arrival. 
Mrs. Duston and her nurse had 
been assigned to a family coasiflfcr 
ing of two stout men, three womeOt 
and seven children, or young In- 
dians, besides an £nglish boy who 
had been taken from Worcester. 
Mrs. Duston, aware of the cruel- 
ties that awaited her, formed the 
design of exterminating the whole 
family, and prevailed upon the 
nurse and the boy to assist her in 
their destruction. A little before 
day, finding the whole company in 
a sound sleep, she awoke her con« 
federates, and with the Indian 
hatchets despatched ten of the 
twelve. One of the women whoa 
they thought they had killed made 
her escape, and a favorite boy they 
designedly left. Mrs. Duston and 
her companions arrived safe home 
with the scalps, though their dan* 
ger from the enemy and from fam- 
ine in travelling so far, must h«¥« 


been great Tlie general court of 
Massachusetts made her a grant of 
JS50, and she received many other 
valuable presents. 

Washington co. This town lies 
on the S. side of Onion river, and is 
watered by several of its branches. 
The land along Onion river is good, 
but the greater part of the township 
is mountainous and unfit for culti- 
vation. Duxbury lies 12 miles W. 
from Montpelicr. First settled, 
17d6. Population, 1830, 651. 

DuxbnrjTy Nmbm, 

Plymouth co. This town lies on 
Massachusetts bay in Plymouth har- 
bor. It is 29 miles S. £. from Bos- 
ton and 6 N. from Plymouth. Dux- 
bury a/fords some good land, a good 
water power and a great variety of 
scenery. Its Indian name was Mat- 
akeeset. Ship building, the coasting 
trade and fisheries is the chief busi- 
n' 88 of the place. In 1887, it had 
46 vessels employed in the cod and 
mackerel fishery, the product of 
which amounted to $69,548. Val- 
ue of vessels built, $169,048. The 
value of woolen cloth, leather^)oots, 
shoes, salt, iron, brass castings and 
tinware manufactured, amounted to 
$105,787. Some attention is paid 
here to rearing sheep, and the man- 
ufacture of cordage. 

There is in Dnxbury an apple tree 
noted for its age, size and fruitful- 
ness. It is upwards of a hundred 
years old. It is forty feet in height, 
and itscircuihference, eight inches 
from the ground, is 16 feet. Its 
fruit, in one year, has made 10 bar- 
rels of cider, besides 80 bushels for 
the cellar. Population, 1837, 2,789. 

. Iter's Bay, Me. 

See Steuben, 

Eagle I<ake, Me* 

This large lake is in the county 
of Penobscot, between the Aroos- 
took and St. John's rivers. It is 

connected with some lakea of smal- 
ler size. The general outlet is north 
by Chipquedopskook river, about 14 
miles in length, into the river St. 
John. Great quantities of logs are 
taken to this outlet, sawed and sent 
to New Brunswick. 

East Brldgevrater, Mass. » 

Plymouth co. This town lies on 
a branch of Taunton river, and was, 
until 1823, a part of the ancient 
Bridge water. It is 24 miles S. by 
E. from Boston and 17 S. W. fi-om 
Plymouth. PopulaUon, 1830, 1,653 
^1837, 1,927. East Bridgewater 
has a good water power, and man* 
ufactured the year ending April 1, 
1837, $414,044 value of goods. The 
articles consisted of cotton goods, 
boots, shoes, leather, bar iron, nails, 
tacks, lead pipe, chaises, window 
blinds, sashes and shoe boxes. 

Eastbrook, Me. 

Hancock co. Incorporated, 1837. 
See " Down East,*' 

East Greenvricli, R« I. 

Shire town of Kent co. This 
town was incorporated in 1677, and 
is pleasantly located on Narragan- 
set bay, 13 miles S. from Provi- 
dence, and comprises an excellent 
harbor for ships of 500 tons burthen. 
A number of vessels are owned 
here, and the coasting trade and 
fisheries give employment to many 
of the inhabitants. The town in 
watered by Maskachug and Hunt's 
rivers, on which are cotton roilla 
and other manufactories. The soil 
of the town is rather rough and 
stony, but it yields good crops of 
corn, barley and potatoes. East 
Greenwich is noted for excellent 
fruit and cider. 

The " Kentish Guards" was es- 
tablished here in 1774, and proved 
a nursery of distinguished officers, 
of which the celebrated General 
Nathaniel Greene was one. Across 
the bay, to Bristol, is about 8 miles. 
Population, 1830, 1,591. 


Middlewi CO. A town of cod- 
ridenble trade aod miDnfacturiDg 
enterpriae, on the east side of the 
CaoDoctieut, and tt the outlet ot 
SalmoD rivsr. 11 liealSmileBibore 
the mouth of Connecllcnt river, 14 
( below MiddletowD, and 3D S. S. E. 
fram Harlford. Themiliahill; and 
rocky, and more fit for grazing than 
tillage. Cooiiderable businen It 
doDB bere in the ahwJ iiaber;. itU 
supposed thai more leather is made 
Id this Iban in any other town in the 
sUte. This place has fine water 
privileges, both for navigation and 
manufactures, A abartdistancefrom 
the centre of Ibe town )i a pond 
covering 1,000 acrea. On the river 
fanned by the outlet of Ibis pond, 
the water ia precipElaled over rocks 
nearly 70 feet perpendicular. The 
scenery around these falls is beau- 
tiful, and worthy of particular no- 

1,05s. Tint lattlMl, 1«U, Imam- 
poraud, 1646. The product of Ik* 
end and maekenl fishery la ISM, 
was $80,900. The value of nit. 
boots, ahoea and palm-leaf hati man- 
ufactuicd, Kw f ie,6«l. 

mills in East 

Tliere a 
lure twine. 

Leescille, on Salmon river, and 
Jlftehanienillt, on Moodua river, 
a brnneh of Salmon river, are very 
flourishing settlements. 

This place, ibe Indian Macki- 
inoedui, b remarkable for frequent 
Blight shacks of earthquakes, pro- 
ducing singular noises, which Ibe 
Indians attributed to Ibe snger of 
their goda towards the white men, 
II is said Ibal some valuable geolo- 
gical discoveries have recently been 
made in Ibia quarter. The town 
was first settled ip 16Se,but nolin- 
corporaled until 1724. Population, 
In 1S35, about 3,0Q0. This is Ibe 
blrlh place of many distinguished 
men. The venerable Nalbsnicl 
Emmons, D. D., of Franklin, Mass. 

Bamatahle co., on a nairow part 
sf the cape, 28 miles E. by N. &am 
Binutable. PopuUUon In 18S7, 

Hampshire co. Thia is a pleu* 
aint town on the W. side of Connee- 
ticut river. The Hampalura and 
Hampden canal passes through iu 
In the year ending April I, ISST, 
^,000 worth of laatlng buttOD* 
were manufaclurcd; also collao 
goods, leather, boots and ahoea, to 
the amount of $10,300 ; S miles S. 
from Northampton, Pop. 1687, 7D8. 
East Hu^Ard, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town is sito*- 
ted opposite to Hart&rd, and -con- 
nected with it by a bridg« acnaa 
Connecticut river. The soil of the 
town is generally fertile, but tlie 
allnvial meadows an the border of 
the river, of which there is a larg« 
tract, is of a superior quality. Tlie 
agricultural products of Ihls town 
are very considerable. Hackanun 
river furnishes the lawn with a 
good water power,oo which ti« val- 
uable man ulacluringeslabliibmuiti 
particularly of paper. East Hait- 
ioi-d is iu>ted for ita msnufacturea tai 
former years. The fireC powder 
mill in this country, it is said, WM 
erected here in 1T76. Anchors, 
mill acrewa, nail rods, g;unpowder, 
paper, anuff and glass were manu- 
factured here in 1784. The early 

like tribe of Podunk Indians in thk 
□eigbborhooi!. One aachem com- 
manded two hundred bqwmen. This 
ii a very pieaaant lown. The mala 
afreet, which iavery long and wide, 
is delightfully afaaded by stalely 
elms. East Hartford was taken 
from Hartford in 1784. Fopol*- 
lion, 1830, 3,G37. 

Fut Have 

, Vt. 

Esses C4, Moose river rkos !■ 


^M eafteriy ptrt of fliis town and 
ttM Passttmpsic passes through the 
westerly part. The land is moun- 
tainous and most of it unfit for cul- 
tivation. It lies 45 miles N. from 
Montpelier First settled, 1790. 
Population, 1830, 83. 

Bast IlAvei&9 Ct« 

New Haven co. This town was 
taken from New Haven, in 1785,and 
is connected with New Haven by 
abridge. Population, 1830, 1,229. 
It has good navigable privileges, 
and is watered by Quinnipiac river. 
It has some trade, but the pnncipal 
employment of the inhabitants is 
i^riculture and fishing. 

This was a great resort for the 
Indians in former years. On Orave 
HiU was an Indian fort and ceme- 
tery. Bones of Indians of a large 
size, and domestic and warlike im- 
plements for savage use, have been 
found here. The Indian Wdlt in a 
granite rock, on an island in Stony 
river, is a curiosity. It is about 80 
inches in diameter, very smooth at 
the bottom. It is now about 5 feet 
in depth, but formerly it was deep- 
er. It was evidently formed by 
the attrition of sand and pebbles 
which passed over this rock, it being 
at some former period, the bed of 
the river. East Haven is pleasant- 
ly located, and commands a fine 
prospect of Long Island Sound. 

JSimmt BUnff stouy BT. H« 

Rockingham co. Its soil is of an 
excellent quality, and well adapted 
to the cultivation of grain and grass. 
Powow river crosses the S. W. part 
of this town, having its sources in 
the ponds of Kingston. The town 
was incorporated Nov. 17, 1738. 
Rev. Peter Coffin was settled here 
in 1739. Population, 1330, 442. It 
lies 40 miles S. £. by £. from Con- 
cord, and 20 S. S. W. from Ports- 

East Macl&las, Me. 

Washington co. This is a flour- 

ishing town on Bivigable watsmn 
It was incorporated in 1828, and is 
the eastern part of Old Machias. 
It Hes on both sides of East Machi- 
as river, 149 miles £. by N. from 
Augusta. Population, 1837, 1,282. 
East Machias has a great water 
power, a large number of mills, and 
a very pleasant village. It is ex- 
tensively engaged in the lumber 

EastooLy Mass* 

Bristol CO. Two branches of Taun« 
ton river water this town, on which 
are a woolen and 4 cotton mills, 
and various iron works. The man- 
ufactures consist of cotton and wool- 
en goods, pig iron, iron castings, 
wire, boots, shoes, shovels, spades, 
forks, hoes, cutlery, palm-leaf hats, 
straw bonnets, surveyors' instru- 
ments and shoe pegs: — the value 
of which in one year (exclusive of 
woolen cloth, boots and shoes,) 
amounted to 207,100. The manu- 
facture of shovels, spades, forks and 
hoes, amounted to $108,000. Eas- 
ton lies 22 miles S. from Boston and 
10 N. by W. from Taunton. In* 
corporated, 1725. Population, 1837, 

Bastporty Jlle. 

Washington co. The township 
of Eastport embraces and is consti- 
tuted of Moose, Dudley's, Frede- 
rick and Patmos islands, the chief 
of which, whereon the village of 
Eastport stands, is Moose island, in 
sight of, and but a short distance 
from, Indian and Campo Bello isl- 
ands, belonging to the British. East- 
port is a beautiful harbor in Passa- 
maquoddy bay, on the eastern boun- 
dary of the United States, and no- 
ted for smuggling adventures by 
strangers visiting the place dur- 
ing the embargo and war. It is 
about 7 miles N. by W. from West 
Quoddy Head, 176* E. by N. from 
Augusta, and about 80 E.N. £. from 
Machias. The tide is very rapid, 
and rises 25 feet. There are twa 


long bridges connecting Moose isl- 
and with Dennysville and Perry ; 
each cost $10,000. Eastport and 
Lubec are the chief towns in Pas- 
saraaquoddy bay, and are extensive- 
ly engaged in the fisheries, and the 
trade of the extensive waters of the 
river St. Croix and Bay of Fundy. 
Tonnage of Passamaquoddy bay, 
10,712. Cohseook Bay and its trib- 
utary waters, on the west, give to 
Eastport a large trade in lumber. 
Moose Island contains 2,150 acres 
of rousch land. It was tirst settled 
in 1780. In 1790 it contained only 
244 inhabitants. There are now on 
the Island a handsome village, con- 
taining '60 wharves, 80 stores, 5 
meeting-houses, a United States 
garrison, and 5,000 inhabitants. 

Sast IVindsor, Ct. 

Hartford co. First settled 1680. 
Taken from Windsor, 1768. This 
is an excellent township of land. 
Its extensive meadows on the east 
side of Connecticut river are of 
uncommon fertility and beauty. 
Among the various agricultural pro- 
ducts with which tills town abounds, 
tobacco has been cultivated with 
success, and manufactured. It is 
said that 70,000 bushels of rye has 
been raised in a season. Scantic 
river, a considerable mill stream, 
passes through the north part of 
the town, and gives it the name of 
Scantic. The village of IVapping 
is in the S. E. section of the town. 
The principal street, about a mile 
back of the river, is tlie village, 
running the whole length of the 
town, wide, neatly built and beauti- 
fully shaded. East Windsor lies 8 
miles N. from Hartford. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 2,129. 

X^touy N. H.y 

StrafTord co., lies 60 miles N. 
E. from Concord and 55 N. N. E. 
•from Dover, and is bounded E. by 
Maine. Population, 1830, 1,432. 
The soil of the uplands, which are 
quite uneven, is moderately good. 

and the plains furnish ezcelle^ 
pine timber. There are seveiiu 
small ponds in this town. Eaton 
was granted Nov. 7, 1776, to Clem- 
ent March and 65 others. 

JMLdixkgtoikf Me* 

Penobscot co. This town lies on 
the east side of Penobscot river, 6 
miles above, and N. N. E. from 
Bangor, and 70 N. E. by E. from 
Augusta. The village is pleasantly 
situated at the ** Bend " of the river. 
The soil of the town is good and well 
wooded. It produced, in 1837, 2,414 
bushels of wheat. Population, 183? 

Xldeiiy Me* 9 

Hancock co., situated on the nordi 
part of the island of Mount Desert, 
and taken from the town of Mount 
Desert (which formerly comprised 
the whole island) 1795. First set- 
tled, 1763. Eden lies 92 miles E. 
from Augusta, and about 18 S. by E. 
from Ellsworth. Population, 1837, 
1,024. The town has a good soil, 
good harbors, and possesses great 
advantages for the shore fishery. 
It is said that 500 bushels of cran- 
berries have been picked in Eden 
in a season. Cranberry bles lie 
on the coast, about 3 miles south. 

Xlden, Vt« 

Lamoille co. This township was 
granted to " Col. Seth Warner and 
his associates, our worthy friends,, 
the officers and soldiers of his regi- 
ment in the line of the continental 
army," August 28, 1781. "Our 
friends,** for their patriotic services, 
certainly deserved a better town- 
ship than this, for it is mountainoas, 
rocky and cold ; it is however good 
for grazing, and produces some fine 
beef cattle and sheep. It is water- 
ed by Green river and Wild Branch. 
Several ponds in the town afford. 
good fishing. Eden lies 30 miles 
N. from Montp.elier, and is bound- 
ed S. by Hydepark. Populatioiiy 
1830, 461. 

Dukes CO. County town and 
port of entry on the bluid of Mar- 
tha's Vineyard— 81 niileeS. E.from 
Boaton, 20 N. W. hy W. rrom N»n- 
tuebet, 28 9. E. by E. Crom New 
Bedford, 2D S. from Falmouth, and 
499 (roni Washington. Fi rat set- 
tled, 1641. Incarporatcil, 1671. 
pQpnlBtion,I837,l,62B. Edeartown 
(Old Town) harbor la on Ibe eB9t 
(ld«af the tonn.iD lat. 41° 25' N,; 
loo. 70' 26' W. This township in- 
dodes the fertile islaDd of Chappe- 
are some Indians. This isluud is 5 
miles inloDgtli and 2 l-2in breadth. 
It is very pleasant and forios Old 
Town harbor. Eight whale ships 
belong to this place, and a number 
of coasting vessels. Thia is said to 
be the only place in the state where 
grtnue are native. The value of 
spenn oil imported, in the yeareud- 
Ing April I, 1337, was $eS,fi9S. 
The value of lalt, oil casks, boats 
and hata manufactured the same 
year, was $7,260. The value of 
wool, the product of 2,1SD aheep, 
wai ^],SeO. 

LiDcoIn CO. Thla town is bound' 
«d by Damariscotla river on the £. 
and Sbeepseot river on the W., aad 
lies nearly opposite to Viscasset 
fxima the latter river. 26 miles S. 
S. E. from Augusta. Population, 
tS3T, 1,282. Tbis town enjoys 
Ereat facilitiaa for navigation, the 
fisheries, sbipbuildingai^ the lum- 
ber buriness. It la a place of con- 
tid«rab)e trade, first settled, 1744. 

Popnlatton,1M7, SW. See "Down 

Strafford co. There are severvl 
mountains of considerable elevation 
in this town. The Ossipee river 
passes through the town, over which 
is a loii-bridge. Province pond lies 
between EfSngham and Wake&eld. 
Effingham was settled a few yean 

firior to the revolulion. It naa 
hen known by the name of Lta- 
vitl's Toien. Incorporated, Aug. 
18, 17TS. Effingham borders W. 
on Oasipce lake and E. on Maine. 
It lie^ S8 miles N. £. from Concord 
and 25 N. E. by E. from Gilf«d. 
Population, 1330,1,911. 

Bgreasantf Hbm< 
Berkshire co. A mountainoua 
township, watered by branches of 
Housatonick river. Incorporated. 
1760. 140 milea W. from Boston 
and 16 8. S. W. f^om Lecox. Pop- 
ulalioQ, 1S37, 968. The manufac- 
turea of Egremont eonalit of wheat 
flour, leather, boots, shoes, harness- 
es, stone, (sawed.) chun and cab- 
inet ware. Total amount in one 
year, 929,100. Value of 1,790 
fleeces of wool, (2,710. 

KUMbetk,Cstp«, Ke. 
This celebrated cane lies in the 
of Cape Eiiii 


of Gas. 

Bdlnbvrgb, 1 

Near the pmnl of the c _ 
light-house, BO feet tn height, in 
N. lat. 48" Sy, W. Ion. 70° 11'. 
For the town of Capk Eliix- 

EUHbctlt laUiids, BIliH. 
These islands are attached to 
Dukes county, and lie beiweea 
Buzzard's bay and Vineyard sound. 
They are 16 in number. The larg- 
est. Nasbawn and Nashawenna, are 
lahabiteH. Gosnold, the discoverer 
of Cape Cod, spent the winter of 
1602-a, on one of these Islands. 


TolliDd CO. Ellington wu laken 
frani Easl Windsor in 1786, onr) wav 
thai part or East Windsor called tbe 
Great Marth. Tbe loil is lighi 
knd dry, but considerably fertile. 
It is geoerally level, but the east- 
ern part is billy and mauatainous. 
Formerly the lands in this town 
were held in low esCiniatioD, but by 
the industry of tho people in their 
cultivation ihey have risen in char- 
acter and value. "The scenery in 
this town embraces coDHiderable va- 
riety and Is uncommonly Interesting 
and beautiful." The " Ellingloti 
School" for boys, ^(uated in a ver; 
neat village, is In high repute. Pop- 
iilalioD, 1930, 1,496. EllinetoD lies 
IS miles N. £. from Hart^rd, and 
i* bounded S. £. by Tolland. 

BlUot, Me. 

York CO. This town ties on the 
N. W. of Kittery of which it coQ. 
(tituted a part until 1810. It ad- 
joins Salmon Fall river on the S. 
W. by which it is separated from 
Nevr Hampshire — and h bounded 
N. by South Berwick, and E. by 
York. II is a good farming town 
aud probably contains as great a 
proportion of valuable tillage land 
as any in the county according to 
Its size. . Popnlalion, 1837, 1,859, 
£lliot is 108 miles S. W. from Au- 

EUiaUnile, He. 



Ellis* Blreris. Jtffliiie,is 
tary to the Androscoggin. 
N. of Kuiaford, lu the county oi 
Oxford, and passes through that 
town. Ellis' river, in JVea Hamp- 
thirt, rises oo Ihe E. side of thf 
White mountains. In several sm 
stream?, near (he sources of Pi 
iMdy river, and separating into t 

This beauliftil aheet of trater, 
two miles in length end half a mils 
in breadth, lie* partly in Crallsbury 
and partly in Greeosborough, Or- 
leans county. Its tiorthem outlet 
passes to Blacii river; its oouthen 
to the Lamoille. There are two 
small islands in Ihe lake. This was 
a favorite resort for the Indians, and 
now attracts numerous lovers of fio« 
trout and delightful scenery to iU 

B31(W«rtll, He. 

Chief (onnof Hancock co. This 
is » pleasant and flourishing town 
~T both sides of Unior - — ------ 

good bridge acroat the 
-, 3 miles above the entrance 
of the river into the watera eon- 
ted with Blue Hill bey. The 
: rises at the bridge lOor 12 feet, 
Ellsworth possessei an enviable 
and inland ■ 


:ion of tl 

for this county was changed from 
ne to this place in 1^188. The 
house is eligibly ^tuated on 
the W. side of the river. Ellswortb 
quite an agricultural township. 
It has a good soil, and conmderable 
'tention Is given to the growth of 
heat and wool. I( Ilea 81 miles 
E. by N. from Augusta, and 30 N. 
E. by E. from Bangor. PopulalloB, 
1S30, 1,386—1837, 2,196. 

EUiwnrtli, H, H.> 

GraAon CO., is 52 miles N. N.W. 

from Concord and 20 S. E. from 

"averhill. Population, 1880, IW. 

is a mountainous tract of terrilo- 

■. The most prominent elevatka 

Carr'smountain. Asmall stream 

iiies from West Branch pond and 

runs into the PemigewMset at- 

Campton. The soil, (hough inaoBi* 

parts sterile, produces wheal, ryf 


and com. Maple sugar is made 
here, and clover seed is raised in 
considerable quantities. This town, 
formerly called Th^ecotkicky was 
granted May 1, 1769, to Barlow 


Elmorey Vt« 

Lamoille co. First settled, 1790. 
Elmore li^s 16 miles N. from Mont- 
pelier and 10 S. from Hydepark. 
Population, 1830, 442. There are 
five ponds in this town, the waters 
of which, the town being very high, 
descend partly to Lamoille and part- 
ly to Onion rivers. Some cattle and 
some wool are sent to market. 

SSmbden, Me. 

Somerset co. A fine township 
of land with two pleasant villages, 
on the W. side of Kennebec river. 
Seven Mile brook passes through 
the S. W. corner of the town. — 
Embden produced, in 1S37, 6,400 
bushels of wheat and considerable 
wool. Incorporated, 1804. Popu- 
lation; 1837, 1,048. It is 46 miles 
N. N. W. from Augusta and about 
18 miles N. by W, from Norridge- 

Bnlleldy Me. 

Penobscot co. Incorporated, 
1835. See « Down East" 

JSafleld, N. H. 

Qraflon co. Enfield comprises 
24,060 acres, of which about 2,500 
acres are water. It is 10 miles S, 
£. from Dartmouth College and 40 
N. W. from Concord. Its surface 
is diversified with hills and valleys, 
and watered by a variety of ponds 
and streams, stored with fish of ev- 
ery species common to the country. 
Mascomy pond, which has acquir- 
.ed from travellers the appellation 
of Pleasant pond, is a beautiful col- 
lection of water, 4 miles in length 
and of various breadth, interspersed 
with islands and checkered with 
inlets. Its eastern banks are cov- 
ered with trees; the bills gradually 

rise one above another for some dis* 
tance. Along the western bank, 
between the pond and Mont Calm, 
within a few rods of the water, ex- 
tends the turnpike road, the whole 
distance through a beautiful vil- 
lage, shaded to the N^ on either 
side by a growth of trees. Masco- 
my river empties into this pond in 
the N. W. part. This pond is sup- 
posed to have once been much high- 
er than it now is, and the plain and 
villages to the south are supposed 
to have been the bed of it. This 
fact is sufficiently evident from the 
ancient shore still remaining round 
the pond, about 30 feet above high 
water, and from logs having been 
frequently found 12 feet below the 
surface of the plain once flowed. 
On the W. bank, near the southern 
extremity, is the Shaken' settle- 
ment, situated on a fertile plain. — 
The structure of the buildings, tho' 
not lofty, are neat and convenient. 
They occupy about 1,000 acres of 
land, and their number consists of 
about 240. They are agricultural- 
ists and mechanics. Garden seeds 
are grown, and wooden ware,whips, 
corn brooms, leather, and various 
other articles, are manufactured by 
them with peculiar neatness. See 

Mountain pond, on the summit of 
Mont Calm, is 200 rods long, and 
100 wide. At the outlets of the 
ponds are mills of various kinds. 
The town was formerly called i?c/- 
han^ and was incorporated by char- 
ter, granted to Jedediah Dana and 
others, July 4th, 1761. Population, 
1830, 1,492. 

Knfleldy Mass. 

Hampshire co. Swift river pass- 
es through this town, and adds much 
to its beauty, and importance.—- 
The manufactures of this place, the 
year ending April 1, 1837, amount- 
ed to $182,669. The articles coA- 
sisted of cotton and woolen goods, 
leather, boots, shoes, hats, hoes, 
shingle machines^ palm-leaf hats. 


wool cards, cotton batting and wick- 
iag. The v«'ilue of wool grown 
was $1,090. Enfield lies 71 miles 
W. from Boston, and 15 £. from 
Northampton. Population, 1837, 

JBhafleldy Ct* 

Hartford co. This town was first 
settled, 1631, by emigrants from Sa- 
lem, Mass. : it formerly belonged 
to Mass. and was a part of Spring- 
field. The first bridge across Con- 
necticut river was built in 1808, 
connecting Enfield with Suffield. 
The surface is generally level and 
the soil moist and fertile. The 
street, where most of the inhabit- 
ants reside, is very pleasant, wide 
and well shaded. The village near 
the river was commenced about 
1881, at which the manufacture of 
carpeting is extensively pursued. 
About 120 looms are employed, 
making about 800 yards daily. The 
manufacture of ploughs is also an 
important pursuit in Enfield. It is 
watered by Scantick river. Pop- 
ulation, 1880, 2,129. It is 18 miles 
N. from Hartford, and 8 S. from 
Springfield, Mass. 

ESnglislinuiift's Bay, Ale. 

This bay is a few miles W. of 
Machias bay, in Washington coun- 
ty. It receives the waters of Chand- 
ler's river, a considerable stream : 
it contains a number of islands, and 
fuf nishcs many fine harbors Head 
harbor, an island off Jonesborough, 
is its western limits. 

'Enonb-axgb.f Vt* 

Franklin co. Missisque, Trout 
and other streams give this town 
excellent water privileges, and 
manufacturing establishments flour- 
ish. The surface of the tBwn is 
pleasantly diversified by hills and 
valleys, and well adapted for graz- 
ing. The products of the town are 
cattle, butter, cheese and wool. — 
First settled, 1797. Population, 
1830, 1,660. EiMMburgh Um 48 

miles N. by E. from Mootpeller, 
and 20 N. £. fh)m St. Albans. 

Rockingham co., lies 29 miles S. 
E. from Concord, 20 W. from Ports- 
mouth, and 8 N. W. from Exeter. 
It was formerly a part of Exeter, 
and was incorporated Feb. 12, 1741. 
The town contains 12,760 acres, 
being nearly 20 square miles. The 
soil, in general, is very good, and 
well suited to raise the various pro- 
ductions that grow in the state. 
Lamprey river, at the west, receives 
the Patuckaway, and runs through 
the whole length of the town. 
Another river runs through the N. 
part of the town, and from that cir- 
cumstance is called North river. 
By observations taken at 6 in the 
forenoon, at 1 and 9 o'clock in the 
afternoon, from Fahrenheit's ther- 
mometer placed in the open air, 13 
feet from the ground, and where 
the sun does not shine on the ther- 
mometer, the annual average of 
heat for 10 years in succession, was 
44 1-12<^. During that period the 
annual average of rain that fell, was 
2 feet 10 inches, and of snow, 6 feet 
7 inches. 

William Plumer, one of its 
most distinguished and estimable 
citizens, resides in this town. A 
considerable portion of his lifs has 
been employed in the service of the 
people, in the several stations of 
representative and senator in ^e 
legislature, president of the senate, 
speaker of the house of representa- 
tives, representative and senator in 
congress, and for four years as chief- 
magistrate of the stlte. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,268. 

Merrimack co. This town lies 
12 miles E. from Concord. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,418. The surface of 
the town is generally uneven. The 
principal eminences are called 
M'Coy's, Fort, Nat's, and Notting- 
ham mountains. The soil i» in gea- 


eral gpod, and well adapted for graz- 
ing or grain. G reat and Little Sun- 
cook are the only streams deserving 
the name of rivers. Here are three 
ponds, Chesnut, Round, and Odi- 
ome*s. Brown oxide, and sulphu- 
ret of iron are found, the lattermost 
frequently in its decomposed state. 
Varieties of quartz, feldspar and 
schorl are also found. An alluvial 
deposite has been discovered, which 
has been ascertained to be terra de 
senna ; it constitutes a very hand- 
some and durable paint for cabinet 
work. Epsom was granteid May 
IS, 1727, to Theodore Atkinson and 
others. Like all other frontier 
towns, Epsom was exposed » in its 
early settlement, to the Indians. 

Maj. Andrew M'CLARY,ana- 
tive of this town, fell at the battle 
of Breed's Hill, June 17, 1775. 
Like the illustrious Roman, he left 
his plough on the news of the mas- 
sacre at Lexington, and in the ac- 
tion when he lost his life displayed 
great coolness and bravery. 

Coot CO. This town is situated 
on the W. of Umbagog lake. It 
contains about 35,000 acres,of which 
2,500 are water. Several consider- 
able streams here unite with the 
Androscoggin. Errol was granted 
Feb. 28, 1774, to Timothy Ruggles 
and others. Population, 1830, 82. 
It lies about 30 miles N.N. £. from 

Enringy Mass. 

Franklin co. This township re- 
mained unincorporated until April 
17, 1838. Previously, it had been 
known by the name of ** Crving's 
Grant." It is bounded S. by Mil- 
ler's and W. by Connecticut rivers. 
Erving contains sofDe excellent 
land, and a great water power. The 
year previous to its incorporation, 
the manufactures of the town, con- 
sisting of satinet, boots, shoes,'palm- 
leaf hats, &.c., amounted to $35,- 
I8C. Population, 1837, 292. £r- 


ving lies 95 miles N. N. W. from 
Boston, and 10 £. from Greenfield. 

Essex County, Vt. 

Guildhall is the county town. 
This county is bounded N. by Low- 
er Canada, W. by the counties of 
Orleans and Caledonia, and S. and 
£. by Connecticut river. Area 
680 square miles. This is consid- 
ered the poorest county in the state ; 
but although much of the land is 
hilly and mountainous, there is con- 
siderable good soil, and a large por- 
tion of it is well adapted for grazing. 
There were, in 1836, about 8,000 
sheep in the county, and a consid- 
erable number of beef cattle and 
horses were sent to market. The 
principal streams are the Nulhegan, 
which is exclusively in Essex coun« 
ty; — the Passumpsic, Moose and 
Clyde. Incorporated, 1792. Pop- 
ulation, 1820, 3,334; 1830,3,981. 
About 6 inhabitants to a square 

JBssex Ooimty, Blaws. 

Salem, Ipswich, and JSTewburi/' 
port are the shire towns. This 
county is bounded N. W. by Rock- 
ingham county. New Hampshire, 
S. W. by Middlesex county, E. and 
N. E. by the Atlantic ocean, and 
S. E. by Massachusetts bay. There 
is much good land in this county, 
but its surface is rocky and uneven. 
It has an extensive sea coast, in- 
dented with numerous bays, inlets^ 
and capacious harbors. It is more 
densely populated than any county 
of its size in the United States. It 
has great wealth, and its commerce 
and fisheries are unrivalled by any 
section of country, of its extent, on 
the globe. Population, 1820, 73,930; 
1830, 82,887, and in 1837, 93,689. 
This county comprises an area of 
360 square miles ; — the number of 
inhabitants to a square mile is 260. 
Essex county, altiiough of stubborn 
soil, has many very deligh^ul farms, 
and furnishes great quantities of 
hay and vegetables ibr mi^ket It 


has many beautiful ponds and com- 
manding elevations, and its sea- 
board is the delight of every be- 
holder. However fruitful the cit- 
izens may have rendered the soil 
by their industry, this county is es- 
sentially a commercial and manu- 
facturing section of New England. 
The^tonnage of the five districts, in 
1837, was 85,933 tons. The amount 
of manufactures, for the year end- 
ing April 1, 1837, was $10,216,300 ; 
and the amount of the whale, cod 
and mackerel fisheries, amounted 
to $1,378,144. The principal riv- 
ers in Essex county are the Merri- 
mack and Shawsheen. Essex coun- 
ty was incorporated in 1643, and has 
given birth to some of the most dis- 
tinguished merchants in the United 
States. Among many others may 
be mentioned William Gray, 
IskAEL Thorndike, and Wil- 
liam Parsons. 

EiSsexy Vt« 

Chittenden co. This town as fine- 
ly watered by Onion river on the 
S. and Brown's river, a branch of 
the Lamoille, on the N. It is also 
watered by other smaller streams. 
At Hubbell's falls, on Onion river, 
are admirable mill sites, at which 
are manufactures of some extent. 
The surface of the town is level ; 
a considerable portion of the soil is 
dry and somewhat sandy, but pro- 
duces good crops of com and rye. 
Along Onion river are some tracts 
of beautiful intervale. Essex was 
first settled in17S3. It liesSlmiles 
N. W. from Montpelier, and 8 N. 
N. E. from Burlington. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,664. 

BUiseXy Mass* 

Essex CO. This town lies at the 
head of Chebacco river, running in- 
to Squam bay, 13 miles N. E. from 
Boston, and 5 miles S. E. from Ips- 
wich, from which it was taken in 
1819. Many vessels of 50 to 120 
tons are built in this town, and ma- 
ay small vesseia are employed in the 

coasting trade and the fisheries.-— 
The manufactures of vessels, leath- 
er, boots, shoes, bar iron, barrels, 
coidage, pumps and blocks, in the 
yeai ending April 1, 1837, amount- 
ed to $102,271. The tonnage em- 
ployed in tiie cod and mackerel fish- 
ery was 878 tons. Population, 1837, 
1,402. Essex is a pleasant and 
flourishing town. 

Etiut, Me* 

Penobscot co. This is an excel 
lent farming town with no import- 
ant streams. It lies 63 miles N. E. 
from Augusta, 17 W. from Bangor, 
and bounded by Dixmont on the 
S. Incorporated, 1820. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 362—1837, 626. Etna 
is fine wheat land : it produced, in 
1837, 2,421 bushels. 

Bxeter, Me. 

Penobscot co. Exeter is 65 miles 
N. N. E. from Augusta, and 25 S. W.- 
from Bangor. It was incorporated in 
1811. Population, 1830, 1,438— 
1837, 1,920. At Uie "Four Cor- 
ners," in the northerly part of the 
town, is a pleasant village with eon* 
siderable trade and some mills. The 
people of Exeter in 1837, with a 
soil not above mediocrity, proved 
without effort, by raising 12,058 
bushels of wheat, that the state of 
Maine is abundantly able, by means 
within itself, to supply the whole 
family of Yankees with bread stuffs, 
and have some to spare to their 
western brethren. 

Xlxeter, N. H. 

Rockingham co. This beautiful 
town lies 40 miles S. E. by E. from 
Concord and 14 S. W. from Ports- 
mouth. The compact part o.*" the 
town lies about the falls, which sep- 
arate the fresh from the tide water 
of a branch of the Pi.'^cataqua, call- 
ed ^y the natives Swamscot, and 
now known by the name of Exeter 
river. Above the falls this stream 
assumes the name of Great river» 
to distini^uish it from one of itf 


smaHer branches, called Little riv- 
er. Great river has its source in 
Chester, whence it runs through 
several towns before it meets the 
tide water in the centre of Exeter. 
On this river are many valuable 
mill privileges. 

The Exeter Cotton Manufactur- 
ing Company commenced opera- 
tions April 1 , 1830. Their princi- 
pdl building is of brick, 175 feet by 
45. They have 5,000 spindles, em- 
ploy 212 girls and 40 men and boys. 
They manufacture annually about 
1,400,000 yards of sheeting. They 
consume about 1,200 bales of cot- 
ton, 300 cords of wood and 22,500 
pounds of potatoe starch annually. 
They have a steam engine, 40 horse 
power, to operate when the water 
power fails. This probably con- 
sumes annually about 150 chaldrons 
of Sidney coal. The capital invest- 
ed in lands, buildings, machinery, 
&c. is about ;j^210,000. 

A powder mill has been in ope- 
ration about two years, and will 
manufacture from 130 to 150 tons 
of powder annually. 

The manufacture of potatoe starch 
was commenced in 1824. The es- 
tablishment has been twice burnt, 
but is rebuilt with brick, and starch 
is now manufactured from wheat as 
well as from potatoes. The amount 
of sales of starch and gum is about 
$10,000 annually. 

In the westerly part of the town 
is a paper mill, which manufactures 
paper to the value of $20,000 an- 
nually. The manufacture of books, 
blank books, &c. in Exeter, is very 
extensive. About $100,000 value 
of shoes and boots are made annu- 
ally, and a large amount of leather. 
There are also establishments for 
the manufacture of morocco leath- 
er, carriages, of various kinds, 
brushes, tin and pottery wares. 
The soil of Exeter is in general 
good, though comprehending every 
variety, from that of the best quali- 
ty to the least productive. Like 
mof t towns in the state* it is essen- 

tially agricultural, and the improve- 
ment in the style of husbandry 
has been very great. The number 
of industrious and enterprising me- 
chanics, to whom Exeter is indebt- 
ed for her prosperity, is very rapid- 
ly increasing. See Jles^ister. 

Phillips* academy, in Exeter, was 
founded by the liberal donation^ of 
John Phillips, LL. D.,in 1781, who 
at his death, in 1795, bequeathed to 
the institution a large portion of his 

Beitjamin Abbott, LL. D. 
has discharged the duties of princi- 
pal with distinguished ability for 
more than fifty years. The build- 
ing stands on a plain, near the cen- 
tre of the town, and is well provid- 
ed with accommodations for the 
different branches of instruction, 
and a large hall for declamation and 
the annual exhibitions. 

The settlement of Exeter com- 
menced in 1638, by John Wheel- 
wright and others,who formed them- 
selves into a body politic,chose their 
magistrates, and bound the people to 
obedience. Their laws were made 
in popular assemblies ; and the com- 
bination thus entered into subsisted 
about three years. From 1675 to 
1712, Exeter, like most of the early 
settlements, suffered from the at- 
tacks of the Indians. 

Hon. Samuel Tenxet, M. D 
was an original member of the N. 
H. Medicsd Society, its vice pre- 
sident several years, and a mem- 
ber of congress in 1800 and 1804. 

Gen. Nathaniel Peabodt 
was an original member of the N. 
H. medical society; was a member 
of the old congress ; a senator of 
the N. H. legislature in 1792 \ and 
speaker of the house in 1793. 

Hon. Nicholas Gilman was 
a member of the old congress, and 
a senator in congress from 1805 to 
his death in 1814^ 

Gen. Nathaniel Folsom was 
a member of the old congress, and 
a valuable revolutionary officer. 

Hon. JsRSJCiAB Sm iTH» a na- 

mw felfOLAND GAZirmK 

tire of Peterboroagh, was one of 
the first representatives to congress 
under the Federal eovemment, was 
appointed Judge of S. C. of N. H. 
in 1802, was chief justice, and con- 
tinued such till 1809, when he was 
elected governor. He was appoint- 
ed phiei justice of S. J. C. in 1813. 

Hon. John Tatlor Gilman, 
a descendant of one of the princi- 
pal settlers at Exeter, was an active 
supporter of the revolution ; a mem- 
ber of the old congress ; filled at 
times the offices of representative 
and state treasurer; and for four- 
teen years, between 1794 and 1816, 
was governor of the state. 

Exeter has at all periods of its 
history possessed eminent and use- 
ful men ; and some of the first law- 
yers and jurists, antiquarians and 
scholars, have received their early 
education at its literary institution. 
Population, 1830, 2,759. 

ExetcTi A* I* 

Washington co. This is an agri- 
cultural and manufacturing town, 
situated 24 miles S. W. from Provi- 
dence, atid from its centre about 10 
miles N. W. from South Kingston. 
The town is very large, being 12 by 
6 miles. The surface is much di- 
versified by hills and valleys ; the 
soil is a gravelly loam, and very 
productive of all the varieties com- 
mon to the climate. The products 
of the dairy are considerable. — 
Branches of Wood river give this 
town a good water power, .which 
19 well improved by cotton mills and 
other manufactories. Exeter was 
incorporated in 1748. Population, 
1830, 2,383. 


Franklin co. Bounded S. by La- 
,noiIle river : 37 miles N. W. from 
Montpelier, and 12 S. £. from St. 
Albans. First settled, 1768. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,729. By Parme- 
lee's and Stone's brooks. Brown's 
river, and the Lamoille, this town 
MDrioyaa good wat«r ^wer. Tht 

falls on Lamoille river, itthteplaes^ 
are singular and worthy of the trm 
veller*^ notice. The land is gene- 
rally level and of a good quality. 
A considerable amount of agricul- 
tural products is sent to market, and 
about 6,000 sheep are reared. Thers 
are some manufactures at the falls. 
Fairfax is a place of considerable 

Falrlleld, Me. 

Somerset co. This beautiful town- 
ship is located on the W. side of 
Kennebec river, and S. of Bloom- 
field. Fairfield is the most south- 
em township in the county. It ia 
watered by a small stream running 
into the Kennebec, and by a branch 
of Waterville river. This town is 
favored with a fine soil, and navig*- 
ble privileges to Augusta. It has 
a pleasant village, considerable 
trade, and, in 18§7, produced 11,- 
531 bushels of wheat, and a large 
quantity of wool. Population, 1S37, 
2,203. Distant from Augusta, 20 
miles N., and from Norridgewock, 
10 S. E. Incorporated, 178a 

FOrfield, Vt. 

Franklin co. This town was first 
settled in 1789. It is well watered 
by Smithfield pond, Fairfield river. 
Black creek, and branches of Mis^ 
sisque river, and abounds in mill 
sites. Fairfield has a good Stronf 
stnl and generally suitable for cul- 
tivation. It is a pleasant place, with 
some trade and considerable manu- 
factures. It produces good beef 
cattle and horses, and pastures abeul 
7,000 sheep. Population, 1880, 2,^ 
270. Fairfield lies 45 miles N. W. 
from Montpelier, 27 N. N. £. from 
Burlington, and is bounded W. hf 
St. Albans. 

F^dvfleld Geni&tjry Ct» 

Fairfield and Danbury iu« the 
shire towns. This county is bound* 
ed N. by Litchfield county, N. E. 
and £. by Housatonick river, S. E. 
and 8. by Long Island Souody a4 


W. by the State of New York. This 
is a .fine farming section of coun- 
try, agreeably diversified in regard 
to surface, with a strong fertile soil, 
and possesses great natural agricul- 
tural resources. Fairfield county 
extends nearly 40 miles on Long 
Island Sound, and enjoys great fa- 
cilities for navigation and the fish- 
eries. The beautiful Housatoniek 
washes its northeastern boundary, 
and the Saugatuck, Norwalk, Mill, 
Pequonuck and other rivers afford 
it an ample water power. The man- 
ufacturing interests of the county 
are valuable and increasing. It 
contains mtoy villages of superior 
beauty, and abounds in scenery of 
an interesting character. First set- 
tled, 1639. Area, 630 square miles. 
Population, 1820, 42,739; 1830, 
46^50 ; 75 inhabitants to a square 
mile. In 1837 there were in this 
county about 22,000 sheep. 

Falrfleld, Ct. 

Sbire town, Fairfield co. This 
ancient and patriotic town compris- 
es three parishes, Fairfield, the 
seat of justice, Chreen's Farms and 
Greenfield, Fairfield lies 21 miles 
S. W. from New Haven, and 68 N. 
E. from New York. Population, 
1830, 4,246. Its Indian name was 
Unquowa. The surface of the 
town is undulating and very plea- 
sant. The soil is fertile, well cul- 
tivated and productive of wheat and 
rye, and a great variety of fruits 
and vegetables for New York mar- 
ket Black Rock harbor is safe and 
easy of entrance for vessels draw- 
ing 19 feet of water at common tides. 
The tide usually rises in Long Isl- 
and Sound about 5 feet. There is 
but little water power in Fairfield, 
except that produced by the tide. 
The tonnage of Fairfield district, 
in 1837, was 1 1 ,983 tons. The prin- 
eipal business in navigation is the 
coasting trade. 

In the year 1637, the tract of 
country which now forms the town 
«f Fairfield was discoFcrad by cap- 


tain Mason and tiie troops of Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut under 
his command, when they pursu^ 
the Pequots to the swamp in this 
town, bearing the name of ** Pequot 
Swamp." This is the spot made 
memorable by the great fight that 
took place there, between those 
troops and the Pequots, terminating 
in the almost entire destruction of 
that once powerful and warlike na- 
tion of savages.- There are no In- 
dian marks left by which this 
swamp can be traced as the place 
of their extermination, except a 
mound of earth in the centre of it, 
considered as a place of safety, evi- 
dently the effect of art, with a rais-. 
ed foot path leading from it to the 
surrounding high grounds. In that 
expedition this region attracted the 
notice of adventurers. In the year 
1639 a few families removed hither 
from Windsor, commenced a settle- 
ment, and, in a short period after- 
wards, were joined by several per- 
sons from Watcrtown and Concord, 
Mass. After Connecticut obtained 
her charter, the general assembly 
granted these people a patent, then 
including the towns now Reading 
and Weston. 

Fairfield is distinguished for its 
ardent attachment to American lib» 
erty , and for its sacrifices during the 
contest for independence. In 1779, 
when Tryon, a British governor, de- 
manded a surrender of the town, 
under a threat of its destruction, 
the answer of the inhabitants was, 
*♦ We will never voluntarily lay 
down our arms till we have obtained 
the object for which they have been 
taken up. The village is in your 
power ; plunder and bum it if you 
will, and take along with your plun- 
der the infamy of which it cannot 
be divested.** 

" On the 7th July, 1779, gover- 
emor Tryon, with a large and 
vengeful army, sailed from New 
Haven to Fairfield; and the next 
morning disembarked upon the 
beach. A few militia assembled to 


«ppo86 them ; and, in a desultory, 
scattered manner, fought with great 
intrepidity through most of the day. 
They killed some ; took several pri- 
soners; and wounded more. But 
the expedition was so sudden and 
unexpected, that the effiirts, made 
in this manner, were necessarily 
fruitless. The town was plunder- 
ed ; a great part of the houses, to- 
gether with the two churches, the 
court house, jail, and school houses, 
were burnt. The bams had been 
just filled with wheat, and other 
produce. The inhabitants, there- 
fore, were turned out into the world, 
almost literally destitute. 

** While the town was in flames, 
a thunder storm overspread the hea- 
vens, just as night came on. The 
conflagration of near two hundred 
houses illumined the earth, the 
skirts of the clouds, and the waves 
of the Sound, with an union of 
gloom and grandeur, at once inex- 
pressibly awful and magnificent. 
The sky speedily was hung with 
the deepest darkness, wherever the 
clouds were not tinged by the mel- 
ancholy lusti« of the flames. At 
intervals the lightnings blazed with 
a livid and terrible splendor. The. 
thunder rolled above. Beneath, 
the roaring of the fires filled up the 
intervals with a deep and hollow 
sound, which seemed to be the pro- 
tracted murmur of the thunder, re- 
verberated from one end of heaven 
to the other. Add to this convul- 
sion of the elements, and these 
dreadful effects of vindictive and 
wanton devastation, the trembling 
of the earth ; the sharp sound of 
muskets, occasionally discharged; 
the groans, here and there, of the 
wounded and dying ; and the shouts 
of triumph : tiien place before your 
eyes crowds of the miserable suf- 
ferers, mingled with bodies of the 
militia, and from the neighboring 
bills taking a farewell prospect of 
tiieir property and their dwellings, 
their happiness and their hopes; 
tod ywi will fiiHn a just but imper- 

fect picture of the bnmfaig of Fafaw 
field. It needed no great eflbrf of 
imagination to believe that the final 
day had arrived; and that amid 
this funeral darkness, the morning 
would speedily dawn, to which no 
night would ever succeed; the 
graves yield up their inhabitants ; 
and the trial commence, at which 
was to be finally settled the destiny 
of man. 

«The next morning the troops 
re-embarked; and, proceeding to 
Green's Farms, set fire to tl^ 
church, and consumed it ; togeth^ 
with fifteen dwelling bouses, elev- 
en bams, and several stores.'* 

FalrhATeaiL YU 

Rutland co. First settled, 1779. 
Population, 1880, 676. The soil is 
generally productive, partieularlv 
along the banks of the streams, tt 
is watered bv Castleton and Poah- 
ney rivers, tne former of which re- 
ceives the waters of lake Bomba- 
zine, a large pond between ' Fair- 
haven and Castleton. On these 
streams are considerable falls, and 
mill sites. Fatrhaven lies IS miles 
W. from Rutland, and 9 N. £. from 
Whitehall, N. Y. . 

FalrliAv-eay Mas** 

Bristol CO. This pleasant town 
was taken from New Bedford, in 
1S12. It lies across Acushnett 
river, about a mile east of New 
Bedford. It is united to New Bod- 
ford by abridge 3,960 feet in length, 
and is associated with it in many of 
its enterprises. First settled, 1764. 
Population, 1890, 8,084; 1887, 
3,649. There are 87 vessels be- 
longing to this place engaged in 
the whale fishery, the tonnage of 
which is 11,564 tons. The value 
of whale oil and bone imported in- 
to this place the year ending April 
1, 1887, was $822,272. The num- 
ber of hands employed in the fish- 
ery was 945. Capital invested, 
(957,000. The Acushnett pnjda- 
eas sMie wat8lr-power,ob wmoiilll 

nw BiraLAiiD oAttmnu 

two eotton mills, a paper mill, and 
other operations by water. The 
▼alue of cotton goods, leather, boots, 
ahoes, tin wai'e, vessels, salt, wood- 
en ware, chairs and cabinet ware 
jDanufactured,amoiinted to $40,363. 

Falrlee, Vt. 

Orange co. A rough and moun- 
tainous township, with very little 
productive land, on the west side of 
Connecticut river, and connected 
with Orford, N. H. by a bridge 
across that river. First settled, 
%76S. Population, 1S30, 666. This 
town lies about 17 miles £. S. £. 
from Chelsea, and 31 S. £. from 

Fairlee pond is two miles in length 
and' about three fourths of a mile 
wide. It formerly had no fish. 
Some years ago a gentleman placed 
gome pickerel in it, and the legisla- 
ture passed a law protecting the 
fish from molestation for two years. 
Since that -time the pond has had 
an abundance of pickerel of good 
size and quality. 

FrU River, Mast. 

Bristol CO. This town took the 
name of Troy, in 1808. It was for- 
merly a part of Freetown. In 1834, 
the name was changed to that of 
the river within its borders, at the 
union of which and Taunton river 
Uie town is very pleasanUy situa- 
ted. This town is without a paral- 
lel on the continent of America, in 
regard to the union of hydraulic 
powers (^nd navigable facilities. 
Fall river rises in Wattuppa ponds ; 
one of which is 11 miles in length 
and 1 in breadth. These ponds are 
produced by perpetual springs, and 
lie about two miles east of the town. 
The descent of this river is 136 
feet. The volume of wateV is con- 
stant, not liable to excess, and of 
sufficient power for the largest man- 

The harbor on Taunton river is 
■tfe and easy of access, and of suf- 
ietonl d«|»th of water fiw the lar|p- 

est ships. Six ships from this port 
are engaged in the whale fishery. 
It has also some merchant and coast- 
ing vessels. A marine rail- way was 
constructed here in 1834. 

This town has an abundance of 
fine granite, equal to the Quincy. 
A rail -road is in progress to meet the 
Boston and Providence, at Seekonk, 
13 miles. 

The Poeoiset Hotel, belonging 
to a company of gentlemen, is a 
splendid building, constructed in 
1833. No house in the country af- 
fords better accommodations. A 
regular steamboat line is establish- 
ed between this place and Provi- 
dence:— distance, by water, 28 

. The value of the manufactures 
of Fall River for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, amounted to $2,863,- 
378, exclusive of large manufac- 
tures of machinery, iron hoops and 
rods, stoves, brass, copper, and tin 
wares. The ten cotton mills pro- 
duced 7,767,614 yards of cloth, val- 
ued at $668,028. The woolen mill 
produced 150,000 yards of cloth, 
valued at $180,000. :;The other ar- 
ticles manufactured consisted of 
leather, boots, shoes, iron castings, 
hats, nails, chairs, cabinet ware 
and vessels. The two print works 
printed twelve million yards of cal- 
ico. The number of hands em- 
ployed in all the factories was 1,819. 
The product of the whale fishery, 
the same year, was $68,700. Hands 
employed in the fishery, 120. 

Fall River lies 49 miles S. from 
Boston, 17 S. from Taunton, 14 W. 
from New Bedford, 18 S. £. from 
Providence, R. I. and 190 £. fi*om 
New York. Population, in 1820, 
1,694 ; 1830, 4,159 ; 1837, 6,352.— 
The surface of Fall River is eleva- 
ted, rough and uneven, and consid- 
ered a healthy location for a manu- 
facturing town. 

FKlaaontliy Ho* 

Cumberland co. This is apleas* 
ant town at ttw bead of jCasco bay,* 


6 miles N. from Portland, and 47 S. 
W. from Augusta. It is watered 
by Presumscut river,and lias a num- 
ber of vessels employed in coasting* 
and fishing. The soil on the whole 
coast of Maine is not so fertile as in 
the interior parts of the state, yet 
Falmouth comprises a considerable 
quantity of good land. The town 
was incorporated as early as 1718, 
and included the territory of the 
city of Portland until 1786. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 2,068. 

Faluioutliy Mast. 

Barnstable co. A pleasant town on 
Vineyard Sound. Th^re are belong- 
ing; to this town 9 whale-ships, and 
about 40 sail in the coasting trade and 
fishery. Two streams afford a wa- 
ter power, on which are two wool- 
en mills and other manufactories. 
There are about 40 ponds in this 
town, some salt and some fresh : — 
these, with the views of the islands 
in the Sound, form a variety of 
agreeable scenery. "Wood's Hole" 
harbor, at the S. W. extremity of 
the town, is a good harbor and 
much frequented by vessels, and by 
invalids in search of health. The 
value of oil imported into Falmouth, 
the y6ar ending April 1, 1837, 
amounted to $146,600. The value 
of vessels, salt, woolen goods, boots, 
shoes and leather, manufactured the 
same year, was ^58,657. Falmouth 
lies 71 miles S. £. by E. from Bos- 
ton, and 22 S. W. from Barnstable. 
" Woods' Hole " is 4 miles W.'from 
the centre of the town; and 
«* Holmes' Hole" harbor, on Mar- 
sha's Vineyard, is 6 miles S. Pop- 
ulation^ 1837, 2,580. Incorporated, 

l^mxmintsiton, Me. 

County town of Franklin co. This 
very beautiful town lies 29 miles 
N. W. from Augusta, and is water- 
ed by Sandy and Little Norridge- 
wock rivers. At the union of these 
rivers are excellent mill privileges, 
M/td a del^tful village, the seat 

of justice. Farther up the Sandy, 
about 5 miles, is another beautiful 
village, the seat of a flourishing 
academy. The soil of Farmingtoa 
being of a superior quality, iiit 
inhabitants are induced to devote 
much attention to agricultural pur- 
suits ; yet it is a place of some man- 
ufactures, and considerable trade in 
lumber and other merchandize. 
The agricultural products of Farm- 
ington are various and valu&bte. 
In 1837 it produced 12,406 bushels 
of as good wheat as ever grew oa 
the banks of the Ohio. Incorporate 
ed, 1794. PopulaUon, 1837, 2,50T. 

Strafford co., was formerly a part 
of Rochester, but was incorporated 
as a distinct town, Dec. 1, 1798. 
It lies 36 miles £. N. £. from Con- 
cord, and 17 N. W. by N. from 
Dover. The Cocheco meanders 
through the N. E. part of the town. 
The Blue hills or Frost mountaint 
extend nearly through the town 
under different names. Fr6m the 
summit of the ridge in the S. E. 
part, ships may be seen by. the na- 
ked eye off" Portsmouth Wbor ; 
while to the N. an'd W. the White 
Hills and the Monadnock, with hun- 
dreds of smaller mountains, meet 
the eye of the beholder. There is, 
not far from the village in Farm- 
ington, a rock supposed to weigh 
from 60 to 80 tons, so exactly pois- 
ed on other rocks, that it may be 
caused to vibrate several inches by 
the hand. At the bank of the Co- 
checo, a little more than a mile S. 
E. from the principal village, is a 
place called the Dock, so named 
from the circumstance that the first 
settlers usuall}'^ deposited their lum- 
ber here to be floated down the riv- 
er. This name is some times igno- 
rantly applied to the village. 

Hon. Aaron Wingate, for ma- 
ny years a member of the legisla- 
ture, a counsellor from 1797 to 1803, 
and for sometime chief-justice of 
the common j^Ieas in StraiSbrdU dM 


here in 1822, aged 78 years. Pop- 
ulation, 1S30» 1,465. 

F'mTxaington, €!t, 

Hartford co. The first settlers 
of this town were from Hartford, 
being emigrants from the neighbor- 
hood of Boston, Mass. They loca* 
ted themselves, in 1640, on the lux- 
uriant meadows of the Tunxis, or 
Farmington river, 10 miles W. from 
Hartford. The township was pur- 
chased of the tTunxis Indians, a nu- 
merous and warlike tribe. At its 
incorporation, in 1645, the township 
comprised fifteen miles square ; 
since which the pleasant towns of 
Southington, Berlin, Bristol, Bur- 
lington and Avon have been taken 
from the original territory of Farm- 

Farmington river rises in the high 
lands in the N. part of Litchfield 
county, and after meandering de- 
lightfully through the towns of 
New Hartford and Burlington, in a 
S. £. direction, it changes its course 
at Farmington. to the N., and pass- 
ing Avon and Simsbury to the bor- 
der of Granby, it again tunis ab- 
ruptly to the £. and meets the Con- 
necticut at Wirtdsor. This is a 
beautiful and fertilizing stream, and 
gives to the towns through which 
it passes, but particularly to Farm- 
ington, larg^ tracts of rich alluvial 

Farmington village is a delight- 
ful place, on an elevated plain, sur- 
rounded by high hills. The street 
is about two mile$i in length, beau- 
tifully shaded, an*! contains, be- 
sides two. churches and an acade- 
my, abmit 100 neat dwelling houses, 
some of which are tasteful and ele- 
gant. The Farmington canail pass- 
es through the village. 

Mound Hill, in the meadows, 
near the village, is a natural curi- 
osity. It rises abruptly, to the 
height of 60 feet, is neariy circular 
in its form and covers 12 acres. It 
is thou^t that this hill was former- 
ly an island in the centre of a lake» 

which covered the whole of the 
present meadows. The populatioa 
of Farmington has varied but little 
from 2,000 within the last 30 years. 

Fayette) Me* 

Kennebec co. This town con* 
tains some beautiful ponds and is 
the source of a branch of Sandy 
river. It lies 17 miles W. N. W. 
from Augusta, and is bounded E. by 
Readfield. Incorporated, 1795. — 
Population, 1837, 1,006. This is a 
good township of land ; it produced, 
in 1837, 4,438 bushels of wheat and 
some wool. 

Washington co. Fayston is gen- 
erally too mountainous to be much 
cultivated. Along the borders of 
some of the branches of Mad river» 
which rise here, is some arable 
land. It lies 16 miles W. S. W. 
from Montpelier, and 25 S. £. from 
Burlington. First settled, 1798. 
Popuiation, 1830, 458. 

Ferdinand) VU 

Essex CO. This town was char- 
tered in 1761, and contains 23 
square miles; it is bounded 8. 
E. by Maidstone. Paul's stream 
affords it a good water power, but 
the land is so mountainous, rocky, 
cold and swampy that people do not 
choose to cultivate it. 

Ferrlcbnrglt, Vt« 

Addison co. This township pos- 
sesses a good soil, an ex<!ellent wa- 
ter power by Otter, Little Otter 
and Lewis creeks ; and navigable 
privileges on the waters of the out- 
lets of those creeks and lake Cham- 
plain. Basin Harbor in this town 
is deep and well protected from 
winds, and is a place of consider- 
able navigation and commercial im- 
portance. Across the lake to Essex, 
N. Y. is about two miles. Large 
crops of grain are produced here, 
and Ferrisburgh is noted for its fine 
butter, cheese, pork, and fat cattle. 


There are some woolen and other 
manuriclurea on its atreims, aod 
•bout 10,000 aheep graze in its pas- 
tures. Large quantities of Gsh are 
tiiDually laken in Ibe aeaaon nf 
■piiiig. First aettled, 17S4. Pop- 
ula'.ioii, 1S30, \,S-i2. Ferrisburgh 
lies 19 mites S. from Burlington, 
16 N. W. from Mlildleburf , aad 34 

W. ffoni Monipeller. 

fforcealer co. This lownahip 

wns Tirjt granled by " the Great 
SD[1 General Court of Hia Majesty's 
Province of Maaaachusetta Bay, 
Nov. 4, 1718." Tbe lownabip thus 
granted Included tbe lerrilory of , 
some of tbe nelgbhorine towns, j 
The town was incorporated in 1764. 
A large branch of the Nashua and 
[wo nmaiier atreams pass through 
the town, and afford It an extensive 
and ronslnnt water power. Over 
the Nashua, In (he distance of two 
Oiilos, are eleven dams for the ac- 
COiDmodatloa of manu factories. Tt^s 
la a very itnurishiug town, and ex- 
tiibits in a striking manner Ihc ef- 
fect of water power on the increase, 
wealth and respeclabilily of many 
of our Interior towns. There are 
many valuable mill aitea at this 
place still unimproved. In the 
immediate vicinity of the principal 
village ia an immense quarry of ex- 
celteut granite. This lovn liea 47 
mtiesW. N. W.from Boston, 24 N. 
from Worcester, 30 W. by S. from 
Lowell, and 60 N. £. from Spring- 
field. There are in Fitchburgh 4 
cotlon, 3 woolen, and 2 paper mills. 
Tbe manufactures lor the year end- 
ing April 1, 1837, amounted to 
$429,640. Tha manufactares con- 
sisted of cotton and woolen goods, 
paper, leather, boots, slioes, hats, 
scythes, bellows, pBtm-leaf bats, 
draw bonneta, chairs, tin snd cab- 
inet wares. Tha surface of the 
town is hilly, but Ihe soil is strong 
and productive. Population, 1330, 
S,169i 1937,2.662. 

Cheabire ca. Fltinilllam lira IS 
miles S. E. from Keene, 60 S. W. 
from Conrord, and 65 N. W. from 
^riert brgoks. 

ning 11 

ectlou, I 

i Ibe 

principal atreams. South pond, 8SD 
roda long and ef varieus nidlh , 
Sip's pond, ^UO roda long and 100 
wide ; Rockwood's pond and Col- 
lin's pond, are the only natnral col- 
leetious of water. The surface of 
Ihi4 town is hilly: th*roil Isntcky. 
There is a considerable quantity of 
very prod uclive and highly valua- 
ble meadow land. The soil Is auit- 
ahle for grazing and tillage. Beef, 
pork, butler and cheese are the Sta- 
ples. The farmers have of late turn- 
ed their attention to Ihe raising of 
sbeep. Near Ibe centre of the town 
is a large bill, remarkable for the 
beautifully romantic pntspeet It ifT 
fords. Gap mountain, which at ■ 
distance, appears to be a put of tbe 
Monadnock, and on which are found 
vsrinua kinda of stouea suitable Ibr 
whetstonea, lies partly in TroT ind 
partly in the N. E. part of Fitl- 
wilUam. PopulaUon, 1830, 1,229. 
Fletolur, Tt. 
Franklin co. There are *om« 
small streams In this town and some 
mannfacturing operations. The soil 
ia broken, hard, and not very pro- 
ductive. It lies 22 miles N. N. E 
from Montpelier.and about 18 S. E 
from St. Albans. PapulaUon,183», 

Berkshire co. A roountaiiHnia 
towDsbip, 125 milsi W. hy N.fram 
Hoaton, 21 N. N. E. from LeMi, 
and 7 E. from Adams. Plorldft to 
watered by Deerfield river, and ex- 
hibits some 6ne Alpine acenerj. 
Population, 183T, 467. Joe. ISOS. 
Foatsr, R. I. 

Providence co. This is alai^e ig- 
ricultural ajid ouuiuiactiu'iDg tow^ 


finely watered by Hemlock brook, 
PonoQgansett and Moosup rivers. 
The surface of the town, in many 
parts, is rough and uneven, but the 
soil is well calculated for the pro- 
ductions of the dairy. In the west- 
ern part are extensive forests of val- 
uable timber. There are a number 
of pleasant villages on the borders 
of the numerous streams, most of 
which are largely engaged in manu- 
factuHng operations, particularly of 
cotton. Foster was first settled in 
1717; incorporated in 1781, and 
named in compliment to the Hon. 
Theodore Foster, formerly a 
senator of the United States. It lies 
15 miles W, by S. from Providence, 
and 50 E. from Hartford, Ct. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 2,672. 

Foxboronglty Ma««« 

Norfolk CO. This town was tak- 
en from Dorchester in 1778. It is 
watered by Rumford and Cocasset 
rivers, branches of the Taunton, on 
which are mills of various kinds. 
The manufactures of Foxborou2^h 
the year ending April 1, 1837, 
amounted to $231,136: — they con- 
sisted of cotton and woolen goods, 
boots, shoes, leather, iron castings, 
straw bonnets, shovels, spades, boss 
and forks. Foxborouo;h lies 24 
miles S. S.W.from Boston,15 S. from 
Dedham, and 18 £. N. £. from 
Providence. R. I. Population, 1880, 
1,099; 1837,1,416. 

Foxeroirty Ble. 

Piscataquis co. This town is sit- 
uated on the north side of Piscata- 
quis nver, opposite to Dover. The 
soil of the town is capable of pro- 
ducinfi; all the varieties common to 
the climate. A part of Sebec pond 
lies in the north pao^ of the town. 
In ld37,'5,574 bushels of wheat was 
raised. This is a fine sectiomof 
country for the growth of beef and 
wool. Foxcroft was first settled in 
1305, and was named in compliment 
to -the Hon. Joseph £. Foxcroft. 
The village, with an academy, is 

very pleasantly located on the bank 
of the river, and has the appearance 
of prosperity. Foxcroft lies 77 
miles N. N. E. from Augusta.— 
Population, 1830, 677; 1837,907. 
Incorporated, 1812. 

Fox laliuadSy Me* 

See Vinalhaven, 

Framtngltamy llau. 

Middlesex co. A large and flour- 
ishing manufacturing town, witli a 
fine soil, and pleasant ponds: — 20 
miles W. S. W. from Boston, and 13 
S. S. W. from Concord. The ponds 
and Sudbury river give this town a 
good water power. The value of 
the manufactures, the year ending 
April 1, 1837, amounted to $421,- 
111. The articles manufactured 
were 268,640 yards of woolen cloth^ 
valued at $311,800; boots, shoes, 
leather, hats, paper,($46,000) straw 
bonnets, chairs, tin and cabinet 
wares. Framingham is a delight- 
ful town, and approached by the 
rail-road with great ease. It has 
become an agreeable resort for fish- 
ing, fowling and other niral sports. 
Incorporated, 1700. Population, in 
1830, 2,313 ; 1837, 2,881. 

Francestoivii, N. U. 

Hillsborough co. It U 12 miles 
N. W. from Amherst, and 27 S. W. 
from Concord. The two S. branches 
of the Piscataquog rise in this town ; 
the largest branch from Plca:ant 
pond, the other from Haunted pond. 
The former branch passes near the 
village in Francestown. Pleasant 
and Haunted ponds are considerable 
collections of water. The land is 
uneven, and in many parts stony, 
but the qualities of the soil are 
warm and moist. There are some 
small intervales, which are very 
productive. About 7,000 sheep 
are kept here. The streams of wa- 
ter are not large, and almost every 
mill is situated on rivers that take 
their rise from hills and ponds with- 
I in the limiti of tho town. The 


highest land is Crotched mountain, 
tiie summit of which is more than 
600 feet above the level of the 
common in the centre of the town. 
One of the summits of this moun- 
tain is covered with wood ; the other 
is almost a solid ledge of rocks, af- 
fording a very extensive prospect to 
the S. W. There is in the easter- 
ly part of this town a very exten- 
sive and valuable quarry of free- 
stone. It is of a dark greyish col- 
or, and when polished strongly re- 
sembles the variegated marble of 
Vermont. In the N. part of this 
town black lead has been found of 
a good quality — and in the S. part 
some beautiful specimens of rock 
crystal. The common garnet is 
met with in various places. On 
the N. side of Haunted pond, there 
is a bar of 20 rods in length, 6 feet 
high, and 3 or 4 feet through ; but 
for what purpose or by what means 
this barrier was raised, is a matter 
of conjecture only. The local sit- 
uation of this town is very eligible 
for business, being near the centre 
of the county, and on the great 
thoroughfare from Wimlsor to Bos- 
ton, and on a leading road from the 
S. W. part of the state to Concord. 
The village is very pleasant, neatly 
built and Nourishing. Francestown 
derived its name from Frances^ the 
wife of the last Gov. Wentworth. 
The first settlement was made about 
1760, by John Carson, a Scotch- 

Mr. James Woodbury, who 
died March 3, 1823, at the age of 
85, closed his life in this town. He 
"Was an active soldier in the old 
Frencli war, and epgaged by the 
side" of Gen. Wolfe, whpn he was 
killed at the memorable siege of 
Quebec. He was one of the truly 
invincible rangers under the im- 
mortal Stark, and discharged every 
duty in a prompt and courageous^ 
manner. Population, 1830, 1541. 

FfanconlAy HT* H. 

Gmftonoo. It i«i» i&iles N« £X 

from Haverhill, and 74 N. from 
Concord. A large proportion of 
this town is mountainous. Its 
streams are branches of the Lower 
Amonoosuck river» and rise on the 
mountainous tracts to the east. 
Here are several ponds: one of 
which, called Ferrin's pond, is the 
source of the middle branch of Pem- 
igewasset river. The mountains 
adjoining the Notch, through which 
the road passes, are most conspicu- 
ous. These are called Mounts La 
Fayette and Jackson. On the lat- 
ter is the celebrated " Profile,** or 
« Old Man of the Mountain.'* It is 
situated on a peak of solid rock, 
1,000 feet in height and almost per- 
pendicular. On this peak^vature, 
in her wildest mood, exhibiU the 
profile of the human face, of which 
every feature is delineated with 
wonderful exactness. The Fran- 
conia mountain pass presents to the 
traveller some of the wildest scene- 
ry in our country, and must ever re- 
main a great thoroughfare between 
the upper waters of the Connecti- 
cut river and tlie ocean. 

There are two iron es^blish- 
ments in this town. The lower 
works are situated on the S. branch 
of Amonoosuck river, and are own- 
ed by the New Hampshire Iron 
Factory Company;, incorporated, 
Dec. 18, 1805, which was composed 
principally of gentlemen in Salem 
and Bostotf. Their establishment 
is very extensive, consisting of a 
blast furnace, erected in 1808, an 
air furnace, a forge and trip-ham- 
mer shop. There are also near, or 
connected with the establishment, 
grain and saw-mills, a large store, 
several shops, and other buildiofs, 
which make a small village. The 
ore is obtained from a mountaifi in 
the east part of Lisbon, N. H.,Uiree 
miles from the furnace, uid is eon- 
side red the richest in the United 
States, yielding from 56 to 63 per 
cent; and the mine is said tabe in- 
exhaustible. First settled, 1774. 
Populatkm,ld30, 447. 

WlUo CO. ThU excellent to 
■hip of land U iltiiated cm the 
ait of Penobacot rirer, ST n 

fait It !■ well watered by Mush 
river, on wbieh are iwd beaaCiful 
Tillafe*. The largest village is ' 
near the Penobicot, on Harsh bay. | 
The other Tillage is at the headof 
the tide, on Marsh river, atwut t 
mileiS-W-'framthe Pcnabscot, and ! 
b acroniinaHated with eicellent : 
mill privileges. The location of 
FranUi^rt is exceeding favorable to 
the oavigatioD and trade of Penob- 
scot ijur, particularly so in the 
winter season, as it is the faigheit 
pointOD the river to which vessels 
can ascend during the icy season of 
the year. Theprospectsof Frank- 
fert in Iti commercial and agricnl- 
tural punuits are very promiBiDg: 
indeed it bids fairlo become ■□ Im- 
portant depot on one of our largest 
riven. Among Ibe agricultural 
pradacti of this (own, in 1887, was 
9fia0 bushels of wheat. Popula- 
Uon, 1880, 2,487 ; 1837, 8,338. in- 
corporated, 1789. 

of Oxlbrd ; and Induatrj, NewTloe- 
rsrd. Strong, Aran, Phillips, Free- 
'man, Salem, Kingfield, townshipa 
numbered four in Ihe first range 
west of Kingfield, diree and four 
in the secend range, and the south 
half of (ownsbip numbered four in 
ihe third raoge of the Bingham 
Purchase, in the county of 8omer- 
let, be and hereby are, fcc." 

This county is therefore hounded ' 
N. by Lower Canada, E. by the 
county of Somerset, S. by Kenne- 
bec and Oxford counties, and W. by 
Oxford cuuot;. This county bai 
no navigable waters, but is inter- 
ipersed with numerous ponds and 
mill streams. Its surface Is gen- 
erally undulating, with some moun-. 
taiooDS tracts. Its soil, for the most 
part, is exccDent, and cbddoE fall 
I in remunentiug the industrious far- 
I mtT by its products of wheat, heef. 

JVnTsin^on is the county town. 
TUt coontj was Incorporated March 
M, 1SS8. 

The Ibllawiag is the legislative 
description of its territory : 

" 11m towns of New Sharon. 
Cbesterville, Wilton, Temple and 
Famlngtoa in the county of Ken- 
nebec; and Jay, Carthage, Veld. 
Berlin, Madrid, townsblpa nuinber- 
«d six, letter E. and D. in the coun- 
ty of. Oxford, thence extending 
norfliBrly from the north-west cor- 
' ner cf letter D. on the line be- 
twixt townthipe numbered Ibree 
and fiiur, through the several rang- 
es at townships to Canada line, so 
M to Inelade three Hen of town- 
dilps west of the west line of the 
D Purchase In Mid county 

St. Miane. county town. This 
county is bounded N. by Lower 
Canada, E, by Orleans county, S. 
E. and 8. by Lamtrille eouDty, 8. 
by Chittenden county, and W. 
by lake Champlain. JncorporAed, 
1792. Population, 1880, 22,084. 
The MiMiaque river passes through, 
the northern part of the county, 
and the Lamoille its most southern 
aection. The principal part of the 
trade of this county goes to Canada, 
by lake Champlaia, which affords 
it many facilities in transportation. 
Although (he surface is aonewhat 
broken and in some parts mounlain- 
oUB, yet the soil is productive of 
wheat and grass. Many cattle are 
annually taken from tfaia county to 
market, and in 1837 it bad 63,000 
sheep. In this coaaty, marble and 
iron ore of excellent qualities m 

Grseii^eld, county town. Bound- 
ed N. by Windham county, Vt.,and 
a part of Cheshire eoniUy, N. H. 




E. by Worcester county, S. by 
Hampshire county, and W. by Berk- 
shire county. Area, 650 square 
miles. The Connecticut river pass- 
es nearly through the centre of this 
county. It produces, in great abund- 
ance, all sorts of grain, fruits and 
vegetables common to its climate ; 
and exports considerable quantities 
of beef, pork, and products of the 
^airy. Manufactures are increas- 
ing in value and importance ; and 
this county yields to no other in the 
state in the extent of its hydraulic 
powers, or in the richness and vari- 
ety of its scenery. There are 44 
inhabitants to a square mile. Chief 
rivers, Connecticut, Deerfield, and 
Miller's. Taken from Hampshire 
county in 1811. Population, 1820, 
29,268; 1830, 29,344; 1837,28,665. 
The value of the manufactures of 
this county, for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, was $787,900. The 
value of wool grown, the product 
of 55,713 fleeces, was $70,513. 

Franklin, Me. 

Hancock co. Franklin lies at the^ 
head of Taunton bay, the most, 
northerly waters of Frenchman's^ 
bay.* It is bounded S. by Sullivan, 
and contains several large ponds 
and good mill sites. Franklin is 
about 15 miles £. from Ellsworth. 
Population, 1837, 474. Incorporat- 
ed, 1825. 

FranUin, TS. U. 

Merrimack co. This town was 
incorporated in 1828, from parts of 
the towns of Salisbury, Andover, 
Sanhornton, and Northfield : is 18 
miles from Concord, 63 from Ports- 
mouth, and 78 from Boston. Frank- 
lin is a place of considerable and 
increasing business; has a cotton 
factory, two paper mills, an iron 
foundry, and other manufacturing 
establishments. The junction oi 
♦he Winnepisiogee and Pemigewas- 
set rivers. In this town, form the 
noble Merrimack, creating on both 

streams an extensive and valuable 
water power. It is probable that 
within a few years the river will 
be rendered navigable, by means 
of locks and canals, as far up as 
Franklin, in which event it would 
become one of the most flourishing 
interior towns in New Hampshire. 
Population, in 1830, 1,370. 

Franklin, Vt. 

Franklin co. This town was for- 
merly called Huntsburgh, and was 
first settled in 1789. It lies 50 
miles N. W. from Montpelier, 17 
N. N. E. from St. Albans, and 
bounded N. by Canada. The sur- 
face of the town is rough, but the 
soil is tolerably well adapted for 
sheep, of which about 8,500 are 
kept. Population, 1830, 1,129. 


Franklin, Mass* 

Norfolk CO. Charles river and 
its branches alford Franklin a good 
water power. It was taken from 
Wrentham in 1778. There are five 
cotton mills in the town, and man- 
ufactures of straw bonnets, shoes, 
boots, boxes and boats ; total amount 
of manufactures in one year, $210,- 
472, of which $160,186 were for 
straw bonnets, for which this town 
is celebrated. Franklin lies 27 miles 
;S. W. by S. from Boston, and 17 S. 
<S. W. from Dedham. Population, 
a837, 1,696. 

Franklin, Ct« 

New London CO. Shetucket riv- 
er separates this town from Lisbon. 
The surface of Franklin is uneven; 
the soil a gravelly loam, more fit 
for grazing than tillage. . There is 
a woolen factory on Beaver brook, 
a branch of the Shetucket, but the 
chief business of the people is rear- 
ing sheep, and other agricultural 
pursuits. Population, 1830, 1,194. 
It lies 34 miles £. ^. E. from Hart- 
ford, and 7 N. by W. from Norwich. 
Fratiklin was taken from Norwich 
in 1786. 


Waldo CO. Previous to its incor- 
poration, in 1S13, the territory of 
]^reedom was called " Beaver Hill." 
It waJs first settled in 1794. It is a 
good township of land, and bound- 
ed W. by Albion, and £. by Knox. 
It is about 20 miles £. S. £. from 
Belfast, and 25 N. E. from Augus- 
ta. Freedom, in 1837, with a pop- 
ulation of 1,058, produced 6,084 
bushels of wheat. 

f^reedonty N. H* 

Strafford co. This town, former- 
ly JVorth Effingham, was incorpo- 
rated by its present name, Dec. 6, 
1832. It is an uneven township, 
but has some good farms. It. is 
bounded in part by the Ossipee lake, 
and river, which discharge east- 
wardly into the Saco. Distant 60 
miles N. N. £. from Concord. Pop- 
ulation» in 1833, about 900. 

Ijtreemany Me* 

Franklin co. This small town 
of only 17,000 acres, most of which 
is WjOodland, with a population 
of 805, produced 6,485 . bushels of 
wheat. in 1837. Freeman is the 
source of a small branch of Sandy 
river. It lies 62 miles N. W. from 
Augusta* and 15 N. from Farming- 

JF*reeporty Me. 

Cumberland co. This is a respect- 
able town with a pleasant village, 
and small harbor at the head of Cas- 
co bay, on the road from Portland 
to Brunswick, 18 miles N. by £. 
from the former, 9 8. W. from the 
latter, and 36 B. S. W. from Augus- 
ta. Freeport was taken from North 
Tartnouth in 1789, and was former- 
ly called the Harraaeeket Settle- 
ment, from the name of the river 
(hat passes through it. This is a 
place of some navigation, ship build- 
ing, and agricultural enterprize. 
Population, 1837, 2,659. 

Bristol CO. This town lies on the 
E. side of Taunton river, 8 miles 
S. from Trfunton, 12 N. by W. from 
New Bedford, and 40 S. from Bos- 
ton. First settled, 1659. Incor- 
porated, 1683. Population, 1837, 
1,779. It is watered by a branch 
of Taunton river, and has some nav- 
igation. The manufactures of Free- 
town consist of iron castings, cut-^ 
lery, axes, shovels,' spades, hoes^ 
forks, nails, leather, boots, shoes, 
vessels, chairs, and cabinet ware. 
Total amount, in one year, $43,820. 
The soil is light, and keeps, among 
other cattle, about 1,000 sheep. 

Freneb River* 

This river rises in Leicester, Mass. 
It passes through Auburn, Oxford, 
and Dudley ; it then enters the state 
of Connecticut and joins the Quin- 
ebaugh at Thompson. Some French 
protestants settled on this river in 

Frenelmiaik^t Bayi Me* 

This important bay, in the county 
of Hancock, containing a number 
of excellent harbors and beautiful 
islands, is bounded W. by Bauer's 
island, one of the Cranberry islands, 
and £. by a peninsula in Goldsbo- 
rough, on the W. side of which is 
Musquito harbor. The distance 
across this bay, from Baker's island 
to Goldsborough point, is 10 miles. 
This bay juts in from the Atlantic 
ocean about 20 miles, and is envi- 
roned by the towns of Eden, Tren- 
ton, Hancock, Franklin, Sullivan, 
and Goldsborough, and is the recip- 
ient of many valuable streams. It 
is easy of access, never obstructed 
by ice, and is one of the best retreats 
in a storm on the American coast. 

Fxlendsldpy Me* 

Lincoln co. This is an Atlantic 
town, containing several islands, at 
the head of Muscongus bay. It< 
was formerly called the Meduneook 


Settlement^ tf lyinf^ between a riv- 
^r of that n^ne ai^d the Muscongus. 
Friendship is a place of consider- 
able navigation and trade. It lies 
48 miles S. £. from Augusta, and 
10 miles S. W. from Warren. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 662. 

Vrytitnarghf Me* 

Oxford CO. This interesting and 
pleasant town lies on both sides of 
Saco river, on the line of New 
Hampshire. The uplands are not 
remarkable for their fertility, but 
the intervales on the Saco are of the 
choicest kind. Fryeburgh is only 6 
mjiles square, yet the Saco here is 
so fantastic in its course that it wind*) 
itself between 80 and 40 miles with- 
in its limits. This town, the Indian 
Pequawket, lies 75 miles W. N. W. 
from Augusta, 47 N. W. from Port- 
land, and 28 S. W. from Paris. — 
Population, 1837, 1,444. Incorpo- 
rated, 1777. The principal villi^e 
is situated on a plain, surrounded by 
lofty hills, and watered by the Sa- 
co : it bears evident marks of anti- 
quity, and has an academy ** with 
a cabinet of rare curiosities, col- 
lected with much diligence. *'-7- 
Love well's pond lies a short distance 
from the village. This beautiful 
sheet of water, now the resort for 
innocent amusements, was once the 
scene of bloody combat, and of thp 
overthrow of a powerful Indian 

The story of LovewelVa Fight 
has been told thousands of times, 
but as it is identified w^th the town 
of which we treat, we quote a brief 
notice of the event from the North 
American Review. 

*( It was on the 18th of April, 
1725, that Capt ^ohn Lpvewell, of 
l)unstable, Massachusetts, with 34 
men, fought a famous Indian chief, 
named Paugu0,atthe head of about 
80 savages, near the shores of a 
pond in Pequawket. LoveweU*s 
men were determined to conquer 
ctr die, .although out-|iujpbered bv 
^e Indians more than one half. 

They fought till Lorewell and Paa- 
gus were killed, and all Lov^well's 
men but nine were either kflled or 
wounded dangerously. Tha savm* 
ges having lost, as was supposed, 
60 of their number out of 80, and 
being convinced of the fierce and 
determined resolution of their foes, 
at length retreated and left diem 
masters of the ground. The scen^ 
of this desperate and bloody action, 
which took place in the town which 
is now called Fryeburgh, is often 
visited with interest to this day, 
and the names of those who foil, 
and those who survived, are yet re- 
peated with emotions of ^^rit^fti| 

FvmdjTy B«|r oC 

This bay washes a part of die 
eastern shore of Maine ; anci as U 
is an important channel qf com- 
merce between tiie United Stat^ 
and the British provinces of New 
Brunswick and Nova Scotia, it may 
be useful to notice it This Itrce 
and important bay sets up N.E. 
round cape Sable, tiie most foaUi* 
em point of Nova Scotia, in N. lat 
480 24', W. Ion. 65<> SBf, and eitMt* 
es to the shore of Maine a HtHe W. 
of Frenchman's bay. From tiie 
mouth of Frenchman's bay to Cape 
Sable is about 160 miles; from 
Eastport to St. John's, N. B. is M 
miles ; from St. John'9 to Annapo- 
lis, in a bay of that name, on the 
Nova Scotia side, is 40 niiles ; from 
thence to Halifax, by land, ia 80 
miles. From Eas^Kirt diract to 
Annapolis, across the bay, is a^ut 
70 miles. The Bay of Foi^ if 
divided near its bead by cape CJ^igr 
necto. The N. W. part is ceUe4 
Chignecto bay ; the S. £. part die 
Basin of Mines. From Eastport ti 
Cumberland, at the head of CUf* 
necto bay, is about 170 miles ;f» 
Windsor, at the head of the BaiHl 
of Mines, is about 150. Frem 
Windsor to Halifax in N. lat i|<> 
39' 20", W. km. 6S<> 36' 40", i« 41 


The commerce on this bay with 
oar friends and neighbors, the Eng- 
lish, is very considerable. While 
they receive bread stuffs and other 
productions of our soil, we are in- 
debted . to them for vast quantities 
'of grindstones and gypsum to sharp- 
en our tools and renovate the soil. 
The gypsum is principally from the 
Basin of Mines ; — it lies embedded 
in elevated masses along the shores 
of the bay ; — it is easily quarried 
and taken on boand of vessels by 
the sides of the cliffs. This gypsum 
is of a fine quality, and it is doubtful 
whether any has been discovered 
in our own country as good. 

The grindstones from Cumber- 
land, or Chignecto bay, are every 
where celebrated. The source is 
inexhaustible, and the manufacture 

The tides in the bay of Fundy 
are supposed to rise to a greater 
height than io, any other part of the 
world. Their elevation increases 
as you ascend the bay. At East- 
port they rise 25 feet ; at St. John's 
80 ; at Cape Split, 55 ; at Windsor, 
60, and' at Cumberland, at the head 
of Chignecto bay, they rise to the 
enormousheight of 71 feet. These 
tides announce themselves some 
time before their approach, by a 
flonnd resembling that of a rushing 
wind in a forest : they dash against 
the shore with a reddish hue, the 
color of the clay bottom over which 
they pass, with frightful violence ; 
at first, to the height of from 8 to 
10 feet, overwhelming all within 
their reach. 

There are but few islands with- 
in this bay. Grand Menan, and a 
cluster of small islands round it, off 
West Quoddy Head,and Campo Bel- 
le, near Eastport, are the principal. 
They belong to the British. A 
small island about 5 miles off the 
8. W. part of cape Chignecto, call- 
ed laU de Haut, contains beauti- 
ful specimens of asbestos. 

The rapidity of the tides within 
this bay, iht fogs which frequently 


prevail, and the absence of good 
harbors between Eastport and St 
John's, and from St. John's to cape 
Chignecto, render the navigation 
difficult and often dangerous. 

The harbor of St. John's is easy 
of access, safe, and of sufficient ex- 
panse for a large fleet of any draught 
of water. The city of St. John's 
contains about 15,000 inbabitanti. 
It is located at the outlet of the 
great river whose name it bears, in 
N. lat. 45° 20', W. Ion. 66«>. This 
city is a very flourishing place. It 
is the largest resource for timber and 
lumber that Queen Victoria has in 
her possessions. 

St. John's river rises in Canada 
and the northern part of Maine. It 
receives the Madawaska, St. Fran- 
cis, Aroostook, and many other val- 
uable tributaries, from Maine; it 
waters a large portion of its north- 
em territory, and bears many valu- 
able productions of that state to its 
mouth. ** This river is 850 miles 
long ; the tide flows up about 80 
miles ; it is navigable for boats 200 
miles, and for sloops of 50 tons SO 
miles. This river and its branches 
water a large tract of excellent 
country. About 30 miles from its 
mouth commences a fine level coun- 
try of rich meadow lands,well cloth- 
ed with timber. The river furnish- 
es a great quantity of salmon, bass 
and sturgeon. About a mile above 
the city of St. John's is the only 
entrance into this river. It is about 
80 or 100 yards wide, 400 yards 
long, called the falls of the river. 
It being narrow, and a ridge of rocks 
running across the bottom of the 
channel, on which there are not 
above 17 feet of water, it is not suf- 
ficiently spacious to discharge the 
fresh waters of the river above. 
The common tides here rising above 
20 feet, the waters of the river at 
low water are about 20 feet higher 
than the waters of the sea ; at high 
water the waters of the sea are 
about 5 feet higher than those of 
the river : so that at every tide there 


tire two falls, one outwards and one 
inwards. The only time of pass* 
ing with safety is when the waters 
of the river and of the sea are lev- 
el, which is twice in a tide, and 
continues only ahout 20 minutes 
each time." 

Frederickton, the capital of New 
Brunswick, lies on this river, 80 
miles from its mouth, in N. lat. 46^ 
8', W. Ion. 66° 45'. 

Gardlnery Me. 

Kennebec co. Gardiner was for- 
merly a part of Pittsto'n, and lies 
on the W. side of Kennebec river, 
6 miles S. from Augdsta, iaind 4 be- 
low HalloweKl. It is located at the 
head of large nayigatiou, and in re- 
gard to Its commerce, man'uiactur- 
ug and agricultural interests, it is 
considered one of the most flourish- 
ing towns in Maine. It was incor- 
porated in ISCiS, and was named in 
honor of Dr. Sylvester Gardi- 
WER, one of the proprietors of the 
old Plymouth patent. 

The Cobhessecontee waters meet 
the Kennebec river at. this place, 
and produce a water power of great 
usefulness and extent. Here are 
mills for sawing lumber of all di- 
mensions, and here are vessels of 
from 80 to 120 tons burthen, lading 
it for transportation to its various 
markets. Here are also manufac- 
tures of various other kinds. This 
town, Hallowell and Augusta,lie In 
a most favored section of our coun- 
try. What we havie said in regard 
to the location of Hallowell and 
Augusta, may be applied to Gard- 
iner. These towns are on the same 
' side of a noble river, united by. the 
same interests and feelings, and will 
soon be cqhnected by a rail-road 
passing between them. The vil- 
lage 01 Gardiner is very pleasant. 
The business part lying on the riv- 
er,, us full of activity and enterprise. 
The buildings, on a gentle rise from 
the . river, . are beautifully k>cated. 
T^ey fomn^ai^ a 'deUghttiil Jlros- 
~~~ t, and some of uem are of 

superior architecture. Pop\iUtloii« 
1837, 3,709. The present pbpulk- 
tion is about 5,000. 

Gardner^ Mmmu 

Worcester co. Otter river, a cba* 
siderable stream, a branch of Mil- 
ler's river, rises partly in this town, 
and affords good mill seats. On diis 
river is some good intervale land ; 
the high lands are rough, but good 
for grazing. The value of palm- 
leaf hatS; straw bonnets, chairs, 
cabinet and wooden wares, leath- 
er, boots and shoes, manufactured, 
in one year, amounted to |(132,- 
272. The cabinet ware and chairs 
amounted to $109,000. Gardner 
was incorporated in 1785, and lief 
54 miles N. W. by W. from Boston, 
and 23 N. W. by N. from Worces- 
ter. Population, 1837, 1,276. 

A church was formed hei^ in 
1786, and the Rev. Jonathan Omod 
was ordaihed. He died in I825,|af- 
ter sustaining the vocations of pa$' 
tor, physician and school master^ 80 

Gftrlancl, Me. 

Penobscot co. Garland is water- 
ed by some of the head branches 
of Kenduskeag stream. It lies 74 
miles N. £. by N. from Augusta, 
and 27 N..W. uom Bangor. Incor- 
porated, 1811. Population, l^TO, 
621 ; 1837, 932. This is an excel- 
lent township of land ; it produced, 
in 1837, 6,521 bushels of wheat 

Gay Head, Mmmu 

See Chilmark, 

Oeorgeto^ififty Me* 

Lincoln co. Georgetown if con- 
stituted of two considerable islands 
lying at the mouth of Kennebec 
river. These islands have Kenne- 
bec river on the W., Sheepscot riv- 
er on the £., and separated from 
Woolwich on the N. by a na^ira- 
ble passage betweeQ those ti^o nv- 
'qn. a lit^e belo#Bflp.on 
tte qjposite shoro. Ttiii u om 

of Ae moat Aidcat aeHIemeiitB la 
HilBe. The town wu incorjrant- 
edinlTie. Populstlini, 183T, l^B. 
It lies 46 mllei 8. from Aagutta, 
and 11 S. W. fram WIscumL Thii 
town bu excellent hu-bon, and poe- 
cenea pecDliir prtTilegeafortll oc- 
cnptdons connected with navi^- 
don and Hie fiiberiee. 

C iwge to wn, !■•••• 

Enei CO, Georgetown was the 
W. part of Bowley. tt was called 
JVVu Sovilty for aome jean, un- 
til Its incorporatioa aa a separate 
town, ID I6SS. Georgetown is wa- 
tered l)y ». branch of Parker's ri'- 
er, uid ia almost entirely enzagi 
in mannfaclurea and the meeban 
arts. It ia * pleaauit tonn and high- 
ly flouriahiiig. Population, about 
1,S00. It lies 30 milea N. Inini 
Boaton, and 10 S. W. from Newbu- 
ryport. The people of Georgetown 
are probably more eiteasively eo- 
gaged in the maaufaclure of boots 
and shoes than at any other pli 
of itBpopul>(ion,iD America. The 
nine of boot* and shoea manufa 
tnrad, and leather tanned, la said 
exceed f 500,00)1 annually. 


Oxford CO. Between two moult> - 
tuna on both sides of Androscoggin 
liver. There Is some good land on 
the rirer, but the chief pait of the 
lownahlp ii fit only for graxing. 
Tbe eipBQse of transportation w 
fuel down the moantains, in a slip- 
pery time. Is very trifling. Gllead 
Ilea TI mllea W. from Augusta, tad 
25 S. 8. ff . from Paria. Incoipora' 
ted, 1804. Population, 188T, 874. 

FranMla co. Population, ISSO, 
l^T. Georgia lies 40 miles N. 
W. rrom Montpelier, and S S. fram 
St. Albana. First settled, lt84. 
The soil of Ovorgla is various but 
generally fertile. Jt fe«da about 
11,000 sheep. The LamolUe peaa- 
ea through the S. E. comer of the 
town, which, with other streams, 
lire It tn smple water power. This 
U a [daca of coodderable trade and 
some maaufacturta. Over Stont 
Bridge trook la a atone bridge,— 
■ cnnoua piece of nature'a mechan- 
ism. Georgia is washed oa the W. 
ly Lake Champlain : tbe Tillage ia 
ptesnntly located, and commands 
mne Tery pretty lake and moun- 
tala scenery. 

One of the Ibnr shire towns for 
Strafibrd couun, la situated on tbe 
S. side of Winnepiidogee lake. 
Thla town Uea H miles N. N. E. 
from Concord, and 46 N. W. from 
Portimouth. The acdlis generally 
productive. There are, two ponds 
In Hue (own. Little and Chattlebo- 
rough. GuDstoek and Mile's riTeis, 
rising ID Suneook mountaina and 
flowing N. into the lake, are the 
principal streams. Tlie N. source 
of tbe Suneook river la on the S. 
of these mountains, which extend 
in a iolty pile over the E. part of 
the town, ftom Oilmanton line near- 
ly to the lake. ThereareseTen isl- 
ands In the lake, belonging to Gil- 
ford, ooe of which hai Iwen con- 
nected to the mainland by abridge 
30 rods in length. This town, 
which was formerly apart of Oil- 
manlon, was incorponited June IB, 
1S12. It was settled in ITTS.— 
Here are manufactories of cotton 
goods, besides other useful milla 
and machinery. Four bridges 
across the Winnepiaiogee connect 
the town with Meredith. The vil- 
lage at this place is thriving and 
pleasant. PopaJation, 1S80, 1,872. 

QUI, Kmb. 

Franklin co. A mouDtainoo* 
township on the W. aide of Con- 
necticut river ; 86 miles W. by N. 
from Boston, and e E. N. E. bon 
Greenfield. Gill eontahw • fln* 


by Fall rivet. It hai some muiu- 
fecturei of comba, noodcD nara, 
leather and pa1m-l«ar bal«. The 
fleecea of 1,809 sheep weighed 
S,62T pounds, and were valued, in 
1B3T, at *2,214. Population, 1B3T, 
809. TakcD from Decrfield in 

CMliiuu>t*n, 1 


One at Ibe sblre towns In SlraT- 
ford county, IT milesN. N. E.from 
Concord, and 46 W. N. W, from 
Portsmouth. It ia bounded N. and 
N. £. by Gltford and Alton. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 3316. Beside the 
Winnepiaiogee. this town is water- 
ed by the SuncDok and Soucook 
rivers, which hive their sources In 
Gilmanton. The 9uDcook rises in a 
pond near the top of one of the 
Suncook mountains, eievuled 900 
feet above its base. The water of 
Uiis pond talis into another at the 
foot of the mountain, of 1 miie in 
len^h and 1-Smi1enide. Passing 
from this, it falls into another, cov- 
ering abontSOO acres, from which 
it meanders through the town, re- 
celviiiE several streams in Its course. 
The Sou cook rises from Loon, 
Rocky and Shellcamp ponds, in the 
S. part of the town. This town is 
very hilly and rocky. The soil is 
hard, but fruitful, when properly 
cultivated. The geology of this 

There ar 

1 springs in Gilman- 
lOD, Lermea minenl ; one of which 
has proved efficacious in cutaneous 
■nd bilious affectioDS. This town 
was granted May 20, 1737, to 24 
persons of the name of Giiman, and 
in2 others. In Dec. 1761, Benja- 
min and John Mudgett, with their 
families, settled here. Dorothy 
Weed, theSrat child, was bom here 
Oct 13, 1T62. An academy was 
founded here in 1764. lis produc- 
tive funds tire about (11,000. The 

Iheological semlnarT at tbU pl*«a 
Is connected with the aeiid«in]r,ud 
Is a flourishing lostitutloll. 

A small township In Cbeibli* 
county, situated about 10 mile* E. 
from the Connecticut. The Mil is, 
in many parts, fsrtiia, and produce* 
good crops of grass and grain. 
Aabuelot river runs thnnigh this 
town and afibrds a good fupply ot 
water for mills, which Is improv- 
ed for cotton and other manubc- 
tures. Gilsum was granted July 
13, 1T63, to MesaiB. (SlbeK, Sum- 
ner and others. From ifae' com- 
bination of the first syllables of tha 
names of these men, it derives the 
uame of Gil-sum. The firstiettle- 
ment was made in 1764. Gilsum 
lies 65 miles 8. W. by V. Irom 
Concord, and about 9 N. (nun 
Keeue. PopulatioD, ISSO, SO. 

Penobscot co. This tonitory 
was called Button, from 1822 to 
1S37. It lies 76 miles N. E. from 
Augusta, and 10 N. N. V. trooi 
Bangor. Population, 18St, 71T. 
Glenburn is situated on both sides 
of the great bend of Kenduskea^ 
stream. It has a water power, but 
the inhabitants are mostly farmers. 
The soil is good, and onksidenbl* 
wheat is raised. 


Bennington co. Thisisatowa- 
ship of 40 square miles of moan- 
tainouB land, more fit lor the resi- 
dence of wild betsli than lium«a 
beings. It is 9 miles N. E. Crou 
Benniagton. Population, 1830. S9. 

Olastaubasy, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town, pre- 
vious to its incorporaUoa in 16M, 
had been attached to WethenfieU. 
It lies DD tbe «*st side of Connecti- 
cut river opposite to Wetlieii^eld, 
8 miles 8. liom BaKiMd. ItlM* ' 


fome 6a« land on Connecticut riv- 
er. The face ot the uplands is rough 
but generally productive. About 
% mile and a half from Connecticut 
river, and 8 mile« from Chatham 
freestone quarry, in a romantic spot 
between me hill8,is a beautiful vil- 
lage connected with the Hartford 
Manufacturing Company. Roar- 
ing brook, at this place, passes 
through a very narrow defile ,afiford- 
ing a fpo^ 8^ constant water pow- 
er. Cotton is manufactured here 
to a conriderable extent, and the 
village is very flourishing. From 
tiie mils around this village a great 
variety of delightful scenery is ob- 
•ervable. Population, 1880, 2,980. 
" In the eastern part of the town 
there is a pond of about a mile in 
circumference, called < Diamond 
pond,' from the circumstance of 
there being small pebbles or stones 
around its margin, having a pe- 
culiar brilUancy. Near Uie cen- 
tre of the tQwn there is a mineral 
spring, whichythough it has acquir- 
ed no celebrity abroad, has been 
thought "by men of science who 
have examined it, to possess valua- 
ble medicinal qualities; and for 
more than one hundred years has 
been known by the name of the 
f Pool of Neipseic' " 

GliNMestery Blass* 

Essex CO. This is a maritime 
township, comprising the whole of 
Cape Ann, and celebrated for the 
enterprise of its people in the fish- 
eries and commercisd pursuits. It 
is one of the oldest fishing estab- 
lishments in the state. This cape 
extends about 8 miles into the sea, 
and jEorms the northern boundary of 
Massachusetts bay. Its harbor is 
eapacious, easy of aceess at any 
peason, ^nd of sufficient water for 
eliips (^ great burthen. Gloucester 
baHior and the chief settlements 
are on the south side. Sandy and 
Squam bays lie on the nortii side, 
about 4 miles from the south har- 
hoB^ lund aflbrd barbon iir small 

vessels. The lights on Thatcher^t 
island bear about northeast 6 miles 
from £Iast Point, the eastern boun- 
dary of Gloucester harbor. At 
early as 1794 the exports from this 
place, in cme year, amounted to 
^230,000. Here are immense quar- 
ries of light and grayish granite, 
which is split with great ease, and 
in large regularly formed blocks. 
This stone is of a fine grain, is easi- 
ly dressed, and can be put on board 
of vessels with little expense. The 
demand for this stone is rapidly in- 
creasing, and the quarrying, ham- 
mering, and transporting it gives 
employment to many men and ves- 
sels. The canal across the neck 
of the cape has failed of that suc- 
cess which was anticipated. The 
manufacture of palm-leaf hats, 
boots, shoes, hats, vessels, chairs, 
tin and cabinet wares, in Uie year 
ending April 1, 1837, amounted to 
$46,726. In t)kat year there were 
221 vessels employed in the cod 
and mackerel fishery, the tonnage 
of which was 9,824 tons. They 
took 55,181 quintab of cod fish, and 
48,934 barrels of mackerel: 118,- 
760 bushels of salt was i|sed, and 
1,580 hands employed. The value 
of the cod and mackerel taken was 
$522,082. There are belonging to 
this place a great number of vessels 
engaged in foreign and domestic 
trade. The total tonnage of the 
district in 1887 was 18,802 tons. 
This town lies in N. lat. 42« 86', 
W. Ion. 70^ 40', and was incorpora- 
ted in 1689. Population, 1820; 
6,884 ; 1830, 7,518 ; 1887, 8,822. 
It lies 29 miles N. E. from Boston, 
and 16 N. E. by £. from Salem. 
Gloucester is a very pleasant town, 
and a delightful retreat in summer 

Cdoifteeeteri R« I* 

Providence co. This large and 
respectable manufacturing town 
lies 16 miles W. S. W. from Provi- 
dence, and 50 E. by N. from Hart- 
ford, Fint settled, 1700. Ineorpo- 


nted, 17S0. The surface of the 
town is somewhat bn^en by hills, 
.but the soil is well adapted to agri- 
cultural purposes, particularly to 
grazing. Gloucester furnishes laige 
supplievr of various products for 
mariEet There are fine forests in 
several parts of the town, and large 
quantities of ship and other timber 
are conveyed to Providence and 
other places. The Chepachet and 
some smaller streams give Glou- 
cester a good water power. Man- 
ufacturing establishments are very 
numerous, and Gloucester yields to 
but few towns in New England in 
the value of this branch of indus- 
try, particulariy in the manufac- 
ture of cotton. Population, 1830, 

Glover, JTU 

Orleans co. Glover was first set- 
tled in 1797. It lies 33 miles N. 
N. E. from Montpelier, and 12 S. 
by E. from Irasburgh. The town 
is hilly, and the soil is more fit for 
grazing than tillage. There are 
about 3,2<M) sheep in the town. 
There are in the town branches of 
Barton's, Passum)>8ic, Lamoille, and 
Black rivers, and several ponds. 
On these streams are some manu- 
factures, but none of any great 
importance. Population, 1830,902. 
We copy an account of the rufi' 
ning off of Long Pond, from 
Thompson's valuable Gazetteer of 

"Long pond was situated partly 
in this township and parily in 
Greensborough. This pond was 
one and a half miles long, and about 
half a mile wide, and discharged its 
waters to the south, forming one of 
the head branches of the river La- 
moille. On the 6th of June, 1810, 
about 60 persons went to this pond 
for the purpose of opening an out- 
let to the north into Barton river, 
that the mills, on that stream, might 
receive an occasional supply of wa- 
ter. A small channel was excava- 
ted, and the water commenced ma- 

ning in a nortiieriy directioQ. It 
happened that the nordiem barrier 
of the pond consisted entirely of 
quicksand, except an encrusting of 
clay next the water. The sand 
was immediately removed by the 
current,and a large channel formed. 
The basin formed by the encrusting 
of clay was incapable of sustaining 
the incumbent mass of waters, and 
it brake. The whole pond imme- 
diately took a northeriy cxHirse, and, 
in fifteen minutes from this time, its 
bed was left entirely bare. It was 
discharged so suddenly that the 
country below was instantly inun- 
dated. The deluge advanced like 
a wall of waters, 60 or 70 feet in 
height, and 20 rods in width, level- 
ing the forests and the hills, and 
filling up the valleys, and sweeping 
off mills, houses, barns, fences, cat- 
tle, horses and sheep as it passed, 
for the distance of more tfaain ten 
miles, and barely giving the inhab- 
itants sufiEiciei^J notice of its ap- 
proach to escape with their lives in- 
to the mountains. A rock, suppos- 
ed to weigh more than 100 tons, 
was removed half a mile from its 
bed. The waters removed so rap- 
idly as to reach Mempfaremagog 
lake, distance 27 miles, in alwut 
six hours from the time they left 
the pond. Nothing now remains 
of the pond but its bed, a part of 
which is cultivated and a part over- 
grown with bushes and wild grass, 
with a small brook running through 
it, which is now the head branch 
of .Barton river. The channel 
through which the waters escaped 
is 127 feet in depth and several 
rods in width. A pond, some dis- 
tance below, was, at first, entirely 
filled with sand, which has since 
settled down, and it is now aboat 
one half its former dimensions. 
Marks of the ravages are still to be 
seen through nearly the whole 
course of Barion river." 

Hillsborough oo., is 18 mUee N* 


by £. from Amherst, and 16 S. from 
Coocord. Piscataquog river, the 
tribatary branches of which unite 
near the W. line of the town, runs 
through its centre in an £. direc- 
tion, and falls into Merrimack riv- 
er at Piscataquog village in Bed- 
ford. Large quantities of lumber 
are annually floated down this riv- 
er to the Merrimack, and most of 
the mill privileges are derived from 
this valuable stream. ' There are 
two considerable elevations in the 
S. W. part of the town, which ob- 
tained from the Indians the name 
of Un-can-nU'riitc. On the rivers 
are considerable tracts of valuable 
intervale. Back from the rivers 
commence extensive plains, easy of 
cultivation, and producing abun- 
dant crops of Indian corn and rye. 
From these plains the land rises 
OB each side of Piscataquog river 
into. large swelb. In this town 
there is an extensive cotton factory. 
The Groffstown Manufacturing Com- 
pany are erecting a large woolen 
factory at a flourishing village, in 
the W. part of the- town, on Piscat- 
aquog river. Population, 1830, 

Dr. JdrATHAX Govs, a man 
distingoished for his urbanity, his 
talents and professional skill, resid- 
ed in this town. He was one of 
the oldest practitioners of medicine 
in the county. He was many years 
an active member of the legisla- 

C^ldahoronglkf Me. 

Hancock co. This is a large 
township, on the Atlantic ocean, 
containing a number of excellent 
harbors, and nearly surrounded by 
water. It is admirably located for 
all the various pursuits in naviga- 
tion. Goldsborough harbor, on the 
E. side of the town, is -capacious and 
easy of approach by almost any 
wind. Frenchman*! bay extends 
on the W. side of the town sind af- 
fords it many x^ommerclal advanta- 
ges. It lias 99 miles £. iWim Au- 

gusta, 27 S. £. from Ellsworth, and 
is bounded by Sullivan on the N. 
Incorporated, 1789. Popula.^on, 
1880,880; 1837, 1,047. 

Qorhmnkf Me* • 

Cumberland co. This town ii 
watered on the N. E. side by Pre- 
sumpscut river,and the Cumberland' 
and Oxford canal. It is 9 miles W. 
N. W. from Portland, and 63 S. W. 
from Augusta. Gorham was first 
settled in 1736, by John Phinney 
and others from Barnstable county,' 
Mass. Maine was at that time 
almost a wilderness. Portland, Sa- 
co and Scarborough were very fee- 
ble in consequence of the depreda- 
tions of the Indians. These peo- 
ple endured great privations, and 
for many years were in constant 
apprehension of attack by the sav- 
ages. <*The wives and daugh- 
ters of the first settlers of Gorham 
shared in all the toils and wants of 
their husbands and fathers; they 
used to labor in the field, carry bur- 
dens, go to mill, and aid in defence! 
of their property. One time when 
most of the men were away, the 
Indians attacked the fort, and the 
wife of Hugh McLellan rallied the 
women in the garrison, shut the 
gates, mounted the walls, fired up- 
on the Indians, and by her courage 
and activity baffled the enemy till 
succor arrived.** 

Rev. Solomon Lombard, a native 
of Truro, Mass., was the first set- 
tled minister. His annual salary 
was £53, 68. 8d. He was ordained 
Dec. 26, 1750. One hundred and 
twenty dollars were raised to defray 
the expenses of the ordinatiop. 
We copy the following from the 
list of supplies for that occasion, to 
show the prices of some articles at 
that period. 

1 barrel of flour, £14 78. ed. 
8 bushels of. apples, 2 8 

2 barrels of cider, 9 
2 gallons of brandy, 6 

1 bottle of vinegar, 6 

2 cheeses, 6<2. per lb. 


54) Ibi. of pork. Id, per lb. 
6 candles, £0 U,Od. 

1 oz. of nutmegs, 10 
8 fowls, 1 16 

29 Ibs.^sugar, 8 14 

1 teapot, 1 10 
4 gallons of rum, 6 4 

2 bushels cranberries, 2 
1 lb. of tea, 10 
1 lb. of ginger, 2 
6 gals, molasses, 2s. 8d, per gal. 
4 oz. of pepper, 6 

Gorham is yery pleasantly loca- 
ted : its soil is of a superior quali- 
ty :' it has a flourishing academy, on 
a solid foundation : it is a place of 
considerable trade, and of exten- 
sive manufactures of cotton, wool, 
leather, starch, and gunpowder. 
Gorham has produced many men of 
talents, among which were eminent 
jurists and statesmen. It is noted 
for its attachment to the principles 
of the revolution. 

From 1807 to 1834, twenty per- 
sons died in Gk>rham, whose aver- 
age age was 94 years. Population, 
1837, 3,022. 

Coos CO., is a rough and unpro- 
ductive township lying on the north- 
erly base of the White mountains, 
and bounded E. by Shelbume, N. 
by Berlin, and W. by Randolph, 
and id 96 miles N. from Concord. 
Several streams descend from the 
mountains through this town into 
the Androscoggin. It was former- 
ly called ShelMime Addition, but 
was incorporated by its present 
name June 18, 1886. Population 
in 1880, 111. 

GNislieny IV* Hay 

Sullivan co.. Is bounded N. by 
Newport and Wendell, £. by New- 
bury, S. by Washington, and W. by 
Lempster and Unity. It is 42 miles 
W. by N. from Concord. Croydon 
turnpike passes through Goshen. 
From Sunapee mountain, lying in 
the £. part of this town, sprhig ma- 

ny small sti^ams, which vliHe te 
forming Susar river. Rand's pond 
is in the N. £. part <^ the tomib 
The soil is particularly calclUated 
for the production of grass. It wa0 
incorporated Dec. 27, 1791. Tb^ 
first settlement was made about the 
year 1769, by Capt. Benjamin Rand, 
William Lang, and Daniel Grindle, 
whose sufferings and hardships were 
very great. The crops of tiie first 
settlers were greatly injured, and 
sometimes entirely destroyed by 
early frosts. In such cases they 
procured grain from Walpole and 
other places. At a certain time of 
scarcity, Capt. Rand went to that 
place after grain, and being detain- 
ed by a violent snow storm, his 
family was obliged to live without 
provision for six days, during which 
time Mrs. Rand sustained one of 
his children, 5 years old, by the milk 
from her breast, having a short time 
before buried her infant diild. B(^- 
ulation in 1830, 772. 

Ck^slieiiy HU 

Addison co. First settled, 1800. 
Population, 1830, 655. Goshen lies 
30 milea S. W. from Montpeliery 
and 15 S. £. from Middlebury. Lei- 
cester and Philadelphia rivers sup- 
ply the town with mill privileges. 
The lands along the rivers are very 
good, but in general they are too 
mountainous for profitable cultiva* 
tion. Some minerals are found in 
this town. 

CUMhe»y Vwuu 

Hampshire co. A mountainous 
town, 103 miles W. by N. from Bos- 
ton, and 12 N. W. from Northamp- 
ton. Some valuable minerals are 
found here, such as emeralds, lead, 
and tin. The manufactures of Go- 
shen are small, chiefly of boots ettd 
shoes. The value of 8,048 fleeees 
of wool, produced in 1887, was told 
for ^4,500. Population, 1687, 600. 

Goslieiiy Ct. 

Litchfield CO. First settled, ITW. 


Incorporated, 1749. PopulatioD, 
18S0, 1,784. Gmben lies 6 miles 
N. from Litchfield, 42 N. N. W. 
from New Haven, and 82 W. from 
Hartford. Great attention is paid 
hi this town to the education of 
youth. Ivy mountain, in Goshen, 
is considered the most elevated point 
of land in the state ; its summit pre- 
^ntf an extensive and delightful 
prospect. ** Goshen is the most ele- 
vated^township in the state, but not 
generally mountainous ; the surface 
being undulating, affording an in- 
teresting diversity of hills and vales. 
The soil is a gravelly loam, deep, 
strong and fertile, adoairably adapt- 
ed for grazing. This is one of the 
best towns for the dairy business in 
the state. Large quantities of cheese 
are annually made, the fame of 
which is widely and justly celebrat- 
ed, and the inhabitants are general- 
ly in prosperous circumstances. In 
neatness, in and about their dwell- 
ings, and in the appearance of gen- 
eral comfort and prosperity, tiiey 
are not exceeded, if equalled, by 
any towj^ in the state." 

GosporC» S* H« 

See I8le9 of Shoali, 

Gvafttfn CouAtjr, N« H. 

ffaverhiU and Plymouth are the 
county towns. 

This county extends from lat. 48^ 
27' to 440 22/ N. It is 68 miles in 
length, and its greatest breadth is 
80 miles. It contains 828,628 acres, 
besides a large tract of ungranted 
land. It is bounded N. by the coun- 
ty of Coos, £. by Strafford, S. by 
Merrimack, and W. by the state 
of Vermont Grafton county is wa- 
tered by Connecticut river, on 
which are several pleasant and 
flourishing towns ; by Pemigewas- 
■et, and I^wer Amonoqsuck riven, 
and by many smaller streams. — 
Squam and Newfound lakes are the 
largest collections of water. The 
former, of which a considerable 
part lies in Strafford county, has 


been much celebrated for its pic- 
turesque beauties. Its numeroui 
angular projections, the variety of 
its islands covered with wood, and 
the vicinity of lofty mountains, ren* 
der it an object peculiarly interest- 
ing. There are numerous eleva- 
tions which come under the name 
of mountains. Those of the most 
importance are Gardner's in Ly- 
man, Peaked in Bethlehem, Moose- 
hillock in Coventry, Cushman's and 
the Blue mount in Peeling, Carres 
in Warren and Ellsworth, Moose in 
Hanover, and Cardigan in Orange. 

A large portion of Grafton county 
is mountainous and hilly, but this 
circumstance does not prevent its 
productiveness. It presents fine 
tracts for pasturage, a large propor- 
tion of arable land, and on Uie riv- 
ers, extensive and fertile intervales. 

This county is emphatically a 
wool growing county, and there 
were, in 1837, more than 120,000 
sheep within its borders. 

The first settlement in this county 
was made at Lebanon, and this was 
the first settlement on Connecticut 
river north of Charlestown. It was 
constituted a county, March 19, 
1771, and received its name in 
honor of Augustus Henry Fitzroy, 
Duke of Grafton. Population in 
1775, 3,597; in 1790, 12,449; in 
1800, 20,171; in 1810,28,462; in 
1820, 32,989; and in 1830, 38,691. 

Grafton CO., is bounded N. E. by 
Orange, S. E. by Danbury, S. W. 
by Springfield, and N. W. by En- 
field. It is 36 miles N. W. from 
Concord, and 18 S. E. from Part- 
mouth college. It is watered by 
branches of Smith's and Mascomy 
riven. Heard's river, a small trib- 
utary to Smith's river, watera the 
S. E. part. There are 5 ponds. 
The largest, containing from 200 to 
800 acres, is called Grafton pond. 
Two are named Mud ponds. The 
surface of Grafton is very hilly, in 
some parts very mountainous ; and 


the soil is so rocky as, in many 
places, to be unfit for cultivation. 
There are, however, some good 
tracts of land. The Grafton turn- 
pike, leading from Andover to Or- 
ford bridge, passes through the £. 
part, and the 4th N. H. turnpike, 
from Concord to Hanover, through 
the W. part. In this tovirn there is 
a remarkable ledge, called the Pin- 
nacle, on the S. sid« of which the 
ground rises by a gradual ascent to 
the summit; but on the N. side, it 
falls nearly 150 feet, within the dis- 
tance of 6 or 8 feet. Isinglass, as 
it is commonly called, is found in a 
state of great purity in Glass Hill 
mountain. It adheres in the form 
of lamina to rocks of white and yel- 
low quartz. The usual size of these 
lamina is about G inches square, but 
some have been found much larger. 
It requires much labor to obtain 
this glass, which, when prepared, 
is transported to Boston, and from 
thence exported to Enj^land. It is 
found on the £. side <h the moun- 
tain,* which is 200 feet high. Graf- 
ton was granted Aug. 14, 1761, 
to Ephraim Sherman and others. — 
The first permanent settlement was 
made in May, 1772, by Capt. Jo- 
seph Hoyt, from Poplin. .Capt. 
Alexander Pixley and wife* were 
the second family who settled here. 
Incorporated in 1778. Population 
in 1830, 1,207. 

Grafton, Vt.. 

Windham co. Grafton Is finely 
watered by Sexton's river,which is 
formed in the town by the union of 
several streams ; and by a braneh 
of Williams' river. On these streams 
are mai^ufactures of woolen and 
other goods. Soap-stone of an ex- 
cellent quality is very abundant in 
this place. It is manufactured by 
water power for various uses to a 

freat extent : it is bored for aque- 
ucts and sold at a very low price. 
This town contains two pleasant 
and flourishing villages, and a great 

variety of mineral treasure^ Its 
surface is uneven with a strong and 
productive soil. Grafton was first 
settled, 1780, Population, 1830, 
1,439. It lies 90 miles S. from 
Montpelier, and 18 'N. from New* 

Grafton, Mass. 

Worcester co. This important 
manufacturing town, the HcusanO' 
misco of the Indians, was incorpo- 
rated in 1735. It lies 36 miles S. 
W. by W. from Boston, and 9 S. E. 
from Worcester. Population, 1830, * 
1,889 ; 1837, 2,910. Black^stone riv- 
er and several large ponds give this 
town a constant and valuable water 
power. There are 5 cotton and 1 
woolen mills. The total ambunt of 
the manufactures of Grafton,the year 
ending April 1, 1837, was $1,052, 
448. The manufactures consisted 
of cotton and woolen goods, boots, 
shoes, leather, scythes, chairs, tin, 
cabinet and wooden ware?, shoe 
tools and bricks. The manufac- 
ture of boots and shoes amounted 
to $()14,141, employing 1,892 males 
and females. Grafton has a fine 
soil, is beautifully located, and ex- 
ceedingly flourishing. 

Granbjr, Vt* 

Essex CO. This town Is nearly 
allied to Ferdinand, both in loca- 
tion and the character of the soil. 
Granby lies the next town S. of it, 
and 97 people, it is said, reside with- 
in the limits of Granby. 

Granby, Mass* 

Hampshire co. This town lies 
iO miles W. by S. from Boston, and 
9 S. E. from Northampton. Incor^ 
porated, 1768. It has good fidi 
ponds and two small streams. There 
are two woolen mills in the town 
and 2,067 sheep. The wool, in 
1837, sold for $3,670. Population, 
1837, 922. It is said that copper 
ore of a good quality is found in 


Hartford co. This town was in- 
corporated Id 1786, and was that 
part of Simsbury which coataia* 
tha fuaouiSimaburyminsi; the old 
■tale priwiii of Connecticut Tlie 

is ndn' worked, aa formerly, as a 
copper mine. Thia odious place, 
unfit for the residcDce of the norsl 
of crimiDlJs, is 16 miles N. N. 
W. from Hartford. Ti>epitor cav- 
ern is more than 60 feet in dejiih, 
dark, damp and dismal. The nrorst 
Higma (hat csn be cast on the good 
people of Connecticat is, that thia 
lafemal region was suffered la re- 
main nearly 40 years the abode 
of their fellow beings. There are 
some bills in Granby of considera- 
ble elevatloa. Barndoor hilU rise 
between fburaild five hundred feet, 
and have the appearance of hBTing 
been separated by some convulsion 
of nature. Turkey hiili and' Sal- 
monbrookue pleasant villages, and 
have the appeiranca of prosperity. 
Farmiogtou liver waters the for- 
mer, and a branch of that river, the 
latter. Population, 18S0, 3,722. 

QraMd Isle Caamtj-, Tb 
JVortk Hero is the county tnwn. 
This county comprises a gn>up of 
Islands In Lake Champlain, and a 
point of land jutting into the N. 
part of that lake on the S. aide of 
the Canada line, on which Albiir|i;li 
is sitaated. This county comniii" 
about 80 square miles: moat of the 
land la level and excellent for graz- 
ing and tillage. Thla county hiia 
no conriderable streams, but its nar- 
' Igable l^cllitleB are very great. It 
was first settled aboat the cIoeg of 
tbe revolutionary war. Incorpora- 
ted, 180S. It contained. In ]S3T, 
about 16,000 sheep. Population, 
1820, S,S37; 1SS0,S,69S. Popiila- 
tton to a square mile, 46. 

bounded on all aides by Lake Cham- 
plain cxcepl on the S., where it U 
bounded by South Hero, from which 
it was taken in 1309. It lies 60 
miles N. W. from Montpelier, and 
18 N. by W. from Burlington.— 
First settled, 1783. Population, 
1830, 643. The soil of the town is 
Fery fertile ; it producea fine crops 
of grain and an abundance of fruit 
and cider. Marble, lime-stone, rock 
crystals. Sic, are found here, and 
Grand Isle contains the only water 
mil] in the county. This is a fine 
place for fishing and IbwUng. 
Thia ia a large collectioD of wa- 
ter, lying partly in the county of 
Washington, Me., and partly in 
New Brunswick. Itcootainsalarge 
number of ialanda: it receives the 
waters of many small lakes and 
rivers,and is the chief sourceof the 
river St. Craii. It lies about 90 
milea N. E. from Bangor. 

Sullivan co., is bounded N. by 
Enfield, E. by Springfield, S. by 
Croydon, and W. by Plainfield, 
which separates it from Connecticut 
river. It is 12 milea S. E. from 
Dartmouth college, and 45 N. V. 
from Concord. There are T or 8 
ponds, (be largest of which lies in 
the S. E. part of the town and Is 
called Eastman's pond, containing 
nearly 300 acres. Another, lying 
near the centre of the town, con- 
(aina nearly 200 acres. Croydon 
mounlain extends through the west- 
, erly part of Grantham In a direc- 
tion from S. W. to N. E. The smi 
is productive, especially on the W. 
of the mountain. It aeems to he 
nun favorable for wheat than any 
other species of grain. The moun- 
tain aflbrds good pasturage, and the 
lower land yields grass in abund- 
ance. On the £. side of the moun- 


m«r season. On the sun^mlC of 
Croydon mountain is a natural pond, 
containing about 50 acres. This 
town was first granted July 11, 
1761, but the proprietors not fulfill- 
ing tile conditions of the charter, it 
was forfeited. In 1767, it was re- 
granted to Col. William Symmes and 
68 others, by the name of Grart' 
tham. Incorporated in 1761. Pop- 
ulation, in 1880, 1,079. 

GraavlUe, Vt. 

Addison co. See Barnard, Me, 

OrAnvllle, Hast* 

Hampden co. This is a moun- 
tainous township, 110 miles W. S. 
W. from Boston, and 14 W. from 
Springfield. It contains good soap- 
stone and 1,500 sheep. The wool 
sold in 1887 for $2,572. There are 
some manufactures in Granville of 
pocket books, boots, shoes, leather, 
and silver ware. Although the 
land is high, the soil in many parts 
is very good and prii«feactive. The 
village is very pleasant Incorpora- 
ted, 1754. Population, 1887, 1,489. 

OxmYf Me* 

Cumberland co. This is a fine farm- 
ing town, watered by branches of 
North Yarmouth and Presumpscot 
rivers, and containing a large part of 
Little Sebago pond. It lies 17 miles 
N. by W. from Portland and 44 S. 
W. from Augusta. Incorporated, 
1778. Population, 1837, 1,671. 
Gray is a pleasant town and a place 
of considerable trade and some man- 

Great Barriaston, Ham* 

Berkshire co. A very pleasant 
town in the valley of Housatonick 
river, 125 miles W. by S. from .Bos- 
ton, and 14 S. from Lenox. jacoT- 
porated, 1761. Population, 1887, 
2,440. Monument mountain, in 
this town, is quite lofty : it presents 
lome wild and picturesque scenery. 
Here are good iron ore, beautifully | 

variegated marble, and a good mill 
stream. The soil on the banks of 
the Housatonick is fertile and the 
uplands are well adapted for craz- 
ing. The manufactures conswt oi 
cotton and woolen goods, boots, 
shoes, leather, hats, pig inm, lasts, 
tin ware, bevils an^f^ages. To- 
tal amount of manatactures in one 
year, $122,869. This town the 
same year (1887) produced 2,657 
fleeces of merino wool, valued at 

OvtmUBmya, IT. H. 

The largest is that Ijrine XL frota. 
New Market, formed bv me^nited 
waters of Swamscot, Winnicut, and 
Lamprey rivers. It is 4 miles wide, 
and 9X some seasons is picturesque 
41. ONinected with the surrounding 
se^ery. This bay has Newington 
on Ate £., Greenland And Strraam 
on the S., and New Market and 
Durham W. : its waters pass N. E.. 
through Little bay, where Oyster 
river unites with the current which 
passes into the Piscataqua. 

Great-Bay, between Sanbomton 
and Meredith, is a body of wa- 
ter, connected with Winnepisiogee 
lake, and discharging its waters in- 
to Winnepiriogee river. Round and 
Long bays are situated between the 
lake and Great Bay, and there are 
two small bays on die river below 

Great Island, Kt BE* 

See JVew Castle. 

Great lirorlu Streami He* 

This stream has a number of trib- 
utaries, and is an important branch 
of the Penobscot. It has many sites 
for mills, and falls into the Penob- 
scot, on the £. side, opposite to flie 
Indian settlement at Oldtown. At 
its confluence with the Penobteot 
there is a considerable village. 

There is anotlier stream of this 
name, which rises in York county, 
and passes to Salmon Fall river, tt 
South Berwick. 


Bitetmmf Me. a favorite spot of the aoni of the 

Kennebec CO. Greene ha« several f****®*** '^^^^ are five ponds; tiie 

nds, but no good mill privileges. ^^?^^^ ^J?»\t ?Jf ™»*« ^"l ^^ngA, 

ies on the E. side of Androscog- ^^ one third of its length m width, 

sin river, 6 miles above LewUton, *JL« °"* settlement commenced In 

ind 22 S. W. from Augusta. It is ^^^' ^y Capt Alexander Paric- 

ah excellent larming town, and ^> f^^^^^ ^: Whittemore. Simeon 

produced, inter, 3,278 bushels of ^^^T^f^'^^^^^^f"' Itwa"»?w- 

wheat. Incorporated, 1788. Pop. P^™*!"^",^ ^^' "^^- Population, 

nlatioh, 1837, 1,866. ^^ *^^' ®*^- 

Greenbndi, Me. Greenfield, Maeiu 

Penobscot CO. This territory was ^ ^*>"?*y t^^^;"' S*'!!^^*''/^* ""^ 

called the Olammon Plantation, town lies on ths W. side of Connec 

until its incorporation in 1834.- ticut nver, and is washed by Green 

OlaMion stream, one of the most "''®\"V!?^®i^®''*J°j" ^^^^\^ 

beautiful tributaries of the Penob- ^'"^'^^.^ °(,^f Deerfield. The vil- 

scot, joins that river, on the E. side, '^«^ ^« ^}^f^^^ ""^""l } miles from 

in G^enbush, affording an exten- Connecticut nver and is very beau- 

sive hydraulic power. Greenhush ^^°\ »^.,??"7;**»^«- iP^-^it J' * 

is a flourishing ^ace, and Hup yNmt ^f ^^J °^'",? Greenfield withfour 

25 miles N.^by E. fH)m bXot. »f*« ^^'^^''^i^' T'^*!!"*"^^'^" 

Population, 1830, 833; 1837rW6. tures of boots, shoes, leather, hats, 

' > > 7 9 jj^Q castings, chairs, cabinet and 

Oreenfleld, Me. tin wares, saddles, harnesses,trunks, 

. stove and lead aqueduct pipe, iron 

Hancock CO. This town was in- ^^^k, guM* pistols, rifles, coach- 

corporate^ in 1834. It was No. 88 pg, wagons, liiooks, &c. The total 

•^% ^»«fi:Aam Purcluut, See amount of manufactures, for the 

" J>own East. ye^ ending April 1, 1887, was 

Ctoeenfleld IT. H. $164,844. The value of wool, the 

' * *' product of 2,158 fleeces, sheared in 

Hillsborough co., is bounded N. 1837, was $3,404. There is an 

by Francestown and Society-Land, academy for young ladies in this 

£. by Frmeestown and Ljrndebo- town, a farming school for young 

rough, S. by Lyndeborough and men, and some iron and copper ores. 

Temple, and W. by Peterborough Greenfield lies 95 miles W. by N. 

and Hancock. It is 14 miles W. from Boston, and 22 N. from North- 

N. W. from Amherst, and 38 S. W. ampton. Incorporated, 1768. Pop- 

from Concord. Contoocook river ulation, 1830, 1,540; 1837, 1,840 

forms part of the W. boundary, and i j -w w 

separates this town from Hancock. Greeaiana, N. H., 

The soil is generally fertile. The Rockingham co., is situated five 
hills affiird excellent pasturage ; the miles W.S. W. from Portsmouth, and 
▼alleys and plains are favorable for 45 E.S.E. from Concord : it is bound- 
grain. Hops are raised in great ed N. by the Great-Bay and New- 
abundance. A part of Crotched ington, £. by Portsmoutii and Rye, 
mountain rises from the N. part, 4Jnr North-Hampton, and W. by 
flmd part of Lyndeborough mountain Stmham. The soil is remarkably 
from the S. and E. sections of this good. The orchards and gardens 
town. There are some valuable of this town are valuable, and yield 
meadows; in one of them have annual profits to the farmers. — 
been found many Indian relics, from Greenland, originally a part of Ports- 
which it is conjectured that it was mouth, was incorporated as a dis- 



tinct town in 1708. Settlements 
commenced early, and in 1705 there 
were 820 inhabitants. 

Rev. Samxtxi. M'CLiirTOCK, 
D. D., who died in the 48th year 
of his minbtry, was bom at Med; 
ford, Mass., May 1, 1782; gradua- 
ted at the New Jersey college in 
1751; ordained, in 1756; and died 
April 27, 1804, aged 72. His fa- 
ther was a native of Ireland. Dr. 
M'CIintock was a sound divine, em- 
inent as a preacher, and distinguish- 
ed for his attachment to the cause 
of his country. He served as a 
chaplain in the army of the revolu- 
tion. Population in 1880, 681. 

Green Mountains* 

This range of mountains rises in 
Lower Canada. They pass nearly 
through the centre of Vermont, 
from N. to S., and the westerly 
parts of the states of Massachusetts 
and Connecticut, and terminate near 
New Haven, on Long Island Sound. 
From their green appearance they 
give the name to Vermont, and de- 
crease in height as they approach 
the south. The north pea]c,in Mans- 
field, Vt., is the greatest elevation, 
being 4,279 feet above the surface 
of la^e Champlain. 

Green Btvenu 

Green, or Quodotchquoik river, 
in the N. E. part of Penobscot coun- 
ty, Maine, is an important branch 
of the St. John's, and joins that riv- 
er about 24 miles W. from the line 
of New Brunswick. 

Green river, in Massachusetts , 
rises in the high lands at the N. W. 
comer of Berkshire county ; it pas- 
ses^ N. W. through Williamstown, 
and the S. W. comer of Vermont, 
andjoins the Hoosick in N. Y. 

There are several smaller streams 
In New England of the same name. 

Greensboronf^by Vt. 

Orleans co. William Scott Shep- 
•rd, bom March 25, 1789, was the 
first white chil^ brought forth in 

this town. For his good fortane in 
this respect, the proprietors of tho 
township gave him 100 acres of 
lamd. "I&autiiul lake "and mto- 
ral other lakes and ponds in this 
town, form a part of the head wa* 
ters of the river Lamoille. This 
town is well timbered: the sur- 
face is not very elevated ; the soil 
in general is good, particularly for 
grazing. 1 1 produces some fine cat- 
tle, and keeps about 4,000 sheep. 
Population, 1830, 784. 

GreenTllley He* 

Piscataquis CO. The « Haskell 
Plantation," incorporated in'lM. 
109 miles from Augusta. Popular 
tion, 1837, 182. See " Down East" 

Greenwlelif Mass* 

Bampshire co. There are a num- 
ber of ponds in this town, by which, 
and Swift river passing through i^ 
a good water power is acquired. 
There is a woolen mill in the town, 
and manufactures of shoes, boots, 
palm-leaf hats, and scythes. In- 
corporated, 1754. Popu]ation«1887, 
842. Greenwich lies 75 miles W. 
from Boston, and 17 N. £. from 
Northampton. - 

Green-vrlelfcy CU 

Fairfield co. The settlement of 
this town commenced in 1640, and 
was incorporated by Stujrveeant, 
the Dutch governor at New York, 
in 1665. Greenwich comprises Aree 
parishes or villages, — West Greefr> 
wich, Greenwich on the £. and 
Stanwich on the N. West Green- 
wich, on Horse JVeek, so called 
from a peninsula on the Sound foc^ 
merly used as a horse pasture, it the 
largest and most important part of 
the town. Greenwich is watered 
by Byran river, the boundary line 
between the town and state ofNew 
York, and the most southern part of 
New England. At the outlet of 
Byran river, on the New York side, 
is a place called SmopitM, aaoted 
landing place oa the Sound, 28 milw 


K. E iroiri New York. MiannBs 
creek and other smallei; streams 
frater the town. 

A great battle took place between 
flie Dutch and Indians at Horse 
Neck, in 1646. The action was 
long and severe, both parties fight- 
ing with much obstinacy. The 
Dutch with much difficulty kept 
the field, and the Indians with- 
drew. Great numbers were slain 
on both sides, and the graves of the 
dead, for a century or more, appear- 
ed like a number of small hills. 

« Putnam's Hill is situated in 
West Greenwich, about five miles 
W. fit>m Stamford, on the main road 
to New York. This place is cele- 
brated for the daring exploit of Gren- 
eral Putnam, who descended this 

Srecipice when pursued by the Brit- 
th dragoons." 

Greenwich is a rough and uneven 
township, with a productive soil. 
It presents some wild scenery along 
ibe road, and many beautiful views 
of X^ng Island Sound. It lies 48 
miles w, S. W. from New Haven, 
and 20 W. S. W. from Fairfield. 
Population, 18S0, 8,805. 

Gr««aiv^ood) Me* 

Oxford CO. Incorporated, 1816. 
Population, 1887, 764. It Ues 68 
miles W. by S. from Augusta, and 
7 N. W. from Paris. This is a 
township of excellent land. The 
inhabitants are generally engaged 
in agricultural pursuits. 

New London co. This town 
was taken from Proston in 1815, 
and is separated from Lisbon by 
Quenhebaugh river. The Pochaug, 
a sluggish stream, passes throu^ 
tile town. The principal village, 
which is very neat and pretty, con- 
taining about 900 inhabitants, is 
called Jeweit Cfity. The city lies 
on the east side ofme Quennebaug, 
at this place a very powerful stream, 
and contains tiiree extensiva cotton 
laelories, a church, bank, and a. 

number of handsome buildingi.^-^ 
This little city is said to be very 
prosperous in its manufacturing and 
commercial concerns. It lies 8 
miles N. £. from Norwich, and 46 
E. S. £. from Hartford. There are 
other manufactories of cotton in 
this town, and some of wool. The 
surface of Griswold is hilly ; its soil 
a gravelly loam : some produce is 
sent to market, and about 8,000 
sheep are kept. Population, 1880, 

Orotoity N* H«9 

Grafton co., is bound N. by Rum- 
ney, E. by Hebron, S. by Orange, 
and W. by Dorchester. It is 10 
miles S. W. from Plymouth, 46 N. 
W. from Concord, and 16 8. £. from 
Hanover. The north part is wa- 
tered by a branch of Baker's river, 
and the southerly part has sev- 
eral small streams, which fall into 
Newfound lake. There is but one 
pond of any consequence lying whol- 
ly in this town, aiid that is situated 
about a mile N. E. of the meeting- 
house. Groton was granted July 
8, 1761, to George Abt^ and others 
by the naine of Cockermauth. It 
was re-granted, about five years af* 
terwards, to Col. John Hale and oth- 
ers, and the first settlement was 
commenced in 1770. Incorporated 
by the name of Groton, Dec. 1796. 
Population, in 1880, 689. 

Groton, Vt« 

Caledonia co. First settled, 1787. 
Wells river and its branches afibrd 
this town a good water power. — 
There are a number of ponds in 
Groton, well stored with excellent 
fisli, some of which are large and 
handsome. The soil of the town is 
generally hard, but there is some 
choice land along the streams, and 
good timber. 

The wife of a Mr. Page, of this 
town, in the year 1819, produced 
four lusty ** green mountain bojrs" 
at a birth. When domestic manu- 
fkctures of thia description and 


amount, are adduced as evidence 
of the prosperity of a town, it is 
useless to talk about water power, 
cotton factories, or wool growing. 

Groton lies 16 miles £. by S. from 
Montpelier, and 15 S. by W. from 
Danville. Population, 1830, 886. 

Groton, Mass* 

Middlesex co. This is a delight- 
ful town,with an extraordinary good 
soil; 32 miles N. W. from Boston, 
and 13 W. by S. from Lowell. 

Groton was settled soon after 
Concord. It was for some years a 
frontier settlement, and much ex- 
posed to the Indians. In 1676, the 
town was attacked by 400 Indians, 
and all the buildings plundered and 
burnt, except four garrison houses. 

The town is finely watered by 
the Nashua and Squanecook rivers 
and a number of beautiful ponds. 
The buildings are in a style of 
great neatness and taste, and some 
of elegance. This town has a fe- 
male seminary of high reputation, 
and a number of moral and reli- 
gious institutions. The local beau- 
ties of Groton and its facilities for 
education are so great as to induce 
many wealthy families to made it 
their residence. The manufactures 
of Groton consist of paper, axle- 
trees, soap-stone pumps, mathemat- 
ical instruments, clothing, palm- 
leaf hats, chairs, cabinet ware, 
leather, boots and shoes. Incor- 
porated, 1655. Population, 1830, 

Groton, Ct. 

New London co. Groton lies at 
the mouth of the river Thames, in 
the harbor of New London, and op- 
posite to that city, on the £. The. 
lands are generally hilly and rocky, 
with some fertile tracts on the mar- 
gin of the Thames. There are sev- 
eral villages, Chroton Bank, oppo- 
site New London, Portersville, on 
Mystic river, and Pequonnuek. 
The Pequonnuck and Mystic riv- 
en pass through the (own, and emp- 

ty into Long Island Sound. A nuoi- 
berof whale ships and coasting ves- 
sels are owned in this town. This 
is a place of some trade, and consid- 
erable quantities of the produce of 
the county is shipped to New York 
market. Ship building is carried 
on to a considerable extent, on 
the Mystic, which is navieable for 
large vessels about two miles from 
the Sound. About 300 men and 
boys are employed in navigation. 

Previous, to its incorporation, in 
1705, Groton was a part of New- 
London. Population, 1830, 4,705. 

"Groton will ever be memora- 
ble as the theatre of the most im- 
portant and interesting military 
transactions which have taken place 
in the state. In the early settle- 
ment of the country, the fate of 
Connecticut was decided by the 
sword on Pequot hill, withi^ the 
limits of this town, and the Pequots, 
the most haughty and warlike tribe 
of savages in New England, eflec- 
tually crushed by a single blow, 
and their existence as a nation an- 
nihilated. In the war of the revo- 
lution, another of the * high -places 
of Groton became an Aceldama', 
and the flower of her sons were sa- 
crificed to the vengeance ef an in- 
furiated enemy. 

" On the 6th of September, 1781, 
a body of British troops, about 800 
in number, under the command 
of Lieut. Col. Eyre, landed on the 
Groton side, opposite Ae light- 
house, and having found a lame boy 
collecting cattle, compelled him to 
show them the cart path to the fort. 
They landed about 9 o'clock in jQie 
morning of a most delightful day, 
clear and still. Fort Griswpld was 
under the command of Lieut. Cd. 
William Ledyard, brother of tiie 
celebrated traveller of the. same 
name. He resided on Groton bank, 
opposite New London, and was 
much beloved and respected by his 
neighbors. On the advance of the 
enemy. Col. Ledyard, having hut 
about 150 men with him in the frrty 


sent out an officer to get assistance, 
as there were a number of hundreds 
of people collected in the vicinity : 
this officer, by drinking too much, 
became intoxicated, and no rein- 
Ibrcement was obtained. On the 
rejection of a summons to surren- 
der, the British extended their lines, 
to tiiat they were scattered over the 
fields, and rushed on to the attack 
with trailed arms, under the fire of 
th^ Americans, to the assault of 
the fort on three sides. Having 
efifected a lodgment in the ditch, 
fhey cut away 3ie pickets, and hav- 
ing scaling ladders, they entered 
the fort and knocked away the gate 
on the inside. While the British 
were in the ditch, they had cold 
shot thrown on them, and as they 
were entering the embrazures, the 
ffarrison cl^anged their weapons and 
fought desperately with spears or 
pikes, 16 or 16 feet in length, which 
did conriderable execution. Unfor- 
tunately they had lent the greater 
nart of the pikes belonging to the 
rort to a privateer a few days before. 
If ajor Montgomery was hoisted up 
<m the walls of the fort by his sol- 
diers. As he was flourishing his 
sword on his entrance, he was mor- 
tally wounded by Jordan Freeman, 
a colored man, who pierced him 
tiirough with a spear. Another of- 
ficer was killed by a musket ball, 
while in the fort. As he fell, he ex- 
claimed : < Put every one to death, 
don*t spare one.* Col. Ledyard, 
finding further resistance useless, 
presented his sword to an officer, 
who asked him who commanded the 
fort. <I did,' said Col. Ledyard, 
* but you do now.' The officer 
(Capt. Bloomfield) took his sword 
and plunced it into his bosom. Col. 
Ledsrardfell on his face and instant- 
ly expired. An indiscriminate mas- 
sacre now took place, till a British 
officer exclaimed : < My soul can- 
JNDt bear such destruction,* and or- 
dered a pariey to be beat. Such 
had been the butehery in the fort, 
Aat it was over shoes in blood in 

some parts of the parade grooad. 
Soon after the surrender, a wagon 
was loaded with wounded Ameri- 
cans, and set off down the hill; it 
struck an apple tree with great force* 
and knocked several of these bleed- 
ing men out, and caused their in- 
stant death. One of these distress- 
ed men having been thrown ouc of 
the wagon, and while crawling to- 
wards the fence on his hands and 
knees, was brutally knocked on the 
head by the butt end of a musket, 
by one of the refugees who were 
attached to the British army. The 
British embarked at the foot of the 
hill, near the ferry, and took off a 
number of prisoners with them. 
As they left the fort, they set fire 
to a train, intending to blow up the 
magazine, in which were about 100 
barrels of powder. Fortunately it 
was extinguished by our people, 
who entered the fort soon after the 
enemy left it It is stated that the 
enemy lost in the attack on the for^ 
54 killed and 143 wounded, several 
of whom afterwards died of their 
wounds. The killed of the enemy 
were buried by their comrades at 
the gate of the fort, and were so 
slightly covered that many of their 
legs and arms remained above 
ground. Our people who were kill- 
ed at the fort, were stripped, and so 
disfigured, covered with blood and 
dust, that with the exception of 
two or three, they could not be re- 
cognized by their friends, except 
by some particular marks on their 
The monument on Groton Heights, 
in commemoration of the destruction 
of Groton and New London by the 
traitor Arnold, " has its foundation 
stone at an elevation of about 180 
feet above tide water : the monu- 
ment itself is one hundred and twen- 
ty seven feet in height. The pe- 
destal rises about eighteen or twen- 
ty feet, and is twenty three feet 
square: on the pedestal rises an 
obelisk square, ninety twe feet in 
height, twenty two feet square at its 

mw BtiSLuiD sAZKTmx. 

*eD feet at the top 
bj one hnndred and 
liitf 6ve ttoDB sleps, iiuerted inftj 
Ibe enter wilt, ruing io i circolir 
bna, their inner eodi nipported by 
an inn rail >ni) bannister. The mm- 
nmeat is conitmcled of granite, oT 
which there a an abuodaacc in tbi- 
vicinity. The eipenaeof iCi erec- 
lian wai eleven Ibouaand dollari-. 
tfaii amDunt was raiKd by ■ lottery, 
granled by the Jiate for this por- 

The following is the iiucripdon, 
so marble, plac^ over the entrance 
of the monument. 

of jurisdicltoa s 

in the miHacra at Fort Grinold, 

Bear thi> ipot, 

on the Cth of SeptemW, A. D. 1781, 

Hben the 

British, under the coimdaiid 

of the traito), Benedict Arnold, 

bomt the loirns of 

New London and Otoloo, 

and apread deaolalioD and woe 

throughout thia region." 


County town of Easex eo. Ouild- 
hall la diuated on the W. aide of 
Connecticut rirer, and la united to 
Lancaster, N. H., by two bridges 
acroM the rirer. The town is wa- 
tered by aeverel small streams. — 
-The soil of the town is quite udctch 
and stony, except a tract of inter- 
Tile on the river. Cow and Bum- 
side mountains are coadderable ele- 
vadona, and aSbrd excellent views 
of tbe menuderings of the Connec- 
Hent. GuiMball lies 60 miles N. 
E. from Hontpelier, and 90 N. by 
B, tnm Windsor. Fint settled, 
ITB9. Population, 1880, 481. 

Hsotaquia to, Thia town ia Ami 
If watered by the Kacstaqni* "4 
some of its upper biwichea. It is 
of fine sni], and pradnecd in 18IT, 
4,3&5 bushel* of wheal. It baa a 
pleasant villa^, a number ofBuIbi, 
and considenihle trade. Goilfanl 
is 71 miles N. by E. from Aupisl^ 
43 K. W. from Baofw, and W N. ' 
W. from Dover. Incofpwated, IfilC. 
Ft^uliLtion, J8S7, 799. 

Windham co. This town was fitit 
permanently settled in 1T60. IlKes 
125 milea S. from MoDlpelier, IS 
S. by E. from Nenbne, and SO E. 
from Bennington. Population, I8S0, 
1,760. The people of this town 
took an active part in defending tbe 
rights of Vermont againit tho elaimi 
t up b; the alalB 
about the yean 
)TS3-4. Guil&ird produced a num- 
ber of patnots in this as also in Iho 
revoJutioniry cause. Tha aol of 
the town is warm and fertile, sz- 
ceedingly productive of giain^fiuils, 
maple sugar, butter, cheese, pork, 
sheep, horses, and beef cattle. It 
hasjgood mill seats on Green rivar 
and branches of Broad brook, a 
number of manulactariea, ■ medi- 
cinal spring, and vaiioos kinds of 

New Haven CO. This tDWQ, tha 
Menunkatue of the Indians, was 
first settled in 1639. The town WH 
settled by a party of Non-Conform- 
LSts from England, at the head of 
which was the Rev. Henry Whit. 
field. Mr. Whitfield's house, built 
of stone, in 1640, is now standing, 
occupied, and in good repair. The 
cement used in building it. Is said 
ti> be harder than the st<Hie ilialC 
This building was used by the first 
settlers as a fort and placa of refuf* 
BCainst the atttcks of the aMlTe*, 


The first maniaee in the town was 
sDlemnixed in this huilding. The 
treat on the occasion was pork and 
pecu, Guilford borough was incor- 
porated in 1815. It is handsomely 
located two miles from hoag Island 
Sound, on a tract of alluvial plain, 
and near a small stream called the 
Menunkatuc. The buildings in the 
borough are neat, but somewhat 
antiquated in their appearance. — 
Guilford is a place of resort for sea 
air and bathing. The accommoda- 
tions are very good. The scenery 
in the vicinity of Sachem's Head 
is wild and picturesque. The soil 
of Guilford is well adapted to agri- 
cultural pursuits, to which, and some 
coasting trade, the principal part of 
the inhabitants are devoted. It lies 
16 miles £. from New Haven, and 
86 S. from Hartford. Population, 
1830, 2,344. 


One of the county towns of Mid- 
dlesex co. Incorporated, 1668. This 
town lies on both sides of Connec- 
ticut river. Haddam Society, on 
the W. side, is the largest part of 
the town, and the seat of justice. 
That part of Haddam on the E. side 
is called Haddam Neck. There 
is but little alluvial land in Had- 
dam. The principal part of the! 
township is hilly and stony, with * 
considerable forests. There are 
valuable quarries of granite on both 
sides of the river. About 150 men 
are annually employed in quarry- 
ing it, and about $70,000 worth of 
stone is annually exported. There 
are many vessels built at Haddam. 
The timber in this quarter of the 
county is well adapted for that pur- 
pose. The village of Haddam is 
pleasant, and has a good prospect 
of the river. It lies 23 miles S. 
from Hartford, and 8 S. E. from 
Middletown. Population, 1830, 2,- 

David Brainerd, the devoted 
missionary among the Indians, first 
drew his breath in Haddam. 


If the greatnesf of a character 
is t9 be estimated by the object it ^ 
pursues, the danger it braves, the ' 
difficulties it encounters, and the 
purity and energy of its motives, 
David Brainerd is one of the great- 
est characters that ever appeared 
in the world. Compared with this 
standard of greatness, what little 
things are the Alexanders, the Cs- 
sars, the conquerors of the whole 
earth. A nobler object no human 
or angelic mind could ever propose 
to itself than to promote the glory 
of the great Governor of the Uni- 
verse, in studying and laboring to 
diffuse purity and happiness among 
his unholy and miserable creatures. 

" * His life and diary araoDg the 
Indians,' says a celebrated English 
divine, ' exhibits a perfect pattern 
of the qualities which should dis- 
tinguish the instructor of rude and 
barbarous tribes; the most invinci- 
ble patience and self denial, the 
profoundest humility, exquisite pru- 
dence, indefatigable industry, and 
such a devotedness to God, or rath- 
er such an absorption of the whole 
soul in zeal for the divine glory 
and the salvation of men, as is 
scarcely paralleled since the age of 
the apostles.' " 

This faithful servant of Christ 
died at the house of the Rev. Jona- 
than Edwards, at Northampton, 
Mass., October 10, 1747, aged 30. 

Hadley, Mtaa, 

Hampshire co. This is a plea- 
sant town on the E. bank of Con- 
necticut river, and unites with 
Northampton by a beautiful bridge, 
1,080 feet in length. It was first 
settled in 1647. Incorporated, 1661. 
Population, 1837, 1,805. It lies 88 
miles W. from Boston. Two small 
streams afibrd the town some water 
power. Hadley contains a large and 
fertile tract of alluvial meadow. 
The village, situated on the river, 
is pleasant, and contains many neat 
and valuable buildings.' 

Hadley was a retreat of the cele* 


b^ted Goffe and Whalley, two of 
I* the judges who condemned Charles 
^I. for execution. They remained 
secluded here more than fifteen 
years, when Whalley died. Goffe 
died and was buried at New Ha- 
ven, Ct, some years after. 

The manufactures of Hadley con- 
sist of leather, boots, shoes, hats, 
glue, palm-leaf hats, wire, chairs, 
cabinet ware, brooms, and brushes. 
Total value the year ending April 
1, 183T, $117,850. This town is, 
celebrated for raising broom corn. 
The value of brooms manufactured 
was 4^89,248. A considerable quan- 
tity of the unmanufactured materi- 
al was sent to other places. 

HalUkx, Vt. 

Windham co. This township is 
rather elevated, but of good soil, 
finely adapted for grazing. It is 
a place of considerable trade, and 
of manufactures on its numerous 
streams. Its principal streams are 
Green river and a branch of the 
Deerfield. There are some hand- 
some falls of water in Halifax, and 
a curious cave called Dun^t Den. 
The productions of the town are 
butter, cheese, pork, sheep and oth- 
er cattle. The cause of education 
flourishes here, and the people are 
generally independent cultivators 
of the soil. Halifax lies 125 miles 
S. from Montpelier, and 15 S. from 
Newfane. First settled, 1761. — 
Population, 1830, 1,562. 

HalUkz, Mass. 

Plymouth co. The Indian name 
of this place was Monponset^ It 
lies 28 miles S. S. E. from Boston, 
and 12 W. byS. from Plymouth. 
The surface of the town is gener- 
ally level, with considerable good 
soil. Monponset and other ponds 
are large collections of water, and 
the sources of valuable mill privi- 
leges. There are a cotton and wool- 
en mill in the town, and manufac- 
tures of shoes and straw braid ; — 
total annual amoontof manufactures 

about $150,000. Halifax' Was !»• 
corporated in 1784. Populatioii, 
18S7, 781. ' 

Hallo^relli He* 

Kennebec co. Hallowell is de- 
lightfully situated on both sides of 
Kennebec river, between Augusta 
and Gardiner, two miles below the 
former and four miles above the lat- 
ter. The principal village is on the 
W. side of the river. The streets 
run parallel with the river, and the 
ground ascends 200 feet from the 
lower street, or business part of the 
village. On this street are 60 com- 
modious stores, constructed princi- 
pally of brick. Most of the dwell- 
ing houses are on the back or ele- 
vated streets : they are built, as are 
the churches, with great taste, and 
being surrounded by beautiful 
groves, make a fine appearance. 
The varied views of the river, the 
neighboring towns, and of a fer- 
tile country of hills and vales, pre- 
sented from the high grounds on 
each side of the village, form an ex- 
hibition of scenery of uncomnuia 
excellence. Hallowell is about 8 
miles in width, and extends back on 
each side of the river 5 miles. It 
was incorporated in 1771, and in- 
cluded all the territory of Augusta 
and a part of Gardiner. From this 
place the brave but traitorous Ar- 
nold marched on an expedition 
against Canada, in 1776. 

There is one water mill in the 
town ; two saw mills, an iron foun- 
dry and machine shop, worked by 
steam. Steam boats ply from this 
place to Portland and Boston, dur- 
ing the season of navigation. There 
is considerable tonnage at this place: 
a number of vessels are engaged in 
the freighting business, and others 
run as packets to various places. 

The principal exports are lumber, 
granite, and all the common pro- 
ductions of a fertile northern cli- 
mate. The granite quarries at 
Hallowell have been worked fiir 
fifteen years with great succesf. 


The granite is of a light color and 
easily wrought: in some years 
f 100,000 worth of it has heen trans- 
ported. Vessels drawing 9 feet of 
water can come to the wharves in 
Che centre of the village. 

As Hallowell and Augusta are 
so closely united in all their vari- 
ous interests and pursuits, a repeti- 
tion of what we have said of the 
favorable position of Augusta, and 
of its future prospects, is unneces- 
sary. With common success in our 
national affairs, and with a contin- 
uatioa of that spirit of enterprize, 
every day maniiested on the banks 
of the Kennebec, it requires no 
Jlformon spectacles to foresee that 
within a very few years there will 
he a continuous village from the 
Kenndbec dam to the mouth of the 
Cobbessecontee. Population. 1820, 
2,919;' 1880, 3,964. The present 
population is about 5,000. 

Hallowell was, for many years, 
the residence of Beitjamin Yatjg- 
HAir, LL. D. a gentleman highly 
distinguished for his learning, pub- 
lic benefactions and private virtues. 

HsU's Stream, N. H., 

Rises in the highlands which sep- 
urate that (state from the British do- 
minions, and forms the N. W. boun- 
dary between New Hampshire and 
Lower Canada, from its source to 
its junction with the Connecticut at 

Hamden, Ct« 

New Haven co. This town was 
taken from New Haven in 1786, 
from which it lies about 6 miles N. 
It is situated between the East and 
West Rock ranges of mountains, 
the southern terminus of the Green 
mountain range. The sdl in many 
parts is easy of cultivation, but in 
general it is more adapted to graz- 
ing than tillage. Minerals are 
found here, among which are spe- 
cimens of very pure copper. Mill 
river affords numerous ^tes for wa- 
ter works. 


Whitneysinlle, about two miles 
from New Haven, is admirably lo^ 
cated for manufacturing opperations. 
The manufactures at the Cartnei 
works, con^st of paper, carriages^ 
coach and eliptic springs, steps, 
axletrees, brass work, &c. Mount 
Carmel, a noted elevation, 8 miles 
N. from New Haven, exhibits an 
extensive prospect. Population, 
1830, 1,669. 

Hnmtlton, Mmmu 

Essex CO. This is a beautiful 
farming town, and most of the in* 
habitants are employed in cultivat- 
ing it. There are some vessels 
built here, and some manufactures 
of leather, boots, and shoes. The 
town is quite small. Population, 
1837, 827. Taken from Ij^swich in 
1793. It lies 8 miles N. by £. from 

Hampden, Me* 

Penobscot co. Hampden lies on 
the west side of Penobscot, below 
and adjoining Bangor. It is also 
watered by the Sowadabscook riv- 
er, a large and valuable mill stream. 
This is an important township in its 
commerce on the Penobscot, its 
manufacture of lumber, and its ag- 
ricultural productions. It is one 
of the most flourishing towns on the 
river. The quantity of wheat pro» 
duced by the farmers, in 1837, wan 
5,664 bushels. Population, 1830, 
2,020; 1837, 2,620. Hampden is 
6 miles S. from Bangor, and 62 £. 
N. E. from Augusta. 

Hampden Conntjr, Mass* 

Springfield is the chief town. 
This county is very fertile and well 
cultivated, and in common with all 
the counties on Connecticut river, 
it presents a rich array of delightful 
scenery. Its rivers aiSbrd an abun- 
dant water power ; and this county 
has become noted for its various and 
extensive manufactures. Much 
inland trade is brought to the banks 
of the Connecticut,and large exports 


are made from this county, the pro- 
^duct both of the soil and mechani- 
cal, labor. This county was taken 
from Hampshire county in 1812. 
Population, 1820, 28,021 ; 1830, 31,^ 
640 ; 1837, 33,627. Aretl) 685 square 
miles. Bounded S. by Tolland and 
Hartford counties, Connecticut ; W. 
, by Berkshire county ; N. by Hamp- 
shire county, and E. by Worcester 
county : 57 inhabitants to a square 
mile. The Connecticut, Westiield, 
Chickopee, and Quinebaugh are its 
chief rivers. 

The value of the manufactures 
of this county, the year ending 
April 1,1837, was $3,056,302. The 
value of wool, the product of 29,950 
sheep, was $44,786. 

Hampshire Comntyy Mass. 

JVorthampton is the chief town. 
This ancient county, although its 
limits have been greatly reduced by 
the production of Franklin and 
Hampden counties, is still increas- 
ing in agricultural, commercial and 
manufacturing strength. Located 
In the centre of the alluvial basin 
of the noble Connecticut; blessed 
with a rich and variegated soil, and 
great water power, this must ever 
remain one of the most independ- 
ent counties in New England. — 
Area, 632 square miles. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 26,447; 1830,30,210; 
1837, 30,413. Incorporated, 1662. 
This county is bounded S. by Hamp- 
den, W. by Berkshire, N. by Frank- 
lin, and E. by Worcester counties : 
67 inhabitants to a square mile. 
The Connecticut, Westfield, and 
Swift, are its chief rivers. The 
manufactures of this county, the 
year ending April 1, 1837, amount- 
ed to $2,335,652. the value of 
wool, the fleeces of 64,274 sheep, 
amounted to $103,751. 

Hanapstead, N. H< 


the Merrimack through Spiggot riir« 
er, which flows from Wash pond» 
near the centre of the town. An- 
gly pond is in the N. £. part of the 
town, the waters of which pass into 
Powow river. Island pond, in the 
S. W. part of the town, contains a 
valuable farm of 300 acres. The 
town was granted by Gov. Benning 
Wentworth, January 19, 1749, and 
named by him after a pleasant vil- 
lage five miles N. of London, £ng» 
land. He. reserved the island be- 
fore mentioned for his own fisLrm. 
Population in 1830, 913. 

Hanaptotty Ble. 

Rockingham co., lies partly on 
the height of land between Merri- 
mack and Piscataqua rivers. Most 
of the waters descend S W. into 

See " Down East.** 

Hampton^ Bf. H.y 

Rockingham co., lies on the sea- 
coast, bounded N. E. by North- 
Hampton, S. E. by the Atlantic, S. 
W. by Hampton Falls, N. W. by 
Hampton Falls and part of flxeter 
Distant 13 miles S. W. from Ports- 
mouth, 7 S. E. from Exeter, and 50 
S. E. from Concord. The soil is 
well adapted to tillage and mowing, 
and about one fifth of the territory 
is a salt marsh. Hampton is pleas- 
antly situated ; many eminences in 
the town affording romantic views 
of the ocean. Isles of Shoals, and 
sea-coast from Cape Ann to Ports- 
mouth. Its beaches have long been 
the resort of invalids and parties of 
pleasure, and are little inferior to the 
famous Nahant beach near Boston. 
Boar's Head is an abrupt emi- 
nence extending into the sea, and di- 
viding the beaches about half way 
between the river's mouth and the 
N. E. corner of the town. On the 
N. beach are nunierous fish-houses, 
from which the winter and summer 
fisheries have been carried on with 
much success. Great quantities of 
the winter fish are carried frozen 
into the interior, and to Vermont 
and Canada. 

The Indian name of this towtt 
was Winnicumet; it wa6 first setp 
tied in 1688, by emigrants from te 


cmmty of Norfolk, England. The 
first house was erected in 1635, by 
Nicholas Easton, and was called the 
Bound-hoase. The town was in- 
corporated in 1636, and then inclu- 
ded within its limits what now con- 
stitutes the towns of North Hamp- 
ton, Hampton Falls, Kensington and 

This town was formerly the scene 
of Indian depredations. On the 17th 
Aug. 1703, a party of Indians kill- 
ed 6 persons in Hampton, among 
whom was a widow Mussey, cele- 
brated as a preacher among the 

The Hon. Christopher Top- 
PAir died here in Feb., 1S19, aged 
84 : he was a very useful and dis- 
tinguished citizen. Population in 
1830, 1,103. 

Hamptony Ct. 

Windham co. This town was 
taken from Windham and Pomfret 
in 1786. The people are generally 
agriculturalists, with a good strong 
soil of an uneven surface. The 
village is pleasantly situated on high 
ground, 86 miles E. from Hartford 
and 6 from Brooklyn. Hampton 
has good mill seats on a branch of 
Shetucket river. Population, 1880, 

HMiftptou Falls, N. H., 

Rockingham co., is situated 45 
miles S.«£. from Concord, and 16 
S. W. from Portsmouth. The soil 
is generally good. Hampton Falls 
Was originally a part of Hampton, 
from which if was separated and 
incorporated, in 1712. Population, 
1880, 682. 

Hanooek Connty, Me. 

EUsiDorth is the chief town. This 
coanty is bounded N. by Penobscot 
cwmnty, E. by Washington county, 
8. by die Atlantic ocean, and W. 
by Penobscot bay and river, and a 
part by Penobscot county. Its ex- 
tent on the ocean is between 60 and 
€0 miles: it comprises numerous 

islands of great beauty, some of 
which are large, fertile and well 
cultivated; it comprises also nu- 
merous bays, and a vast number of 
coves, inlets and spacious harbors. 
Perhaps there is no district of its 
extent on the American coast, that 
offers greater facilities for naviga- 
tion, in all its various branches, than 
the county of Hancock. The ton- 
nage of Frenchman's bay, in this 
county, in 1837, was 13,184 toos.i 
The soil of the county is generally 
of an excellent quality, particularly 
in the interior. There are a great 
number of ponds in the county : ev- 
ery section of it is watered by mill 
streams, and Union river, nearly 
in its centre, affords the interior 
part great facilities for transporta- 
tion. This county contains an area 
of about 1,860 square miles. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 24,347; 1837, 28,120. 
Population to a square mile, 15. 
This county produced, in 1837, 21,- 
446 bushels of wheat, and contain- 
ed 38,870 sheep. 

Haneoelc, BIe« 

Hancock co. This town was tak- 
en from Sullivan and Trenton in 
1828. It is situated between those 
towns, and b nearly surrounded bv 
the head waters of Frenchman s 
bay. It is a place of some naviga- 
tion; 85 miles E. from Augusta, 
and bounded easterly by Ellsworth. 
Population, 1837, 653. 

Hancock, Iff* H* 

Hillsborough co. It is 85 miles 
from Concord, 22 from Amherst, 
and 19 from Keene. The W. part 
of the town is mountaihous, but af- 
fords excellent pasturing and many 
good farms. The other parts of the 
town are agreeably diversified with 
plains, hills and valleys. On the 
Contoocook, and some of its trib- 
utary streams, there are several 
tracts of excellent intervale. There 
are two considerable ponds, one of 
which is in the centre, a few rods 
N. of the meeting-house. There 


is a cotton fiictory, a paper mill, and 
several other manufacturing estab- 
lishmentf here ; also a flourishing 
academy. Hancock was incorpora- 
ted Not. 5, 1779. It was named 
after Gov. Hancock, of Boston, who 
was one of the original proprietors. 
The first settlement was begun in 
1764. Population, 1830, 1,316. 

Haneoolcy Vt. 

'Addison co. Several branches 
of Otter creek rise in this town. 
Hancock is wholly on the moun- 
tains, and most of the land fit only 
for grazing. First settled, 1778. 
Population, 1830, 472. It lies 80 
miles S. W. frbm Montpelier, and 
16 S. £. from Middlebury. 

Berkshire co. This is a moun- 
tainous township, on the line of the 
state of New York, the source of 
the Housatonick, and the residence 
of a family of " Shakers." It lies 
129 miles W. from Boston, 16 N. 
by W. from Lenox, and 5 £. from 
New Lebanon, New York. Incor- 
porated, 1776. Population, 1837, 

There are one cotton and three 
woolen mills in the town, and some 
manufactures of leather, boots, 
shoes, iron castings, and wooden 
ware. The value of 6,446 fleeces 
of wool, sheared in 1887, amounted 
to $11,644. 

As we are so near the lovely val- 
ley of New Lebanon, its tepid 
springs, and a large family of our 
friends, the Shakers, we must be 
permitted to cross the line a mo- 
ment, "just to take a look." 

JSTew Lebanon^ New York, is in 
the county of Columbia, and sit- 
uated in a delightful valley, sur- 
rounded by cultivated hills, which 
present scenery greatly variegated 
and peculiarly pleasing. 

A community of Shakers, of be- 
tween 600 and 600, own about 8,000 
acres of ezceUent land in this town* 

ship, which is highly improved by 
this industrious, hospitable, and ca- 
rious people. Their village is about 
two miles southeast of the springs. 

The' Springs are on the side of a 
hill, and are so abundant as to sup* 
ply a small water power. The wa- 
ters are tasteless, pure as crystal, 
and appear to differ in no respect 
from other pure mountain waters, 
except in temperature, which is 
always at 72^ of Fahrenheit. i 

This is a great resort for visitors 
from all directions : — some to enjoy 
the romantic scenery witii which 
this region abounds, and others the 
beni^ influence of the waters. The 
public resorts are well located, and 
afford excellent accommodations. 
New Lebanon is 184 miles W. from 
Boston, 24 £. from Albany, 25 N. 
E. from Hudson, 7 W. from Pitts- 
field, 23 S. by W. from WilUams- 
town, 156 N. by £. from New 
York, and 68 N. W. by W. from 
Hartford. Ct. 

Grafton co. The Connecticut 
river separates it from Norwich, 
Vermont. It is 63 miles N. W. 
from Concord, and 102 from Ports- 
mouth. In this town there is n^ 
river nor any considerable stream 
besides the Connecticut. Mink 
brook, running in a S. W. direction. 
Slate brook in a W. course, and 
Goose-Pond brook in the N. £. part 
of the town, are among the princi- 
pal streams. Neither of them is 
large enough for permanent mill 
privileges. There are several small 
islands in Connecticut river within 
the limits of Hanover, the largest 
of which is Parker's island, confin- 
ing about 20 acres. There are no 
natural ponds. The surface of 
Hanover is agreeably diversified 
with hills and valleys, and the great- 
est part is suitable for farms. There 
is but a small proportion of waste 
land; less, perhaps, than in any other 
town in Grafton county. It U et- 
timatsd that nearly one half |i vt^ 


der improireqient Moose monn- 
taiii is a considerable elevation, ex- 
tending across the town from N. 
to S., at the distance of about five 
miles from Connecticut river. A 
handsome bridge connects the S. 
W. part of the town with Norwich. 
The principal village is in the S. 
W. comer of the town, on a beau- 
tiful and extensive plain, half a 
mile from Connecticut river, and 
180 feet above the level of its wa- 
ters. Vegetable substances are 
found in different parts of this plain 
at a depth of from 60 to 80 feet. 
The principal houses are erected 
found a square, level area, of 12 
acres. The remainder stand on 
different streets, leading from the 
green in all directions. 

In this pleasant village is located 
Dartmouth College. 

See Register, 

Among the worthy men who 
have finished their earthly career 
in this place, may be mentioned 
the following : 

Rev. Elxazar Whxslock,D. 
D., who died April 24, 1779, aged 

Hon. JoHir Whxslock, LL. D., 
president of the college 36 years, 
who died April 4, 1817, aged 68. 

Hon. BXZAI.EEI. Woodward, 
who died Aug. 1804. 

Rev. John- Smith, D. D., who 
died April, 1809. 

Hon. JoHir Hubbard, who died 
in Sept 1810. 

Rev. Fraxcis Brown, D. D., 
who died July 27, 1820, aged 36. 
These gentlemen were all connect- 
ed witii the coUege. Population, 
1880, 2,861. 

Hainov-ery Haas* 

Plymouth co. Hanover is bound- 
ed S. by North river, which fur- 
Bishes good mill sites. It was in- 
corporated in 1727. It lies 28 miles 
8. £. from Boston, and 12 N. W. 
from Plymouth. The manufactures 
of Hanover consist of bar iron, iron 
CMtiiiga, anchors, ploogjif , vessels, 


tacks, leadier, boots, shoes, and 
woolen cloth : total annual amount, 
about $76,000. Pop. 1837, 1,436. 

Pljrmouth co. This town is wa- 
tered by a branch of North river 
and several ponds. It was taken 
from Pembroke in 1820, and lies in 
the vicinity of large beds of excel- 
lent iron ore. The manufactures 
of Hanson consist of ship anchors 
and knees, nails, carriage springs, 
iron castings, leather, shoes, sawed 
boxes and shingles: total annual 
amount, about $70,000. Population, 
1837, 1,068. It Ues 24 mUes S. S. 
£. from Boston, and 16 N. N. W. 
frmn Plymouth. 

Hardwlcky Vt. 

Caledonia co. Hardwick is fine- 
ly watered by Lam(»lle river, which 
gives the town valuable mill sites, 
and which are well improved fi>r 
manufacturing purposes. The soU 
of the town is generally very good, 
and produces a variety of exports. 
Between six and seven thousand 
sheep, and many other cattie, are 
kept in the town, a large amount 
of which are annually fattened and 
sent to market 

Among the first settlers of the 
town, in 1790, was Mr. Gideon Sa- 
bip, whose wife became the mother 
of 26 children. Population, 1830, 
1,216. Hardwick lies 20 miles N. 
N. £. from Montpelier, and 13 N. 
W. from Danville. 

Herdwtclc, Mass* 

Worcester co. Ware river and a 
smaller stream pass through the 
S. part of this town, and furnish 
good mill privileges. It lies 62 
miles W. from Boc^n and 22 W. by 
N. from Worcester. Incorporated, 
1738. Population, 1837, l,818.-> 
There are 2 paper mills in the town, 
and manufactures of straw bonnets, 
pa^m-leaf hats, boots,shoe8, ploughs, 
leather, chairs and cabinet ware : 
annual amount about $60,000. — 




Hvdwiek is a pleasant town, of 
good Mil, with a fine fish pond. 

Havmonyy He* 

Somerset co. This town has an 
excellent 8oil,and is well watered by 
a large and beautiful pond, and by 
other sources of Sebasticook riyer. 
In 1887 it had a population of 1,048, 
and produced 6,836 bushels 6f 
wheat It was incorporated in 
1808, and lies ftS miles N. by £. 
from Augusta, and 28 N. E. from 

Karpeivelly Me* 

Cumberland co. This township 
comprises a promontory in Casco 
bay, formerly Merryconeag, and 
several islands surrounding it, the 
largest of which is called Sebascod- 
egan* The waters which enclose 
t£is territory are so situated, at the 
northern and eastern extremity of 
Gasco bay, that a canal of about a 
mile in leng^ would unite them 
with Kennebec river, near Bath. 
The ioil of Harpswell is very fer* 
tile, and the location delighdhl in 
summer. It is a resort for invalids 
and parties of pleasure. The peo- 
ple are principauly engaged in farm- 
ing and fishing. ' It lies 82 miles 
N. £. from Portland by water, and 
4 miles S. £. from Brunswick. In- 
corporated, 1758. Population,1887, 

HiurxingtOAy He* 

Washington co. This town is 
bounded on the S. and E. by the 
waters of Narraguagus bay, and W. 
by the river of that name. It has 
pood mill privileges, excellent har- 
bors, considerable navigation and 
trade. Incorporated, 17^. Popu- 
Ution, 1830, 1,118; 1837,1,354.— 
Harrington lies 118 miles E. from 
Augusta, and 25 W. S. W. from 

WmaneiBon, He* 

Ofunberiand eo. Crooked river 
pMMfl the E. fide of this town, tad 

die waters of Long pond ir»> ili 
western boundary. Thi« is a good 
township of land, and produeed, in 
1887, 8,180 bushels of wheat In 
corporated, 1805. Populatioa, 1887, 
1,161. Harrison has Otisfield on 
the £., and is 75 miles W. 8. W. 
from Augusta, and 45 N. W. from 

HarUbrdy He* 

Oxford CO. This excellent town- 
ship is watered by ponds and small 
streams, and produced, in 1887» 9,- 
318 bushels of wheat It lies 81 
miles W. from Auguste, and 15 N. 
E. from Paris. Population, 1880. 
1,458. Incorporated, 1798. 

HiMrtfiMrAy Tt* 

Windsor co. This town is on flie 
west side of the Connecticut, and is 
otherwise finely watered by White 
and Waterqueechy rivers. It:lies 
42 miles S. S. £. from Montpelier, 
and 14 N^. from Windsor. First set- 
tled, 1764. Population, 1880, 2,044. 
The surface of the town is uneven, 
but the 8(h1 is rich, warm, and very 
productive. The two principal vil- 
lages are pleasantly located on the 
bulks of the rivers that meet the 
Connecticut at this place, both of 
which are flourishing in manoikc- 
tures and trade. Many cattle,beside 
pork, butter, cheese, &c., are sent 
to market from Hartford. In 1887 
it had 18,207 sheep. 

Hattferd Covnty, Ct* 

Har^ordlB the chief town. This 
county is bounded N. by Hampden 
county, Mass., E. by Tolland ooun* 
ty, S. by the counties of Middlesex 
and New Haven, and W. by the 
county of Litchfield. This is con- 
sidered the most important and val- 
uable county in the state, in re- 
gard to the variety and richness of 
its soil, and the high stete of cul- 
ture it has attained. It was con- 
stituted in 1666, since which, Tol- 
land county and parts of Middle 
•M, WindluM&f litohinld, 1^ Kmt 



hare liMii detached. Its 
preeeQt Umits eomprise an area of 
aboat 727 square miles. Besides 
the Connecticut, which traverses 
its whole length, the Farmington, 
Hackanum, Podunk, Scantic, and 
other streams, water the county in 
almost every direction. On these 
streams important manufacturing 
establishments have sprung up, and 
unite with th^ agricultural interest 
and river trade in fendering this 
county the centre of a large and 
flourishing business. In 1887 there 
were in £e county 29,576 sheep. 
Population, 1820, 47,261; 1830, 
61,141: 70 inhabitants to a square 

"BmrtHqird, Ct. 

Thi; first English settlement in 
Harti^n3 was commenced in 1635, 
by Mr. John Steel and his associates 
fropi Newtown, (now Cambridge)in 
Massachusetts. The main body of 
the first settlers, with Mr. Hooker 
at their head, did not arrive till the 
following year. 

** About the beginning of June, 

Siys Dr. Trumbull,) Mr. Hooker, 
r. Stone, and about one hundred 
men, women and children, took 
their departure from Cambridge, 
and traveled more than a hundred 
miles, through a hideous and track* 
less wilderness, to Hartford. They 
bad no guide but their compass, 
and made their way over mountains, 
through swamps, thickets and riv- 
ers, which were not passable but 
wiUi great difficulty. They had no 
cover but the heavens, nor any 
lodgings but those that simple, na- 
ture iSforded them. They drove 
with them a hundred and siicty head 
of cattle, and by the way subsisted 
on the milk of their cows. ■ Mrs. 
Hooker was borne through the wil- 
derness upon a litter. The people 
tarried their packs, arms, and some 
utensils. They were nearly a fort- 
Bight on their journey. This ad- 
▼entnre was the moce rqmaricable, 
•• maay of the comptsy we» per- 

sons of figure, whe had Ured Ia 
England, in honor, affluence and 
delicacy, and were entire strangers 
to fatigue and danger.'* 

The Indian name of Hartford was 
Suekiag, A deed appears to have 
been given by 8unekqua»$on, the 
sachem of the place, about 1686, to 
Samuel Stone and William Good- 
win, who appear to have acted in 
behalf of the first settlers. 

The town of Hartford is bounded 
N. by Windsor and Bloomfield, £. 
by Connecticut river, 3. by Weth- 
ersfield, and W. by Farmington and 
Avon. It is about six miles in 
length from north to south, and ave- 
rages about five in breadth. The 
western part of the town has a soil 
of red gravelly earthy very rich and 
productive. That part near the 
river is covered with a strong clay, 
or a rich black mould. The latter 
is principally in the valuable tract 
of meadow adjacent to Connecticut 

Hartford Cxtt, incorporated 
in 1784, is over a mile in length 
upon the river, and about th^ 
fourths of a mile in breadth. The 
alluvial flat upon the river is nar^ 
row, being from 40 to 100 rods, and 
is connected with the upland by a 
very gradual elevation. It is situ- 
ated on the iWest side of Connecti- 
cut river, 45 miles from its mouth. 
It is in N. lat 41^ 45^ 50", W. 
Ion. 72<> 40'. It U 260 miles S. 
W. from Augusta, Maine ; 189 S. 
S. W. from' Concord, New Hamp- 
shire ; 205 S. from Montpelier, Ver- 
mont ; 97 W. S. W. from Boston, 
Massachusetts ; 64 W. from Provi- 
dence, Rhode Island; 110 N. £. 
from the city of New York, and 
835 £. from Washington^ 

The legislature of the state as« 
sembles alternately at Hartford and 
New Haven, the odd years at Hart- 
ford. The city is ratiher irregular- 
ly laid out,' and is divided at tiie 8. 
part by Mill, or Litde river. Across 
this ftieam a ine bridge ef free*, 


•tone his been thrown, which con- 
nects the two parts of the city. 
This structure is 100 feet wide, 
supported by a single arch, 7 feet 
in thickness at the base, and 3 feet 
8 inches at the centre, the chord or 
span of which is 104 feet ; eleva- 
ration from the bed of the river to 
the top of the arch, 30 feet 9 inch- 
es. Another bridge, across Con- 
necticut river, 1,000 feet long, and 
which cost over $100,000, unites the 
city with East Hartford. Hartford 
is very advantageously situated for 
business, is surrounded by an ex- 
tensive and wealthy district, and 
communicates with the towns and 
villages on the Connecticut above 
by small steam-boats, two of which, 
for passengers, ply daily between 
Hartford and Springfield. The re- 
mainder are employed in towing flat 
bottomed boats, of 16 to 80 tons 
burthen, as far as Wells' river, 220 
miles above the city. The coast- 
ing trade is very considerable, and 
there is some foreign trade carried 
on. A daily line of steam-boats pass 
between Hartford and New York. 
The manufactures of this city ex- 
ceed $900,000 per annum ; among 
these are various manufactures of 
tin, copper, and sheet iron ; block 
tin and pewter ware ; printing press- 
es and ink ; a manufactory of iron 
machinery ; iron foundries, saddle- 
ry, carriages, joiners' tools, paper- 
hangings, looking-glasses, umbrel- 
las, stone ware, a brewery, a web 
manufactory, cabinet furniture, 
boots and shoes, hats, clothing for 
exportation, soap and candles, man- 
ufactories of machine and other 
wire cards, operated by dogs, &c. 
More than twice as many books, it 
is stated, are published here, annu- 
ally, as are manufactured in any 
other place of equal population in 
the United States. 

The city is well built, and con- 
tains many elegant public and pri- 
vate edifices. The state-house, in 
which are the public offices of tiie 
atita, is sunpounted hy a cupola, 

and is a very handsome and ipti- 
cious building. The city hall, built 
for city purposes, is also spadous 
and elegant ; it has two fronts, wiUi 
porticos, — supported each by six 
massive columns. The American 
Asylum for the deaf and dumb, the 
Retreat for the insane, and Wash^ 
ington College, are all beautifully 
located, in the immediate vicinity 
of the city. The population with- 
in the city limits, in September, 
1S85, was nine thousand and eight 


The American Asylum for the 
education and instruction of deaf 
and dumb persons, was founded by 
an association of gentlemen in Hart- 
ford, Conn., in 1815. Their atten- 
tion was called to this important 
charity by a case of deafness in the 
family of one of their nun^ber. 
An interesting child of the late Dr. 
Cogswell, who had lost her hearing 
at the age of two years, and her 
speech soon after, was, under Prov- 
idence, the cause of its establish- 
ment. Her father, ever ready to 
sympathize with the afflicted, and 
prompt to relieve human suffering, 
embraced in his plans for the edu- 
cation of his own daughter, all who 
might be similarly unfortunate. — 
The co-operation of the benevolent 
was easily secured, and measures 
were taken to obtain from Europe 
a knowledge of the difficult art, 
unknown in this country, of teach- 
ing written language Uirough Uie 
medium of signs, to the deaf and 
dumb. For this pnrpose, tiie Rot. 
Thomas H. Gallaudet visited Eng- 
land and Scotland, and applied at 
the institutions in those coontriet 
for instruction in their system ; but 
meeting with unexpected diffieul* 
ties, he repaired to France, and oi>- 
tained, at the Royal Institution at 
Paris, those qualifications for im 
instructor of the deaf 2Ad dumb, 
which a selfish and mistaken poli- 
cy had refused him in Great Briit- 
ain. Accompanied by Mr. LMinwC 



Cleic, bimself deaf and dumb, and 
for feveral years a successful teach- 
er under the Abbe Sicard, Mr. Gal- 
laudet returned to this country in 
August, 1816. The Asylum had, 
in May preceding, been incorpora- 
ted bv the state legislature. Some 
montns were spent by Messrs. Gal- 
Undet and Clerc in obtaining funds 
for the benefit of the institution, 
and in the spring of 1817 the Asy- 
lum was opened for the reception of 
those for whom it was designed, and 
the course of instruction commenced 
with seven .pupils. 

** As the knowledge of the in- 
stitutioo extended, and the facili- 
ties for obtaining its advantages 
were multiplied, me number of pu- 
pils increased from seven to one 
hundred and forty, which for seve- 
rld yftars past has not been much 
above the average number; and 
flioce its commencement, in 1817, to 
1837, instruction has been imparted 
fo four hundred and seventy-seven 
deaf and dumb persons. 
** In 1819, Congress granted the in- 
•titutibn a township oi land in Ala- 
bama, the proceeds of which have 
been invested as a permanent fund. 
The principal building was erected 
In 1820, and the pupils removed to 
it in the spring of the following 
▼ear. It is one hundred and thirty 
net long, fifty feet wide, and, in- 
cluding the basement, four stories 
hi|i^. Other buildings have been 
•ubsequently erected, as the in- 
creasing number of pupils made it 
necessary ; the principal of which 
is a dining hall and workshops for 
the male pupils. Attached to the 
institution are eight or ten acres of 
land, which afibrd ample room for 
exercise, and the cultivation of veg- 
etables and fruits for the pupils. 

** The system of instruction adopt- 
ed at this institution is substantially 
the aame as that of the French 
•ebool at Paris. It has, however, 
been materially improved and mod- 
ified by Mr. Gallaudet and his as- 
•ociatea. This fystsm, and indeed 

every other rational system of 
teaching the deaf and dumb, is bas- 
ed upon the natural language of 
signs. By this we mean uiose ges- 
tures which a deaf and dumb per- 
son will naturally use to express his 
ideas, and to make known his wants 
previous to instruction. These 
gestures and signs are rather pieto-' 
rial, that is, an exact outline of the 
object, delineated by the hands in 
the air; or descriptive, giving an 
idea of an object by presenting 
some of its prominent and striking 
features ; or conventional, such as 
may have been agreed upon by a 
deaf and dumb person and his as- 
sociates. As there are very few 
objects which can be expressed 
with sufficient clearness by the de- 
lineation of its outline alone, a de- 
scriptive sign is usually connected 
with it. Thus, in maiking a sign 
for a book, the outline is first delin- 
eated by the fore finger of both 
hands. To this is added the descrip- 
tive signs of opening a book, plac- 
ing it before the eyes, and moving 
the lips as in reading. It may 
therefore simplify the classification 
of natural signs if the first two di- 
visions be united; and it will be 
sufficiently accurate to say that all 
the sirns used by the deaf and dumb 
are either descriptive or eonven- 
tioncU, By far the greater part of 
these signs belong to the former 
class; as it includes the signs for 
most common objects, actions and 
emotions. A deaf and dumb child 
constructs his language upon the 
same principle as the child who can 
hear ;. that of imitation. 

" In the school- room, the instruc- 
tor makes use of natural signs to 
communicate ideas to his pupils, of 
systematic signs to enable them to 
translate their own into written lan- 
guage ; of the manual alphabet, 
or signs of the hand, corresponding 
to the letters of the alphabet ; and 
of written symbols to express the 
grammatical rjslations of words. 

" The pupils usitally remain at 



the Asylmn four or five years, in 
wbicb time an intelligent child will 
acquire a knowledge of the conunon 
operations of arithmetic, of geogra- 
phy, grammar, history, biography, 
and of written language, so as to 
enable him to understand the Scrip- 
tures, and books written in a famil- 
iar style. He will of coarse be able 
to converse with others by writing, 
and to manage his own afiairs as a 
farmer or mechanic. There are 
workshops connected with the in- 
stitution, in which the boys have 
the importunity of learning a trade, 
and many of them, by devoting four 
hours each day to this object, be- 
come skillful workmen, and when 
they leave the Asylum find no dif- 
ficulty in supporting themselves. 
The annual charge to each pupil is 
one hundred dollars. 

<* The department of instruction 
is under the control of the principal 
of the institution, who has also a 
general oversight of the other de- 
partments. The pupils are distrib- 
uted into eight or nine classes, the 
immediate care of which is com- 
mitted to the same number of as- 
sistant instructors. When out of 
school, the pupils are under the care 
of a steward and matron." 

Retreat for the Insane. ** This 
institution is situated on a command- 
ing eminence, at the distance of a 
mile and a quarter, in a southwest- 
erly direction, from the State House 
in Hartford. It was opened April 
1, 1824. The elevation overlooks 
an ample range of fertile country, 
presenting on every side a most in- 
teresting landscape^ adorned with 
every beauty of rural scenery, 
that can be found in rich and culti- 
vated fields, and meadows of unri- 
valled verdure ; in extensive groves 
and picturesque groups of forest, 
fruit and ornamental trees; and 
above all, in the charming diversi- 
ty of level, sloping and undulating 
terminating by distant 
and more distant mountains. 

" This site was selected as 
pre-eminently calculated to mttract 
and engage the attention, and soothe 
and appease the morbid fancies and 
feelings of the patient whoee Ac- 
uities are not sunk below or raised 
above the sphere of relations tiiat 
originally existed. And If he is 
not beyond the reach of genial sen- 
sations, connected with external 
objects, he will undoubtedly feel the 
conscious evidence that this sitna 
tion most happily unites Uie tran- 
quilizing influence of seclusion and 
retirement, with the cheering effect 
of an animated picture of active 
life, continually passing in review 
before his eyes, while himself is 
remote, and secure from the annoy- 
ance of its bustle and noise. 

<* The edifice for the accommoda- 
tion of the patients, and those who 
have the care of them, is construct- 
ed of unhewn free-stone, covered 
with a smooth, white, water^proof 
cement. Its style of architecture 
is perfectly plain and simple, and 
interests only by its symmetrieal 
beauty, and perhaps by the Idea it 
impresses of durability and strength, 
derived from the massy solidity of 
its materials. Yet notwithstanding 
these, its general aspect is remark- 
ably airy and cheerful, from the 
amplitude of its Ifghts, and the bril- 
liant whiteness of its exterior. The 
whole building is divided into com- 
modious and spacious apartments, 
adapted to various descriptions of 
cases, according to their sex, nature 
and disease, habits of life, and tiie 
wishes of their friends. The malt 
and female apartments are entire- 
ly separated, and either sex is com- 
pletely secluded from the view of 
the other. Rooms are provided in 
both male and female apartments 
for the accommodation of the sick, 
where they are removed from any 
annoyance, and can continually re- 
ceive the kind attentions of thdr 
immediate relations and friends. 
Attached to the building are about 
seventeen acres of excellent land, 



the principal part of which is laid 
oat in walks, ornamental grounds 
and extensive gardens. With each 
wing and block of the building is 
connected a court-yard, encompass- 
ed by high fences, and handsomely 
laid out, designed to afibrd the ben- 
efit of exercise, pastime and fresh 
air, to those who cannot safely be 
allowed to range abroad." 

The mode of treatment at this 
institution is similar to that adopted 
«t the McLean Asylum, Charles- 
town, Mass. 

'* Wathington College, This in- 
stitution was founded in 1826. It 
has two edifices of free stone ; one 
148 feet long by 43 wide, and 4 sto- 
ries high, containing 48 rooms ; the 
other 87 feet by 55, and 3 stories 
high, containing the chapel, libra- 
ry, mineralogical cabinet, philo- 
icyphical chainber, laboratory and 
recitation rooms. See Register. 

The Charter Oak. This tree 
stands on the bisautiful elevation 
which rises above the south mead- 
ows, a few rods north of the ancient 
seat of the Wyllys family. The 
tree is stilljn a vigorous state, and 
may flourish for another century. 
**That venerable tree, which 
concealed the charter of our rights," 
says a daughter of Secretary Wyl- 
lys, ^stands at the foot of Wyllys 
hill. The first inhabitant of that 
name found it standing in the height 
of its glory. Age seems to have 
curtailed its branches, yet it is not 
exceeded in the height of its color- 
ing,. or richness of its foliage. The 
trunk measures twenty one feet in 
circumference, and near seven in 
diameter. The cavity, which was 
the asylum of our charter, was near 
the roots, and large enough to ad- 
mit a child. Within the space of 
eight years, that cavity has closed, 
as if it had fulfilled the divine pur- 
pose for which it had been reared." 
The story of the " Charter Oak" 
is thus told by Mr. Barber. 


Sir Edmund Andros being ap- 
pointed the first governor-general 
over New England, arrived in Bos* 
ton in Dec. 1686. From this place 
he wrote to the colony of Connecti- 
cut to resign their charter, but with- 
out success. " * The assembly met 
as usual, in October, and the gov- 
ernment continued according to 
charter, until the last of the month. 
About this time. Sir Edmund, with 
his suite and more than sixty regu- 
lar troops, came to Hartford when 
the assembly were sitting, and de- 
manded the charter, and declared 
the government under it to be dis- 
solved. The assembly were ex- 
tremely reluctant and slow with re- 
spect to any resolve to surrender 
the charter, or with respect to any 
motion to bring it forth. The tra- 
dition is, that governor Treat strong- 
ly represented the great expense 
and hardships of the colonists in 
planting the country; the blood 
and treasure which they had ex- 
pended in defending it, both against 
the savages and foreigners ; to what 
hardships he himself had been ex- 
posed for that purpose ; and that it 
was like giving up his life, now to 
surrender the patent and privileges 
so dearly bought and so long enjoy- 
ed. The important alSair was de- 
bated and kept in suspense until the 
evening, when the charter was 
brought and laid upon the table 
where the assembly were sitting. 
By this time great numbers of peo- 
ple were assembled, and men suffi- 
ciently bold to enterprise whatever 
might be necessary or expedient. 
The lights were instantly extin- 
guished, and one Capt Wadsworth, 
of Hartford, in the most silent and 
secret manner, carried off the char- 
ter, and secreted it in a large hol- 
low tree, fronting the house of Hon. 
Samuel Wyllys, then one of the 
magistrates of the colony. The 
people all appeared peaceable and 
orderly. The candles were oflj- 
ciously re-lighted, but the patent 
was gone, and no discovery could 

be made of it, or the 
carried It away.' 


penom who 

West Hartford^ or, as It was 
formerly called. West Division, is 
a fine tract of land. The inhabit- 
ants are mostly substantial farmers, 
and the general appearance of the 
place denotes an nnosual share of 
equalized wealth and prosperity. 

The venerable Nathait Pem- 
KiHs, D. D., still continaes his la- 
bors In the ministry in this place. 
In 1833,* his sixtieth anniversary 
sermon was pnblbhed. In that ser- 
mon he says, « I am now the oldest 
officiating minister of the gospel in 
this state, and, as far as I can learn, 
in the United States. And I can- 
not leam,from the history of church- 
es in Connecticut, that there has 
ever been an instance of one of its 
ministers preaching for sixty years 
uninterruptedly to the same con- 

Dr. Perkins stated, as we are in- 
formed, that from the commence- 
ment of his ministry, that in his 
church there had been one thou- 
sand deaths and one thousand bap- 
tisms — that he had delivered four 
thousand written sermons, and three 
thousand extemporaneous ones, on 
other occasions of worship — that he 
had attended sixty ordinations and 
installations, and had preached 20 
ordination sermons, twelve of which 
had been published by request ; that 
he bad attended one hundred eccle- 
siastical councils, to heal difficulties 
in the churches, and that he had 
fitted for college one hundred and 
fifty students, and more than thirty 
for the gospel ministry. 

Hartlaady Me. 

Somerset co. This excellent 
township is watered on its eastern 
boundary by one of the principal 
branches of Sebasticook river. The 
inhabitants are principally engaged 
in agricultural pursuits, and the soil 
richly rewards them for their indus- 
Jtry. Hartland produced 4,886 

bushels of wheat In 18S7, nat 
wool and other valuable oonimodi* 
ties. It was incotporated In ISM. 
Popalatioo, 18S7, 890. It Has 4S 
miles N. by E. from Augiistm» and 
18 N. E. from Norridgewock. 

Windsor co. Timothy Loll was 
the father of this flourishing re- 
public. He took his family from 
Dummerston, up Connecttent river 
about 50 miles, in a log canoe, ii^ 
1763. He landed at the mouth of 
a beautiful stream, called LuWs 
Brook, His nearest neighbors were 
more than 20 miles distant He 
commenced a settlement cm I^ull's 
Brook, and, after acquiring a hand- 
some prt^erty, died there at the 
age of 81. Timothy Lull, jr.» was 
the first child bom in the town. — 
On the occasion of his birth, a mid- 
wife was drawn 23 miles on a hand 

This is a rich farming town, pleas- 
antly diversified by hills and val- 
leys. Hartland produces many cat- 
tle : ten thousand sheep grace in 
its pastures. It lies on the west 
bank of Connecticut river. Water- 
queechy river, at the N. part of the 
town, and Lull's Brook, at the S., 
give it a water power of great val- 
ue. On these streams are neat vil- 
lages and flourishing manufactur- 
ing establishments. Hartland lies 
50 miles S.' S. E. from MontpeKer 
and 9 N. from Windsor. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 2,603. 

Hartland, Ct. 

Hartford co. This town is tt 
miles N. W. from Hartford. It lies 
in a mountainous part of the state : 
most of the land is cold and fit only 
for grazing. A branch of Famn 
ington river passes through the 
town, and forms what is called 
Hartland hollow, a deep ravine, 
presenting some bold and pictur- 
esque scenery. Hartland was In- 
corporated in 1761. First settled, 
1753. Population, 1830, l,ttl. 


r, and 13 

WerbBiter co. This lo« 
UktO &V<n SCdw, Grolan fiDi 
cuter. Id 1732. It is was) 
the W. Bide by Nashua riv 
lie< 80 miles N. W. from 1 
20 N. E. from WorcesK 
W. from Concord. Her 
.large poDda with Sue fisb, 
riea of slate used for moD 

called *halier«, reside here, and own 
a coniidenihle tract of excclleot 
land. They lire about 3 mile« N. 
£. from the centre of the lawn, and 
supply (be market with a great va- 
riety of wares, fruits, seed*, herbs, 
ti.c. be, the product of their me- 
chanical iogenuily and horticultu- 
ral skill. 

There are three paper mills in 
Harvard, and muiufaclures of palm- 
leaf bats, boots, shoes, leather and 
f;rare slonei : annual value about 
940,000. Large quaotities of hops 
have been raised in this place. — 
FopnlatioD, 1831, 1,666. 

Barnstable CO., on the 8. side of 
Cape Cod, 14 miles E. from Barn- 
•table. Incorporaled, 1694. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 3,464; 1337, 2,TT1. 
On Herring river, (he outlet of 
lioog pond, are cotton and other 
uill^ Some vessels are built here 
•lud tome suit manufactured. The 
product of the eod and mackerel 
Gihery (he year ending April 1, 
1937, was $33,000. Harwich is a 
pleasant (own: the villa<^ malces 
1 fsod appearance from the sea. 

HuntiBton, Ct. 
Litchfield CO. Har-win-ton de- 
rived lis name from three syllables 
taken from the names of Hnrlford, 
Windsor and Fanningnon. It wa> 
Gr«( settled In ITSl; incorporated, 
1737. Population, 1830, 1,516. It 
lies 23 miles W. from Hartford, 40 
N. by W. from New Haven, and 8 
E. fitim Utchfield. HatnlDton is 

situated im high fround, abounding 
with granite rocks and more fit for 
grazing than tillage. 

Hampshire co. This is a weal- 
thy agricultural township, noted 
for its good soil and fine beef cattle. 
It lies on (he W. side of Connecti- 
cut river, 6 miles N. from North- 
amp(on, and 95 V. from Boston.— 
Incfirparaled, 1670. Population, 
1837, 937. The manufaclmes of 
the taivn consist of com brooms, 
boots, shoes, palm -leaf hats, and car- 
riages; annual value about 3l50,0U0. 

There is an elm tree in Hatfield 
which is said to measure, (wo feet 
from (he ground, thiKy four feet in 

HsverhUl, N. II., 

Grafton co., is one of (he shira 
towns. It lies 31 miles N. W. fiom 
Plymouth, and TO N. N. W. froa 
Concord. It is watered by Olive- 
ind Hazen brooks. Haverhill 
leasanttown. Thesoil issuit- 
every species of cultivation. 
There is a quarry of granite suita- 
ble for mill stones and hulldinE!>, 
and a bed of iron ore, on the SV, 
lide of Coventry, bordering this 

The principal village is at the S. 
W. angle of the town, and known 
by the name of Havtrhiii Comer. 
There is a ho out ilu I common in this 
village, laid out in an oblong squaj-c, 
ifound which the buildings rcgu- 
arly stand. The site isahandfomo 
ilcvation, ovcrlookiDg (he a(tjac«n( 
country many miles N. and S., end 
lot less (ban 6or 7 miles E. snd W, 
Prom (he street, the ground slopes 
ivlth unusual elegance to the W., 
ind is succeeded by brond infcr- 
.■alei. The pro=pect herft i< rte- 
ightful. There is another vitlago , 
It the N. W. angle of (he town, on 
k stree( nearly a mile in length, 
itreight and very level. 

Haverhill was granted, 17fi4. its 
first settlement Was mad« In I7B4| 


by Capt. John Hazen, who settled 
on the Little Ox Bow, near where 
there had formerly been an Indian 
fort and burying ground, and where 
many Indian skulls and relics have 
been found. Several of the early 
settlers were from Newbury and 
Haverhill, Mass., and from the last 
place, this town derived its name. 
Its former name was Lower Coos. 

Hon. Moses Dow was one of the 
most distinguished citizens of this 

Hon. Charles Johns-Ton, who 
died March 5, 1813, aged 76, resid- 
ed here. He was a valuable offi- 
cer in the revolution, and was ma- 
ny years judge of probate in Graf- 
ton county. 

Hon. James Woodward and Hon. 
Ezekiel Ladd were among the early 
settlers, and were judges of the old 
county court. Population, in 1S30, 

Haverliill, Miuui. 

Essex CO. This ancient, respect- 
able and flourishing manufacturing 
town, lies on the N. side of the 
Merrimack river, at the head of 
navigation,and united to Bradford by 
two beautiful bridges. It is 30 miles 
N. from Boston, 31 N. N. W. from 
Salem, 12 W. by S. from Newbu- 
ryport, 18 N. E. from Lowell, 30 
S. W. from Portsmouth, N. H. and 
40 S. E. from Concord, N. H. Lit- 
tle river passing through the town 
affords a good hydraulic power, on 
which are manufacturing establish- 
ments of various kinds. The man- 
ufactures consist of woolen goods, 
leather, boots, shoos, hats, sKovels, 
^spades, forks, hoes, chairs, cabinet 
ware, combs, ploughs, tin ware, 
vessels, palm-leaf hats, shoe lasts, 
spirits, morocco leather, chaises and 
harnesses: total amount the year 
ending April 1, 1837, $1,357,526. 

Haverhill is delightfully located,, 
handsomely built, and has been the 
birth place and residence of many 
of the most valuable and distin- 
guishAd citizens of NewJEInglaiui. 

Haverhill is so situated as to com- 
mand an extensive inland trade : it 
is easily approached from Boston 
by the Andover and Wilmington 
rail-road, which is extending to Ex- 
eter, N. H., and from thence to 

Haverhill, the Indian Pentuck- 
ett, was first settled in 1641 : it was 
a frontier settlement for nearly half 
a century and suffered great calam- 
ities by savage depredations. 

It was incorporated in 1645. — 
Population, 1820, 3,070; 1830, 3,- 
896 ; 1837, 4,726. 

Hawley, Mass. 

Franklin co. Hawley is on el- 
evated ground, and watered by 
branches of Deerfield river. The 
soil is good for grazing, and feeds 
about 3,000 sheep. A consider- 
able quantity of leather is tanned 
in this town. Incorporated, 1792. 
Population, 1837, 995. Hawley 
has good iron ore and some iron 
works. It lies 107 miles W. by N. 
from Boston, and" 14 W. by S. from 

Haynesvlllcy Me* 

Washington county. See «« Down 

Heatliy Blass* 

Franklin co. A mountainous 
township good for grazing sheep, of 
which 2,312 were kept in 1887. 
There are in Heath some manufac- 
tures of leather, boots, shoes and 
palm-leaf hats. Incorporated, 1785. 
Population, 1837, 953. It lies 125 
miles W. N. W. fi-om Boston, and 
13 W. N. W. from Greenfield. 

Hebron, Me* 

Oxford CO. This is a good form- 
ing town, lying S. E. from Paris 
about 7 miles, and 42 W. S. W. 
from Augusta. Incorporated, 1792. 
Population, 1837, 972. 

Hebron, IV* H*, 

Grafton co.» lies 9 miles SL W 


from Plymouth, and* 40 N. "W. from 
Concord. A considerable part of 
Newfound lake lies in the S. £. 
part of this town. It has no river, 
nor any important streams. Near- 
ly one half of this town was inclu- 
ded in the grant of Cockermouth, 
now Oroton. The remaining part 
w>i» taken from Plymouth. It was 
incorporated, 1792. Population in 
1S30, 533. 

Helnrony Ct. 

Tolland co. Hop river, a branch 
of the Wiilimantic,water3 this town. 
The village of Hebron, with its 
Gothic church, 20 miles S. E. from 
Hartford, and 14 S. from Tolland, 
is pleasant and commands a good 
prospect. There are in the town 2 
cotton, 1 woolen, and 1 paper, mills ; 
a large iron furnace and other man- 
ufactories. The surface of the 
town is hilly, but fertile. North 
pond in, the S. part of the town is a 
handsome sheet of water. Hebron 
was first settled, 1704. Incorpora- 
ted, 1707. Population, 1830, 1,939. 

HenAllcery N. H« 

Merrimack co. It is 23 miles N. 
W. from Amherst, and 13 W. from 
Concord. Contoocook river passes 
easterly through its centre, and di- 
vides the town into nearly equal 
portions of territory and population. 
Its course is rather circuitous, and 
in many places presents scenes of 
considerable interest and beauty. 
Few places afford better prospects 
for the successful operation of wa- 
ter machinery than this. There 
are several ponds of considerable 
size. Lon^ pond is the largest, be- 
ing between 1 and 2 miles in length, 
and from 40 to 80 rods wide — situa- 
ted 1 mile N.of the centre village. 
Craney hill is the principal eleva- 
tion, and embraces a large portion 
of territory on the S. of the town. 
It is mostly in a state of cultivation. 
The soil of the hills is favorable for 
wheat— the valleys produce good 
crops of com. 

Henniker was granted in 1752, 
under the name of JVumber 6. Its 
settlement commenced in 1761. It 
was incorporated in 1768, when it 
received its present name Irom Gov. 
Wentworth, in honor of his friend 
Henniker, probably John Henni- 
ker, Esq., a merchant in London and 
a member of the British parliament 
at that time. . Population, in 1S30, 

Hemtony Me* 

Penobscot co. A good township 
of land, 7 miles W. from Bangor. A 
large pond and the Sowadabscook 
river water its S. W. corner. In 
1837, 1,870 bushel of wheat was 
raised. Incorporated, 1814. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 535. 

Hlghgate, VU 

Franklin co. This town lies on 
the E. side of Lake Champlain, at 
the N. W. corner of New Eng- 
land, and of the United States. It 
is 60 miles N. W. from Montpe- 
Her, and 12 N. from St. Albans. 
First settled, about 1784. The soil ' 
is generally sandy, in some parts 
swampy. Bog iron ore, of a good 
quality, is found here. There are 
many mill privileges in Highgate, 
particularly at a fall of the river 
Missisque, where are iron works, 
and other manufactories. The 
scenery at this place is quite wild 
and picturesque. Population, 1830, 
2,038. Highgate is a place of con- 
siderable trade with Canada, and 
down the lake. 

HUl, N. H. 

Grafton CO. This town is 24 miles 
N. N. W. from Concord, and 44 S. 
S. E. from Haverhill. It is watered 
by Pemigewasset and Smith's 
rivers, and several small streams. 
Eagle pond is the only one of note. 
Ragged mountain is a considerable 
elevation, and but little inferior to 
Kearsarge. Viewed from the sum- 
mit of the neighboring hills, this 
town appears very uneven, yet 


tb^re are many fine tracts converted 
in-o productive farms. The soil in 
sonic parts i.^ rich and fertile — it is 
generally good. There is at the S. 
K. section of the town, a flourish- 
ing village, situated on a spacious 
st.'eet 1 mile in length. 

This town was granted Sept. 14, 
1753, to S7 proprietor^, who held 
their first meeting at Chester, and as 
the greater part of the inhabitants 
belonged to that place, it was called 
New Chester; which name it retain- 
ed until Jan. 1837, when it was 
changed to the name of IIiLii, in 
compliment to the then governor 
Hill. The first settlement was in 

In Dec. 18^0, six children of Mr. 
William Follansbee were consum- 
ed in the flames of his house, while 
he and hii wife were absent. In- 
corporated, 1778. Population, 1830, 


HiUsborougfli County-, N. H. 

Amherst is the shire town. Hills- 
borough has Merrimack county on 
the N., Rockingham on the E., the 
iVdte of Massachusetts on the S., 
and Cheshire county on the W. 
The surface of this county is gen- 
srally uneven, though there are but 
few lofty mountains. Lyndebo- 
rough mountain, in the township of 
Lyndeborough, the Unconoonock, 
m Goffdtown, Crotched, in F*r^nces- 
town and Society Land, are of con- 
siderable altitude. 

This section of New Hampshire 
is well watered. The noble and ma- 
jestic Merrimack passes its south- 
eastern border. At Nashua, the 
Nashua, a beautiful stream from 
Massachusetts, discharges its wa- 
ters into the Merrimack. North of 
the Nashua, the Souhegan and Pis- 
cataquog,streams of much value and 
consequence to the manufacturing 
interests, discharge themselves in- 
to the Merrimack; the former in 
the township of jyierrimack, the 
latter in Bedford. Part of a large 
coUec^oA ji^f wa^er, denp^ninated a 

lake, the Massabesick, on the Eh 
boundary of Manchester. Besides 
these there are numerous ponds, 
interspersed through the whole ex- 
tent of territory. Some of the 
largest of these arS Gregg's pond, 
in Antrim, Pleasant pond, in Fran- 
cestown, Babboosuck pond, in Am- 
herst, and Potanipo, in Brookline. 
There are several mineral springs 
which have been found serviceable 
in cutaneous aflections, but no one 
has yet acquired general celebrity. 
Minerals have been found in vari- 
ous places, but not in great abun- 
This county possesses many advan- 
tages for establish- 
ments, and it is gratifying to find 
that maj[iy of its citizens are turn- 
ing their attention to this branch of 
national and individual wealth. 

The settlement of this county 
was made at Nashua, lately Dun- 
stable, some years before t^e war 
with king Philip, in 1675. It was 
constituted a county by an act of 
the General Assembly, 19 March. 
1771. It received its name from 
the Earl of Hillsborough, one of 
the privy council of George III. 
The population, in 1775, .was 18,- 
132; in 1790, 24,536; in 1800,31,- 
260; in 1810, 34,410; in 1S20, 
35,761; and in 1830, 37,762. In 
1837, there were 45,511 sheep |p 
this county. 

Hillsborough, If. H* 


Hillsborough co. It is 23 mil^ 
N. W. from Amherst, 24 W. S. W. 
from Concord. This town is well 
watered. Contoocook river passes 
through the S. E. corner, and af&nii 
several excellent water privileges. 
Hillsborough river has its sourqs 
from ponds in Washington ; runs in a 
S. £. course through the whole ex- 
tent of Hillsborough, receiving tlie 
outlets of several ponds on the £.» 
^nd forms a junction with the Con- 
toocook, on the S. line of this town. 
The land here is uneven, but it af- ' 
fords many good farms. Thero if 


ft pleasant village on the 2d New 
Hampshire turnpike, which passes 
N. W. through this town, contain- 
ing a number of dwelling houses, 
stores, mills, and a cotton and wool- 
en factory. 

Hillsborough was formerly known 
by the name of JVumber 7 of fron- 
tier towns. • The first settlement 
was made in 1741. The first chil- 
dren born in Hillsborough were 
John M*Calley and Mary Gibson, 
who intermarried, and received as 
a gift a tract of land, from the prin- 
cipal proprietor. It was incorpo- 
rated in 1772. PopulaUon, l630» 

Hiaesbnrghy Vt. 

Chittenden co. PJatt river and 
Lewis creek water this town. A 
part of the town is mountaiuous, 
but the soil is generally very good, 
particularly for grazing. About 
9,000 sheep are kept here, and 
some products of the farms are ex- 
ported. Hinesburgh contains a 
pleasant village, and numerous 
manufaeturing operations are found 
on its streams. First settled about 
1785. Population, 1830, 1,669. It 
lies 13 miles S. S. £. from Burling- 
ton, and 26 W. from Montpelier. 

Hingluunf BlaM. 

Plymouth co. A pleasant town 
on Boston harbor, and an agreeable 
resort for citizens and strangers. 
It lies 11 miles S. £. from Boston, 
by water, and 14 by land. H Ing- 
ham cove is 5 miles S. W. from 
Nantasket beach, about 6 W. from 
Cohasset harbor, and 24 N. N. W. 
from Plymouth. First settled, 1633. 
Incorporated, 1635. Population, in 
1830,8,357; 1837,3,445. 

Major-general Benjamin Lin- 
coln, was born in this town, Jan. 
23, 1733; he died May 9, 1810. 

This town is remarkable for its 
healthiness and longevity. Dur- 
ing 50 years, 8 persons died in one 
house, whose average age was 84 

About 80 sail of vessels belong to 
this place, which are engaged in 
the cod and mackerel fishery, aud 
coasting trade ; — aggregate tonnage 
about 5,000 tons. 

In this town is an iron foundry, 
considerable ship building, a steam 
bucket factory ; and large quanti- 
ties of other wooden wares are 
manufactured, and some salt. 

The amount of manufactures of 
Hingham, for the year endins; April 
1, 1837, was $237,078. They con- 
si-<ted of leather, boots, shoes, iron 
castings, hats, ploughs, cabinet, tin 
and wooden wares, silk, salt, ves- 
sels, umbrellas, spars and blocks, 
cordage, carriages, hammers, and 
hatchets. The product of the cod 
and mackerel fishery, the same 
year, was $113,700. Total amount 
of the fishery and manufactures 

Derby Academy, a free school, 
and the Willard Private Academy, ^ 
are highly respectable seminaries, 
and promise great privileges to pa* 

A commodiops steam-boat plies 
between this and Boston, in sum- 
mer months, two or three times a 
day. The hotels are large, and 
furnish excellent accommodations. 
Baker's Hill presents extensive and 
delightful views of Boston harbor. 
An excursion to Hingham is very 

Hinsdale, N. H. 

Cheshire co. It is 75 miles S. 
W. by W. from Concord. It is well 
watered with springs and rivulets 
of the purest water. The Connec- 
ticut washes its western border; 
and the Ashuelot runs through the 
centre, forming a junttion with the 
Connecticut, a little below the great 
bend, called Cooper's point. Kil- 
burn brook rises in Pisgah moun- 
tain, runs S. and falls into Ashuelot 
river. Ash-swamp brook rises in 
West river mountain, runs a S. W. 
course, and falls into the Connecti- 
cut, near the side of Hinsdale's fort. 


There are several islands in the Con- 
necticut in this town. On the N. 
line of Hinsdale, is West river 
mountain, which extends from the 
banks of the Connecticut, £. across 
the whole width of the town. Its 
greatest elevation is at the W. end. 
President Dwight states the height 
above low water mark to be from 
800 to 900 feet. In this mountain is 
found iron ore, and some other min- 
erals and fossils. South of Ashue- 
lot, is Stebbins' hill, a tract of ex- 
cellent land, and principally in a 
high state of cultivation. The in- 
tervales here are extensive, and 
of an excellent quality. On the 
point of a hill, not far from Con- 
necticut river, there is to be seen 
the remains . of an Indian fortifica- 
tion, constructed prior to the set- 
tlement of the town. There is a 
deep trench drawn across the hill, 
to separate it from the plain back, 
and is continued to the river. 

Hinsdale was incorporated in 
1753. It was originally a part of 
Northfield, and was settled as early 
as 16S3. The former name of this 
place was Fort JDummer and Bridg- 
man's Fort. This town encoun- 
tered all the difficulties of the In- 
dian wars, and struggled with oth- 
er hardships incident to frontier 
settlements, begun in the wilder- 
ness and remote from cultivated 
lands. Population, 1830, 937. 

Hiosdalef Mass. 

Berkshire co. Hinsdale is the 
source of a branch of Housatonick 
river. It is an elevated township, 
and well adapted for grazing. — 
There are two woolen mills in 
Hinsdale, and manufactures of 
boots, shoes, leather, hats, chairs, 
and cabinet ware : total amount in 
one year $86,550. The value of 
1.1,020 fleeces of wool, sheared in 
Hinsdale in 1837, weighing 32,116 
pounds, was $19,266. This town 
-was incorporated in 1804. Popula- 
tion, 1887, 832. It lies 125 miles 

W. from Boston, and 15 N. N. W. 
from Lenox. 

Hlrana, He* . 

Oxford CO. This town liea on 
both sides of a branch of Sapo riv- 
er, 86 miles W. S. W. from Augus- 
ta, and 40 S. W. from Paris. The 
township is fertile and produc^ve 
of wool and wheat'. Incorporated, 
1807. Population, 1830, 1,148. 

HodgdcoDi, Me. 

Washington co. Incorporated, 
1S32: 179 miles from Augusta. In 
1837, with a population of 652, it 
produced 3,184 bushels of wheat 
See " Down East." 

Holden, Mass. 

Worcester co. This town is 0ne- 
ly watered by branches of Black- 
stone and Nashua iiversw It has a 
valuable water power on Quinipox- 
et river. It has some good mead- 
ow land on the borders of the 
streams. There are 5 cotton and 
2 woolen mills in the town, and 
manufactures of leather,boots,8hoes, 
straw bonnets, and palm-leaf hats ; 
total amount of the manufactures 
for the year ending April li 1837, 
$201,960. Holden is 4S miles W. 
from Boston, and 6 N. W. from 
Worcester. Incorporated, 1740. — 
Population, 183Y, 1,789. 

Holdemess, N. H. 

. Grafton co. It is 65 miles N, W. 
from Portsmouth, and 40 N. from 
Concord. The soil is hard and not 
easily cultivated, but when sub- 
dued is tolerably productive. From 
the sap of the sugar maple, a con- 
siderable quantity of sugar is made. 
The Pemigewasset imparts apor^ 
tion of its benefits to this place, and 
there are various other streams 
which serve to fertilize the soil, and 
to furnish mill seats. Squam river, 
the outlet of Squam ponds, runs in 
a S. W. direction and empties into 
the Pemigewasset near the S. W . 


ingle of the town. This stream 
affords excellent mill privileges, 
having on it 2 paper mills and oth- 
er maiihinery. There are 8 ponds 
or lakes. 

The road from Plymouth through 
Ihis place to Winnepisiogee lake, 
and along the borders of that lake 
to Wolfeborough is highly interest- 
ing ; displaying scenery which is 
scarcely equalled in this part of 
onr country. Holderness was first 
granted in 1761. The first settle- 
ment was made about the year 
1763. Population, 1830, 1,429. 

Holland, Vt. 

Orleans co. This is an excellent 
township of land, producing in great 
abundance all the varieties common 
to the climate. Previous to the 
year 1800, it was a wilderness. It 
IS bounded N. by Canada : 56 miles 
JV. N. E. from Montpelier and 20 
N. £. from Irasburgh. Population, 
18S0, 432. 

Holland, Mass. 

Hampden co. Holland was tak- 
en from Brimfield in 1785. It lies 
70 miles S. W. by W. from Boston, 
and 20 £. by S. from Springfield. 
Population, 1837, 495. Holland 
has several ponds, and is otherwise 
watered by Quinnebaugh river. 
Inhere is a cotton mill in the town, 
and 668 sheep. 

HollU, Me. 

York CO. This town lies on the 
W. bimk of Saco river, and contains 
numerous mill sites. Incorporated, 
18i2. Population, 1837, 2,374. It 
lies 72 miles S. W. from Augusta, 
and 30 N. from York. 

Hollis, If. H. 

Hillsborough co. It is 8 miles 
'8. from Amherst, and 86 S. from 
Concord. Nashua river waters the 
8, £. part, and Nisitiseit crosses 
the S. W. extremity. There are 4 
ponds, known by the name of 
Flint's, Penichook, Long and Rocky 

ponds. There is a pleasant villaga 
near the centre of the town, on a 
site som'ewhat elevated. The ori- 
ginal name of Hollis was JVXsitU- 
sit, its Indian name. The first 
settlement was made in 1731.. It 
was incorporated in April, 1746. — 
The name is either derived from 
Thomas Hollis, a distinguished ben- 
efactor of Harvard coUeee, or from 
the Duke of New Castle. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,601. 

HolUston, Mass. 

Middlesex co. First settled ,1710. 
Incorporated, 1724. Population in 
1837, 1,776. It lies 24 miles 8. W. 
by W. from Boston, and 21 S. from 
Concord. There is a woolen mill 
in the town, and some manufactures 
of boots, shoes, leather, chairs and 
cabinet ware, combs, ploughs, straw 
bonnets, books, clothing, wagons 
and harnesses : total value in one . 
year $335,948. The value of boots 
and shoes amounted to $241,626, 
employing 461 hands. Holliston 
is watered by a small branch of 
Charles river. 

Holmes' Hole, Mass. 

See Tisbury. 

Hooksetty N. H. 

Merrimack co. It lies nine miles 
S. S. £. from Concord. The river 
Merrimack, whose course here is 
nearly N. and S., passes through 
this town a little W. of the centre. 
Here are those beautiful falIs,known 
by the name of Hooksett Falls. — 
The descent of water is about 16 
feet perpendicular in SO rods. A 
high rock divides the stream, and a 
smaller rock lies between that and 
the western shore. There is a 
pleasant village on the W. side of 
the Twer. There is a strong and 
^ell built bridge over Merrimack 
river. Hooksett canal is in this 
town. It is 1-4 of a mile long — the 
fall is 16 feet perpendicular. Hook- 
^tt was detached from Chester, 
Crofitown and Dunbarton, and in- 


corporated as a separate town in 
June, 1822. On the E. side of the 
river is an extensive cotton factory, 
owned by the Amoskeag Company. 
Population, 1830, 880. 

HoommIk River and Mountain. 

Two branches of the Hoosack, 
> Hosick, or Hoosick river, rise in 
New England : one in the high 
lands in the county of Berkshire, 
Mass. ; the other in the mountain- 
ous tracts of Bennington county, 
Vt. These branches unite near 
Hoosack Falls, in the state of New 
York, about 3 miles W. of the eel- 
ebrated Bennington battle ground. 
Hoosack river meets the Hudson 
at Schagthicoke, 15 miles N. of 
Troy, N. Y. This stream, in many 
places, is exceedingly rapid in its 
course, and affords a great number 
of mill sites. 

Hoosack mountain lies princi- 
pally in Clarksburgh and Berkshire, 
Mass., and is the source of a branch 
of Hoosack river. Its elevation is 
from 1,500 to 2,000 feet from iU 

Hopey Me* 

Waldo CO. Hope is a township 
of choice land, having Camden and 
Megunticook lake on its south-east- 
em border. It lies 44 miles £. 3. 
E. from Augusta, and 16 S. by W. 
from Belfast. Hope produced in 
1837, 3,142 bushels of wheat. Pop- 
ulation, same year, 1,733. Incoi- 
porated, 1804. 

Hopklnton, IX. H. 

Merrimack co. It is 28 miles N. 
from Amherst, 7 W. from Concord, 
46 N. E. from Keene, 30 S. E. from 
Newport, 50 W, from Portsmouth, 
and 65 N. N. W. from Boston. Con- 
toocook river flows from Henniker 
into the south -westerly part of this 
town, and meanders in a N. E. di > 
rection. In its course it receives 
Warner and Blackwater rivers, vind 
several large brooks, and empties 

into Merrimack river at Concord. 
On these streams are some valuable 
tracts of intervale and meadow lands 
The principal village in Hopkinton 
is 7 miles from the state-house in 
Concord. In this town the county 
jail is located. In the W. part of 
the town is a thriving village on 
the Contoocook river, known as 
HiWs Bridge, or ContoocookvilUf 
where is a valuable water power, 
and several mills. Hopkinton was 
granted Jan. 16, 1735, to John Jones 
and others, and was called JVumber 
5, and afterwards ^ew- Hopkinton, 
The first settlement was made about 
1740, by emigrants from Hopkinton, 
Mass. This town suffered from In- 
dian depredations. Population in 
1830, 2,474. 

nopklntc»n, Mass. 

Middlesex county. Branches of 
Charles and Mill rivers rise in this 
town, on which are manufacturing 
Establishments. There are 3 cot- 
ton mills in Hopkinton, and manu- 
factures of boots and shoes, ($152,- 
300,) leather, ploughs, and straw 
bonnets : total value, the year end- 
ing April 1, 1837, $217,550. The 
town was incorporated in 171S. 
Population, 1830, 1,809 ; 1887, 

The mineral spring in this town 
has become celebrated. It con- 
tains carbonic acid, and carbonate 
of lime and iron. It is situated near 
White Hall pond, which abounds 
in fine fish of various kinds. The 
Boston and Worcester rail road 
passes within 3 1-2 miles of it, at 
Wcstborough, and it is 7 miles from 
the Blackstone canal, at North- 
bridge. It is 30 miles W. S. W. 
from Boston, 14 E. by S. from Wor- 
cester, and 30 N. by W. from Pro- 
vidence, R. I. There is a large and 
convenient hotel at this place, at 
which visitors for health or plea- 
sure are kindly entertained. A trip 
to Hopkinton springs is both plea- 
sant and fashionable. 


Hopklntoiiy R. I« 

Washington co. Wood river, a 
Taluable mill stream, passes through 
tills town, on which are cotton and 
woolen milU, iron works, and vari- 
ous other manufactories. The soil 
.of the town is generally well adapt- 
ed for grazing, and the cultivation 
of grain. It produces large quanti- 
ties of fruit and excellent cider. 
Shad and ale wives are taken in 
Pawcatuck river. There are seve- 
ral ponds within the town. Con- 
siderable woo:I and timber are sent 
to market from this place. 

Hapkinton City, at the south 
part of the town, on the Tomma- 
quaug branch of Charles river, is 
very pleasant and flourishing. It 
lies 35 miles S. W. from Provi- 
dence, and 15 W. from South 
Kingston. Hopkinton was first set- 
tled in 1660. Incorporated, 1757. 
Population, 1830, 1,777. 

Honlton, Me. 

Washington co. This town is 
situated on the east line of the state 
and of the United States, on the 
border of the Province of New 
Brunswick. It lies 120 miles N. 
Ni E. from Bangor, and about 75 
W. N. W. from Frederickton, the 
capital of New Brunswick. The 
town was first settled in 180S, and 
for twenty years it was entirely cut 
off from all communication with the 
.western part of the state by a dense 
wilderness of nearly 100 miles in 

In 1829', a military post, the "Han- 
cock Barracks," was established 
here by the U. S. government, and 
in 1834 the military and state roads 
between Bangor and Houlton were 
com,Meted and opened for travel. 
The «freat thoroughfare between 
tiie Uuited States and the British 
Province of New Brunswick is 
through th'<* town. The roads be- 
tween Bangur and Houlton are ex- 
cellent : stages pass and repass from 
Bangor through Houlton (o Frede-^ 

nekton, three times a week. Fred- 
erickton is 80 miles N. N. W. from 
St. Johns. A good road between 
Houlton and Calais, on the river 
St. Croix, about 90 miles distant, is 
now open for travel. This town is 
well watered by branches of Me- 
duxnekeag river, which empties 
into the St. John's. The garrison is 
located about a mile north of the 
village, and has generally contain- 
ed four companies of infantry. In 
this town the courts of probate are 
held, and the office of registry of 
deeds kept for the northern district 
of Washington county. 

The soil of Houlton and its vicin- 
ity is of a superior quality. Twen- 
ty-five bushels of wheat to the acre 
is an average crop: 40 bushels to 
(he acre is frequently obtained. — 
Houlton, with a population of 667, 
raised 5,869 bushels of wheat in the 
year 1837. 

We have heard it is said, that per- 
sons might go so far ** down east" 
as to "jump off." If Houlton is 
the jumping off place, we advise 
some of our western brethren to go 
and view the precipice. 

HousatoniolK Rt^er* 

The sources of this river are in 
the towns of Lanesborough and 
Windsor, Berkshire county, Mass. 
The two branches meet at Pitts- 
field, where the river forms ; it then 
passes south, through Berkshire 
county, and enters the state of Con- 
necticut. After meandering through 
the county of Litchfield, in that 
state, it separates the counties of 
New Haven and Fairfield, and 
meets the tide water at Derby, 14 
miles above its entrance into Long 
Island Sound. The source of this 
mountain stream is more than 1,000 
feet above the ocean; and in its 
course, of nearly 150 miles, it af- 
fords numerous mill sites, and pre- 
sents many pleasant and well cul- 
tivated towns. The volume of wa- 
ter of this river is not very large 
except in seasons of freshet, when 


the raiiis from the mountains that 
enriron its borders, inundate the 
valleys and greatly fertilize the soil. 
The scenery on the Housatonick 
i? exceedingly beautiful; in some 
places it is enchanting. The roman- 
tic cataract at Canaan, Conn., of 60 
feet perpendicular, is well worthy 
the notice of traveyers." The In- 
dian name of this river, signifies 
over the mountains. A vocabula- 
ry of Indian names, so beautiful and 
expressive, would be not only cu- 
rious hut valuable. 

Hoi^landy Me. 

Penobscot co. This is a large 
township of good land, in which the 
Piscataquis and Seboois rivers form 
a junction : at the mouth of the for- 
mer, about 50 rods from the Penob- 
scot, are several saw mills. The 
banks of the river are low and ve- 
ry beautiful. Howland was incor- 
porated in 1S26. It lies 117 miles 
N. E. from Augusta, and 34 N. from 
Bangor. PopulaUon, 1830, 329; 
1837, 507. 

Hubbardstony Vt« 

Rutland co. Elizabeth Hickok, 
the daughter of Elizabeth and Uriah 
Hickok, was the first white child 
born in this town. This event oc- 
curred in 1774. The face of the 
town is uneven, and in some parts 
mountainous. It is watered by se- 
veral ponds, the largest of which, 
lying partly in Sudbury, is Grego- 
ry^ s pond, the outlet of which is 
called Hubbardston river. This 
river empties into Lake Champlain 
at West Haven, and is an excellent 
mill stream. The village at the 
northwesterly- part of the town is 
pleasant and flourishing: it con- 
tains mills for the manufacture of 
various articles. 

Hubbardston lies 50 miles S. W. 
from Montpelier, and 10 N. W. from 
Rutland. Population, 1830, 865. 

Ilnbtmrdstony Mass. 

WorcestbT co, Hubbardston is 

on elevated ground, and tbe souro^e 
of several branches of Ware river. 
There is much unimproved watar 
power in the town. There are con- 
siderable tracts of valuable mead- 
ow land, and the uplands are good 
for {grazing. It was incorporated 
in 1767. Population, 1837, 1,780. 
The manufactures of the town con- 
sist of copperas, leather, boots,ihoe8, j 
palm- leaf hats, chairs, cabinet and 
wooden wares. Hubbardston lies 
54 miles W. from Boston, and 22 
S. from Worcester. 

Hillsborough co. This town lies 
17 miles S. E. from Amherst, and 
38 S. from Concord. The laiid here 
is of easy cultivation. On the river 
are fine intervales, of a deep rich 
soil. Distant from the river, the 
land is hilly and somewhat broken. 
There are two ponds, known by the 
name of Little Massabesick, and 
Otteniick ponds. This town was 
included in the grant of Dunstable, 
and was settled as early as 1710. 
The first settlements were made on 
the banks of the river, where the 
Indians had cleared fields for culti- 
vating corn. The first inhabitants 
lived in garrisons. While the men 
were abroad in the fields and forests, 
the women and children were lodg- 
ed in these places of security. 
Near the Indian cornfields have 
been found cinders of a blacksmith*! 
forge, which have led to the con- 
jecture that they employed a smith 
to manufacture their implements of 
war and agriculture. Incorporated, 
1746, by the name of Nottingham- 
West, which it retained until July 
1, 1830, when it was changed to 
Hudson. Population in 1830, 1,282. 

Hull, Mass. 

Plymouth co. Hull was first set- 
tled about the year 1625. Incor- 
porated, 1644. Populriion, 1837, 
180. This town comp rises the pen- 
insula of Nantasket, which fonos 
the S. £. aide of Boiton liarbor. It 


extends N. by "W. from Cohasset, 5 
miles, and is celebrated for its beau- 
tiful beach, 4 miles in length, and 
for its shell fish and sea fowl. The 
town lies between two hills of fine 
land, near point Alderton, opposite 
Boston light- house. It lies 9 miles 
£. S. £. vrom Boston, by water, and 
22 by land, via Hiugham. On one 
of the hills in this place, is a well 
90 feet in depth, which is frequently 
almost full of water. Capital in- 
vested in the manufacture of salt, 

Hull is remarkable for the una- 
nimity which always prevails among 
its inhabitants in their deliberative 
assemblies, and for a spirit of com- 
promise manifest on all occasions in 
their selection of public servants. 

Huntington, Vt. 

Chittenden co. First settled, 
17S6. PopulaUon, in 1830, 929.— 
Huntington lies 20 miles W. from 
Montpelier, and 15 S. £. from Burl- 
ington. Huntington river passes 
through this town ; it is a branch 
of Onion river, is rapid in its course, 
affording several towns an abund- 
ant water power. The soil of Hun- 
tington is poor : its surface is gen- 
erally too hilly for cultivation. — 
CamePs Back mountain lies in the 
eastern part of the town. 

Huntington, Ct* 

Fairfield co. This is a township 
of uneven surface, but well adapt- 
ed to agricultural purposes, to which 
the inhabitants are principally de- 
voted. Huntington was incorpora- 
ted in 1789. It lies 4 miles W. 
from Derby Landing, 12 N. E. from 
Fairfield, and 12 W. from New 
Haven. Population, 1830, 1,371. 

Hyannlfl Harbor^ Mass. 

See Barnstable. 

Hyde Park, Tt. 

Lamoille co. County town. The 
Lamoille, Green, and other rivers 
give thi» town a great water power. 

some of which is advantageously, 
improved. The soil is generally of 
a good quality and easily cultiva- 
ted. It lies 24 miles N. from Mont- 
pelier, and 82 N. E. from Burling,- 
ton. Population, 1830, 823, First 
settled, 1787. 

Indian Riven. 

Indian river. Me., Washington 
county, is a small stream in the town 
of Addison. 

Indian stream, N. H., Coos coun- 
ty, is the principal and most north- 
erly source of Connecticut river, 
rising in the highlands near the N. 
limit of the state, and pursuing al- 
most a direct S. W. course to its 
junction with the £. branch flow- 
ing from lake Connecticut. 

Indian river, Vt., rises in Ru- 
pert, and falls into the Pawlet. An- 
other stream of this name, in Vt., 
rises in Essex, and falls into Col- 
chester bay. 

Indian Stream Territory. 

Is a tract in New Hampshire N 
of lat. 45°, extending to the British 
possesions in Ii. Canada. It was 
surveyed in 1805,and contains 160,- 
363 acres. Lake Connecticut and 
several considerable ponds are sit- 
uated within this tract. 

Industry, Me. 

Franklin co. This town borders 
N. W. on Sandy river, and is a 
valuable tract of land. It lies 32 
miles N. W. from Augusta, and is 
bounded S. W. by Farmington. 
Industry was incorporated in 1803: 
it has a pleasant village, and raised, 
in 1837, 6,078 bushels of wheat, 
with a population of 1,014. 

Ipsmrich, Mass. 

Essex CO. This is one of the 
shire towns of the county, and a 
port of entry, on a river of the 
same name, sometimes called JlgO' 
warn, the Indian name of the place. 
Ipswich village is very pleasant, 
and the country around it i» well 

New England gazetteer. 

cultivated, and beautifully varie- 
gated. There is a cotton mill in 
the town, and a number of vessels 
are engaged in the coasting trade 
and fishery. The manufactures 
consist of cotton goods, hosiery, 
vessels, leather, boots, shoes, chairs, 
and cabinet ware: — total annual 
amount, about $120,000. Ipswich 
is 12 miles N. by £. from Salem, 
10 S. from Newburyport, and 26 
N. E. by N. from Boston. First 
settled, 1633. Incorporated, 1634. 
PopulaUon, 1820, 2,553 : 1S37, 2,- 

Ira, Vt. 

Rutland co. This township is 
elevated : it contains good land for 
rearing cattle : it has about 5,000 
sheep. Castleton river and Ira 
brook wash a part of the town, but 
afford no valuable mill privileges. 
Ira lies 60 miles S. S. W. from 
Montpelier, and 8 S. W. from Rut- 
land. Population, 1830, 442. 

Irasbnrghy Vt. 

Shire town of Orleans county. 
This township was granted to Ira 
Allen and others, in 1781. It was 
first settled in 1799. Population, 
1S30, 860. it lies 40 miles N. by 
E. fi'om Montpelier, and 30 N. by 
W. from Danville. The surface of 
the town is undulating, with an 
easy soil to cultivate, and general- 
ly fertile. Black and Barton riv- 
ers water the town, but move too 
sluggishly to produce any valuable 

Iglnglacs River, N. H., 

Takes its rise from Long pond 
in Barrington, 'and Bow pond in 
Strafford, and, after receiving the 
waters of several other ponds, unites 
with the Cocheco near the S. part 
of Rochester. 

Isles ot Shoals. 

These islands, 8 miles from the 
mouth of Portsmouth harbor, N. H. 
are leven ia number, viz: Hog, 

Smutty Nose, Star, Duck, White^ 
Malaga, and Londonner islands. 
Hog contains 350 acres of rock, and 
its greatest elevation is 67 feet above 
high water mark. Smutty Nose 
contains about 250 acres of rock 
and soil — greatest elevation 45 feet. 
Star island contains about 180 acrei 
of rock and soil, and its height is 55 
feet. These islands, as a town, are 
called Gosport. Star and Smutty 
Nose are inhabited by fishermen, 
who carry on considerable business, 
in their way ; supplying Portsmouth 
and the neighboring towns with 
fresh fish, and sending large quan- 
tities of cured fish to Boston and 
other places. The celebrated dun 
fish are found here, which have 
heretofore been considered a dis- 
tinct species of the cod. They 
differ however from the common 
cod only in the circumstance of 
their being caught and cured* in 
winter. Star island and Smutty 
No<e are connected by a sea waU, 
built at the expense of government, 
for the purpose of breaking a strong 
south east current passing between 
them, and forming a 82& anchor- 
age on the north west side of it 
These objects have been attained, 
and the miniature fleet of the Shoal- 
ers, riding at anchor in this artifi- 
cial harbor, is no unpleasant sight. 
Smutty Nose and Malaga are con- 
nected by a sea wall, built at the 
expense of Mr. Haley, ** the King 
of the Shoals." This wall, 14 rods 
in length, 13 feet in height, and 
from 20 to 30 feet in width, effec- 
tually secures Haley's iulet and 
wharf from the easterly storms, 
although the waves not unfrequent- 
ly break over it in a severe storm. 
These islands are composed of ledges 
of gneiss, bearing evidence of their 
igneous origin, as they are often 
traversed by veins of quartz, trap, 
and iron stone. 

There are a few spots of dry soil 
upon them under cultivation. TTie 
Shoals are a pleasant resort for 
water parties, and their delightful 


Ing air, cannot be otherwise 
advantageous to those who are 
ant of pure sea breezes. The 
mt population is about 100. 
lese islands were discovered 
he celebrated John Smi^h, in 
, and were named by him 
th*a Isles. The line between 
le and New Hampshire passes 
rgh these islands, leaving the 
»t on the side of Maine. Up- 
JI of them are chasms in the 
s, having the appearance of 
g caused by earthquakes. The 

remarkable is on Star island, 
port) in which one Betty Moody 
!ted herself when the Indians 
3d the island and took away 
jT female captives; and thence 
d to this day " Betty Moody^s 
" For more than a century 
ions to the revolution, these 
dft were populous, containing 
SOO to 600 souls. They had 
irt-house on Haley's island ; 
seting-house, first on Hog isl- 
and afterwards on Star island. 
1 8 to 4 thousand quintals fish 
) annually caught and cured 
, and 7 or 8 schooners, besides 
erous. boats, were employed in 
business. The business has 
5 very greatly decreased, 
illiam Pcpperell and a Mr. Gib- 
, from Topsham", England, were 
ig tho first settlers at the Shoals; 
former an ancestor of the cele- 
jd Sir William Pepperell. 

woman, of the name of Pul- 
died in Gosport, in 1795, aged 

In her life time she kept two 
I. The hay on which they 
!n winter, she used to cut in 
mer, among the rocks, with a 
Cy with her own hands. Her 
B, it was said, were always in 
I order. They were taken from 
but paid for, by the British, in 
^, and killed, to the no small 
f of the good old woman. 

Iglesborougl&y Mo. 

^aldo CO. This town comprises 
*ge and fertile island, in Penob- 


scot bay, and several islands in its 
vicinity. This island has excellent 
harbors, and is much frequented by 
fishermen and coasters. The inhab- 
itants are independent farmers and 
fishermen, who are accustomed to 
render their insular situation a 
place of comfort to the wayfarer, 
or the invalid in pursuit, of ocean 
breezes. Islesborough lies 10 miles 
S. £. from Belfast, and 56 £. from 
Augusta. Incorporated, 1789. — 
Population, 1887, 674. 

Israel's Rl-rer, N. H., 

Coos CO., is formed by the waters 
which descend in cataracts from the 
summits of Mounts Adams and Jef- 
ferson, and running N. W. it passes 
through Randolph and Jefferson, 
discharging itself into the Connec- 
ticut near tho centre of Lancaster. 
It is a beautiful stream, and receiv- 
ed its name from Israel Glines, a 
hunter, who with his brother fre- 
quented these regions, long before 
the settlement of the county. 

Jaoksony Me* 

Waldo CO. An interior township 
of good land that produced, in 1837, 
4,898 bushels of as fine wheat as 
can be raised in Tennessee. Pop- 
ulation, same year, 523. Jackson 
is 49 miles N. £. from Augusta, and 
15 N. N. W. from Belfast. Incor- 
porated, 1818. 

JaolKSony If. II.9 

Coos CO., situated on the £. side 
of the White mountains. The sur- 
face of the town is uneven, but the 
soil is rich and productive. It is 
watered prlneipally by the two 
branches of Ellis* river, passing 
from the N. and uniting on the S. 
border near Spruce mountain. — 
The principal elevations are called 
Black, Baldface, and Thorn moun- 
tains. Benjamin Copp was the first 
settler; he moved into Jackson in 
1779, and with his family buffeted 
the terrors of the wilderness four- 


teen years, before any other person 
settled there. The town was in- 
corporated December 4, 1800, by 
the name of Adams, which name 
it retained until 1829, when it was 
changed to Jackson. Population, 
in 1830, 515. 

JaflBrey-, N. II. 

Cheshire co. This town Hes 62 
miles N. W. from Boston, and 40 S. 
W. by S. from Concord. The Grand 
Monadnock is situated in the N. W. 
part of this town and in Dublin. 
Innumerable streams of water issue 
from the mountain. Those which 
issue from the western side dis- 
charge themselves into the Con- 
necticut river; those from the east- 
ern form the head waters of Con- 
toocook river. The largest stream 
rises about 100 rods fj-om the sum- 
mit, and descends in a S. £. direc- 
tion. With this brook, the thirsty 
and fatigued visitors of the moun- 
tain associate the most pleasing re- 
collections. The uneven soil of 
Jaffrey, affording numerous mead- 
ows, and early and rich pastures, 
is peculiarl}' adapted to raising cat- 
tle. There are several ponds in 
this town. Out of 3, issue streams 
sufficient to carry mills erected near 
their outlets. In the largest, which 
is 400 rods long, and 140 wide, is 
an island comprising about 10 acres. 
About 1 1-2 miles S. £. from the 
mountain is the " Monadnock mine- 
ral spring." The spring is slightly 
impregnated with carbonate of iron 
and sulphate of soda. It preserves 
so uniform a temperature as never 
to have been known to freeze. 
Where the spring issues from the 
earth, yellow ochre is thrown out. 
In this town are a cotton and wool- 
en factory, and various mills. The 
first permanent settlement was made 
in 1758. Jaffrey was incorporated 
in 1773, receiving its name from 
George Jaffrey, Esq., of Portsmouth, 
one of the original proprietors. Pop- 
ulation in 1830, 1,804. 

Windham co. West river wafers 
this town, and gives good mill seats. 
At a pleasant village near the cen- 
tre of the town are valuable man- 
ufacturing establishments. The sur- 
face of the town is very uneven ; 
in some parts n>ountainous, but the 
soil is generally good and produc- 
tive. Lime-stone of a good quality 
is found here. Jamaica was first 
settled in 17dp. Population, 1830» 
1,523. It lies 90 miles 0. from 
Monfpelier, and 14 N. W. from 

Jamtesto'wiiL, R.I. 

Newport co. This town comprise 
es Connanicut, a beautiful island 
in Narraganset bay, about S miles 
in length: its Average breadth is 
{ibout a mile. The soil is a rich 
loam, and peculiarly adapted for 
grazing and the production of In- 
dian corn and barley. 

The inhabitants of this island are. 
remarkable for their industry and 
agricultural skill, which, united 
with the fertility of the soil and the 
location of the island, repders it a 
delightful place. The distance from 
the town or island to Newport and 
South Kingston is about a mile each 
way .; to each of those places a fer- 
ry is established. Tha i^and was 
purchased of the Indians in 1657. 
Jamestown was incorporated ia 
1678. Population, 1830, 415. 

Jay, 3Ie. 

Franklin co. Jay lies at a bend 
of Androscoggin river, 29 miles W. 
by N. from Augusta, and 12 S. S. W. 
from Farmington. There is mueh 
valuable land in Jay. The inhab- 
itants are principally farmers, and 
cultivate the soil with much indus- 
try. The town produced, in 1837, 
8,129 bushels of wheat, and c<xi- 
siderahle wool. Population, 1830» 
1,276; 1S37, 1,685. Incorporated* 


Hmr, vt. 

'Orieana co. A purt of this toivn 
U Ter; mountainoug — Jay's peak 
lying in (he S. W. part; the other 
part Ja good inble land, and irould 
produce good crops if well cuhi- 
VHted. A number ot slreamg issue 
from the mountain and produee an 
ample water power. Jay was char- 
tered In 1T92, but it was not per- 
maneiitty aettled until about 1810. 
It lies 50 miles N. from Mootpe- 
lier, and IS N. W. from Irasburgb. 
Population, ISSO, 196. 

JeBbnon, H>. 

Lincoln co. This town lies at 
the head of Damariscotta river, and 
embraces a large body of water, 
Jt is otherwise watered by several 
ponds producing streams for mill i 
seats, which give to Jetfer«>Q great 
facilities for sawing and transport- 
ing lumber. This is a nourishing 
town in its trade and agricultural 
pursuits; it produced 3,361 bushels 
of wheat in 1S3T. Inciyporatea, 
1S07. Populstion, 183T, 2,246. It 
lies 28 miles E. S. E. from Augus- 
ta, and 19 N. E. from WiscasseL 

Com CO. Pondicherry pond, in 
this town. Is about 200 rods in di- 
' ftmeter, and is the principal source 
of John's river. Pondicherry bay 
Is about 200 rods wide and 100 lODg. 
Mount Pliny lies in the easterly 
part o( this town, and around Its 
base there is excellent grazing and 
tillage land. On the 8. W. aide of 
tliis mountain are several fine farms, 
irhich command a most delightful 
Tiew of the White mounlsina. Is- 
rmel'i river passes fhrough Jefier- 
•on from 8. E. to N. W., and here 
receivesaconsiderBblebranch. The 
town waafirstsettledaboutthe year 
1TT8. Jefferson is TT miles M. from 
Concord, and 9 S. E. from Lancas- 
ter. Pfqtuladon, IBSO, 496. 
Jcrlao, Vt. 
Cbltteoden M. Fitst settled, 1T74. 

Population, 1880,1,664. JericoOea 
25 miles N. W. from Montpelier, 
and 12 E. from Burlington. This 
town lies ou the N. side of Onion 
river, and is otherwise finely sup- 
plied with mill seals by Brawn's 
river and other streams. The soil 
varies in quality, from good inter- 
vale, on the streams, to common 
grazingpaatures,oiithehill(. There 
is a pleasant village at the falls, on 
Brown's river, and some manufac- 

JoluuoB, -Vt, 

Lamoille co. Johnson was first 
lettled in 1184, by a revolutionary 
liero, of the name of Samuel Ea- 
ton. Mr. Eaton frequently passed 
through this township, while scout- 
ing between Connecticut river and 
lake Champlain; and several times 
encamped on the same flat which 
he afterwards occupied as a farm, it 
being a beautiful tract of intervale. 
Like many other settlers of this 
state, he had many difficulties to 
encounter. In indigent clrcumston' 
ces,and with a numerous family, 
he loaded Ma little all upon an old 
horse, and aet out in search of that 
favorite spot which he had selected 
in his more youthful days. He 
had to travel nearly TOmilea through 
the wilderness, guided by the trees 
which had been marked by the 
scouts, and opening a path tt ha 
passed along. He depended, for 
some lime after he arrived at John- 
son, entirely upon huntingand fish- 
ing for the support of himself and 


loille e 

9 Ihia 

lownship near the southcaat c 
ner, and running westerly about 
two miles, Ihraugh a rich tract of 
intervale, falisover.a ledgeof rocks 
about 16 feet in height into a basin 
below. This is called M'Connd'i 
falli. Thence it runs northwest- 
eriy over a bed of rocks, about 100 
rods, narrowing lis channel and in- 
creasing its velocity, when it forms 
a wbirlpod and sjnlu under a bar- 


rier of rocks, which extends across 
the river. The ar^h is of solid 
rock, is about eight feet wide, and 
at low water is passed over by 
footmen with safety. The water 
rises below through numerous aper- 
tures, exhibiting the appearance of 
the boiling of a pot. 

The surface of this township is 
uneven, being thrown into ridges, 
which are covered with hemlock, 
spruce and hard wood. The soil is 
a dark, or yellow loam, mixed with 
a light sand, is easily tilled, and 
▼ery productive. The alluvial flats 
are considerably extensive, but back 
from the river the lands are, in 
some parts rather stony. In the 
northeastern part has been discov- 
ered a quantity of soapstone. 

The village, in Johnson, is very 
pleasant, and contains a number of 
mills, for the manufacture of vari- 
ous articles. Johnson lies 2S miles 
N. by W. from Montpelier, and 6 
N. W. from Hyde fark. Popula- 
tion, 1880, 1,079. 

Joluuitony R* !• 

Providence co. This town lies 
6 miles W. from Providence, from 
which it was taken in 1759. It is 
pleasantly variegated by hills and 
vales, with a soil adapted to the cul- 
ture of corn and barley, and par- 
ticularly to all sorts of vegetables 
and fruits, of which large quantities 
are annually sent to Providence 
market. The quarries of freestone 
in Johnston are valuable ; they sup- 
ply the wanfs, not only of the city 
and immediate vicinity, but distant 
places, with that useful material. 
The Wonasquatucket and Pochass'^t 
rivers with their tributary streams 
give this town a good hydraulic pow- 
er. ' Beautiful manufacturing vil- 
lages are scattered along the banks 
of these waters, presenting to the 
eye of the traveller the pleasant 
union of our agricultural and man- 
ufacturing interests. Population, 
1880, 2,113. 

JonesbOKonglty He* 

Washington co. This town hat 
Chandler's river and the head of 
Englishman's bay on the £., Jones- 
port on the S., and the town of Ad- 
dison on the W. Incorporated, 1809. 
Population, 1887, 485. It lies 184 
miles E. by N. from Augusta, and 
12 S. W. from Machias. 

Jonesporty Me* 

Washington co. Taken from Jones- 
borough in 1836, and is bounded N. 
by Jonesborough, E. by English- 
man's bay, S. by Mispeeky reach, 
and W. by Addison bay and har- 
bor. This place has an excellent 
harbor, and is finely located for shif 
building, the fisheries and coastin^^ 
trade. It lies 138 miles £. by N «- 
from Augusta, and 16 S. W. fronc::^ 
Machias. Population, 1887, 681 
Beal and Head islands lie off S— -^ 
from Jonesport. 

Juditli Point, R* I. 

A noted headland in South King s*" -' 
ton, 11 miles S. S.W. from Newport^^ 
in N. lat. 410 24', W. Ion. 71® SV. 
A light-house was erected here in 
1810, the tower of which is 35 feet 
in height. This point opens to the 
ocean about midway between Vine- 
yard and Long Island Sounds.— 
When off this place, travellers nn« 
accustomed to the sea frequently 
experience some little inconveni- 
ence for a few miles. From tftis 
light, Montauk, on Long Island, 
bears about S. W. 80 miles, and Gay 
Head, on Martha's Vineyard, about 
£. by S., 85 miles. 

Katabdin Mowntntiiy Me* 

This celebrated mountain, the 
greatest elevation in the state, lies 
between the eastern and western 
branches of Penobscot river, in the 
county of Piscataquis, about eighty 
miles N. N. W. from Bangor, and 
120 N. N. E. from Augusta. Dr. 
Jackson has ascertained its height 


to be 5,300 feet above tbe level of 
the sea. The Indians had a notion 
that this mountain was the abode 
of supernatural beings. It is steep 
and rugged, and stands in almost 
' solitary grandeur. It may be seen 
In a clear day from Bangor. Those 
who have visited its summit pro- 
nounce the scenery unrivalled in 

Kearsarfpe Hountaln, N. II., 

Id the county of Merrimack, sit- 
uated between the towns of Sutton 

. and Salisbury, extending into both 
towns. The line between Wilmot 
and Warner passes over the sum- 
mit. Kearsar^e is elevated 2,461 
feet above the level of the sea, and 
is the highest mountain in Merri- 
mack county. Its summit is now 
a bare mass of granite, presenting 
an irregular ' and broken surface; 
the sides are covered with a thick 
growth of wood. The prospect from 

. this mountain, in a clear sky, is 
▼ery wide and beautifi4l. 

Keeney N. H., 

Chief town of Cheshire co., is one 
of the most flourishing towns in 
N. H. ItJsSO miles W. N. W. from 
Boston, 60 S. from Dartmouth col- 
lege, 43 S. S. £. from Windsor, Vt., 
40 W. from Amherst, and 63 W. S. 
W. from Concord. The soil is of va- 
rious kinds and generally good. 

Ashueloc river has its source in a 
pond in Washington, and discharges 
itself into the Connecticut, at Hins- 
dale, 20 miles distant from Keene. 
Keene has been called one of the 
'* prettiest villageV in New Eng- 
land ; and president Dwight, in his 
travels, pronounces it one of the 
pleasantest inland towns he had 
seen. The principal village is sit- 
uated on a flat, E. of the Ashuelot, 
nearly eqiiidistiint from that and the 
upland. It is particularly entitled 
to notice for the extent, width, and 
uniform level of its streets. The 
nain street, extending one mile in 
a straight line, is almost a perfect 

level, and is well ornamented' with 
trees. The buildings are good and 
well arranged ; some of them are 
elegant. Keene is a place of con- 
siderable business. It has 2 glass 
houses, a woolen factory, iron found- 
ry, and many other valuable manu- 
facturing establishments. Itsflrat 
settlement ccmmonced about tbe 
year 1784, by Jeremiah Hall and 
others. Its original name was Up' 
per Ashuelot. It was incorporated 
with its present name, April 11, 
1753, which is derived from Sir 
Benjamin Keene, British minister 
at Spain, and contemporary with 
Gov. B. Wentworth. 

In 1736 the settlement had so 
increased, that a meeting-house was 
erected and in two years after, a 
minister was settled. But the usual 
scourge, which attended the fron- 
tier settlements, visited this town 
In 1745 the Indians killed Josiah 
Fisher, a deacon of the church: 
in 1746, they attacked the fort, the 
only protection of the inhabitants. 
They were, however, discovered 
by Capt. Ephraim Dorman in sea- 
son to prevent their taking it. — 
He was attacked by two Indians, 
but defended himself successfully 
against them, and reached the fort. 
An action ensued, in which John 
Bullard was killed ; Mrs. M'Ken- 
ney, who being out of the fort, was 
stabbed and died ; and Nathan Blake 
taken prisoner, carried to Canada, 
where he remained two years. Mr. 
Blake afterwards returned to Keene, 
where he lived till his death,in 1811, 
at the age of 99 years and 5 months. 
When he was 94 he married a wid- 
ow.of 60. The Indians burnt all the 
buildings in the settlement, includ- 
ing the meeting-house. The in- 
habitants continued in the fort un- 
til April, 1747, when the town was 
abandoned. In 1753 thev return- 
ed, and re-con.menced their settle- 
ments. In 1755 the Indians again 
attacked the fort. Their number 
was great, and the onset violent, 
but the vigilance and courage of 


Ctpt. Syms successfully defended 
it. After burning several build- 
ings, killing cattle, &c., they with- 
drew. They again invaded the 
town, but with little success. 

Col. Isaac Wtman, an active 
and influential man, marched the 
first detachment of men from this 
town, in the war of the revolution, 
and was present at the battle of 
Breed's Hill. Population, in 1830, 

Blendmkeag Stream, Me. 

This stream rises in Dexter and 
Garland, and after meandering very 
circuitously through Corinth, Le- 
vant and Dutton, it falls into the. 
Penobscot river, at the centre of 
the city of Bangor. This is a valu- 
able mill stream ; it has numerous 
tributaries ; its banks are fertile, 
romantic and beautiful. 

Kennebeo River, Me. 

The first source of this import- 
ant river is Moose Head lakey of 
which it is the outlet. From thence 
it passes in a S. W. course nearly 
20 miles, whore it receives the wa- 
ters of Dead river ; it then proceeds 
S. to Starks, about 40 miles, where 
it receives the waters of the Sandy : 
here it changes its course easterly, 
about 12 miles, passing Norridge- 
wock and Skow began : it then again 
changes its course to the S. till it 
receives the waters of the Sebasti- 
eooky about 15 miles : it continues 
to descend in nearly a S. course to 
Hallowell, about 20 miles ; here 
it inclines to the £. a few miles, 
and then resuming a S. course, and 
passing through Merrymeeting bay, 
where it receives the Androscog- 
gin river, it passes Bath and meets 
the ocean. The whole length of 
this river, from Moose Head lake 
to the sea, is about 1(H) miles. 
The tributaries already named are 
the most considerable ; but there 
are many others that would be con- 
sidered important rivers in other 
wctiotts of country. The whole fall 

of this river is more than 1,000 le«ty 
and its hydraulic power, with that 
of its tributaries, is incalculable. 

Wd are enabled to state that the 
average, or mean time, of the clott- 
ing of this river by ice, at Hallow- 
ell, for 45 successive years, was 
December 12th, and of its oipemug, 
April 8d. The most remarkabte 
years were, 1792, when the rir- 
er closed November 4th, and open- 
ed April 1st, the following year; 
and 1831, closed January 
10th, and opened April 13th, 1882. 
Since the year 1786 the Kennebee 
has not been obstructed by ice in 
any spring after the 20th of April. . 

Kenne1»ee ConMty, He. 

Augusta is the shire town. This 
county is bounded N. by Franklin, 
Somerset, and Penobscot counties, 
E. by Waldo and a part of Lincoln 
counties, S. by Lincoln county, and 
W. by Oxford county. This county 
is watered by numerous ponds and 
rivers, but principally by the noble 
Kennebec, which passes nearly 
through its centre, from which the 
name of the county is derived. The 
face of the county is undulating, 
not hilly ; its soil is of a superior 
quality, producing, in great abund- 
ance, all the variety of grasses, 
grains, vegetables and fruits com- 
mon to its climate. The union of 
hydraulic power with navigable 
waters, which this county enjoys ; 
its fertility, locality, and other nat- 
ural advantages, render it a highly 
favored section of our countiy. — 
Area, about 1,050 square miles. In 
1837 this county contained 101,238 
sheep, and produced 186,876 bush- 
els of wheat. Populatioa> 1887, 62,- 
375 : 69 inhabitants to a square mile. 

KenneltnnlELy Me* 

York CO. This town is situatid 
on the S. W. side of the Kenne- 
bunk river, and is regarded as' one 
of the pleasantest towns in New 
England. Population, 1887, 2,848. 
In former years the bunneac of the 


town was movtly of a commercial 
ciharacter, there being a large num- 
ber of vessels owned here, which 
were engaged in the West India 
trade. But this trade is now near- 
ly abandoned, and the navigation is 
engaged in the freighting, coasting, 
and fishing business. Ship builn- 
Ing has been carried on here to a 
great extent, for about seventy 
years, and some of the finest ships 
in the country have been built in 
this place witiiin the last few years. 
There is one large cotton factory in 
operation, and other privileges for 
large jnanufacturing establishments 
OQ the Kennebunk, and the Mou- 
8um,> pleasant stream which meets 
the ocean in this town. Kenne- 
bunk is a port of entry : tonnage of 
the district, in 1887, 6,964 tons. 
Incorporated, 1820. It lies 80 miles 
S. W. from Augusta, 23 S. W. from 
Portland, and 15 N. N. £. from 

Keaitebunlc Forty Me.y 

' Tork CO., is situated on the N. 
£. side . of the Kennebunk river. 
This town was formerly extensive- 
ly engaged in the West India trade, 
^ut its navigation is now employed 
kn the freighting, coasting, and fish- 
ing business. The extensive gran- 
ite quarries here are likely to be- 
come a source of considerable busi- 
ness. The stone, bearing a strong 
resemblance to the Quincy, finds 
a ready market where granite is 
made use of in building. Thirty 
▼ears ago, this town, and Kcnne- 
Dunk, on the oppo.^te side of the 
river, were the most active and busy 
ports in Maine; but the tide of 
emigration has carried off most of 
the young men, leaving a surplus 
oi girls ; so that whatever activity 
there now is in the place, is of a 
domestic character, not creating 
that noise and bustle incident to the 
operations of the other sex. Ken- 
nebunk Port lies about 4 miles N. 
£. from Kennebunk. This town 
and Kennebunk are much united in 

maritime pursuits, and both enjoy 
a good harbor for shipping. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 2,780. 

Rockingham co., is 45 miles N. 
from Boston, 15 S. W. frtun Ports- 
mouth, and 40 S. E. from Concord. 
This town has no streams of any 
note; its surface is pretty even. 
Kensington was settled at an early 
period, and was originally a part of 
Hampton, from which it was de- 
tached in 1737. Population, 1830, 

Kent Conntj-y R. I* 

East Greentmeh is the county 
town. Kent county is bounded N. 
by Providence county, E. by Pro- 
vidence bay, S. by Washington 
county, and W. by the state of Con- 
necticut. The surface of the coun- 
ty is generally rough and uneven : 
in the eastern part are tracts of le- 
vel land. The soil is either a gra- 
velly or sandy loam, and very pro- 
ductive of Indian grain, rye, fruits, 
and vegetables. The grazing busi- 
ness is extensively pursued in this 
oounty. The Pawtuxet and Flat 
rivers are the principal, but a num- 
ber of large ponds produce smaller 
streams in abundance. The manu- 
facturing interests of this county, 
particularly of cotton and wool, are 
very extensive, and probably pur- 
sued with as much spirit and suc- 
cess as in any portion of the state. 
Some navigation is employed on the 
bay in the coasting trade and fish- 
ery. Kent county comprises an 
area of 186. square miles. Popula- 
tion, 1820, 10,228; 1880, 12,789. 
Population to a square mile, 69. 

Kent, €%• 

Litchfield co. First settled, 1738. 
Incorporated, 1739. Population, 
1830, 2,001. Kent is 60 miles W. 
from Hartford, 50 N. W. from New 
Haven, and 15 W. from Litchfield. 
This is a mountainous township, 
with aome fine land on the banks 


of the Hoasatonick, which passes ! stantly retimi. Willird being, tm 
through its western torder. Crood .' the secood w thini day, nearij ex- 
iron ore is found here. There are hausted with fatigue and banger^ 
three furnaces in town, but the ' put himself under the guidance ti 
manufacture of iron is not wexten- his dog^ who in a short timc eon- 
nve as formerly. The Housatoo- ducted him in safety to his camp, 
ick, calm and still, winding grace- vmh. i #«« 

fully at the foot of a high and rus- Kimii«ij', cu 

ged mountain, renders the scener\- ^iccltam co. This town lies tf 
from the neat and quiet viiias^e, miies £. from Hartford, 25 W. from 
highly picturesque and ueauliiul. ' Proriiicoce, R. I., and 5 N. £. from 
-' There i» in this town,*' «2v» Dr. BroG!:Ivn. First settled in 17061 
Trumbull, ** convincing evideLce The iitst white person known li 
that it was a grand seat of the na- b^ve been buried here was Mr. 
tive inhabitants qf this country, Nell Alexander's great-grand-mo- 
before Indians, who more lately in- ther. (See ^ilexander's Lake.) This 
habited it, had any residence in it. town is rough and hilly, bat there 
There are arrow heads, stone pots, is a great deal of beauty about it, 
and a sort of knives, and various and its history is full of roma^c 
kinds of utensils, frequently found stories relating to the first settlers 
by the English, of such curious and the red men. The town is 
workmanship as exceeds ail the wellwateredby theQuinnebaugand 
skill of any Indians since the £ng- its branches. There are three vil- 
lish came into this country, and lages. Pleasant Valley, DayMrtlUt 
became acquainted with them. — ! and JDanie2sonr£//e, all pleasant and 
These were not only found when flourishing manufacturing places. 
the town was first settled, but they { They contain 14 cotton and 8 wool- 
are still found on the sides of Housa- ; en mills, a furnace, an axe factory, 
tonic river." I and other mechanical operations. 

KilkcnAv H. H. ■ ^*^^*°?b' contains excellent quar- 

! rles of freestone, and of a slate rock 
Coos CO. This- place was granted - resembling granite, soft, and easily 
in 1774, and contained, in 1830, but I wrought ; also of a slate rock eom- 
27 inhabitants. They are poor, and > posed of granular quartz, almoit 
for aught that appears to the contra- ■ white. A rich bed of porcelain 
ry, must always remain so, as they ' clay is found on Mashentuck hill, 
may be deemed actual trespassers , said to equal French or Chinean 
on that part of creation destined by | clay. Population, 1836, 4,000. 
its author for the residence of bears, ' 
wolves, moose, and other animals 

of the forest. An exception, how- 

Kllltngton Peaky Vt. 

This noted elevation of the Green 

ever, may possibly be made in fa- j Mountain range, 3,924 foet above 
vor of a narrow strip of land along the ocean, lie^ in Sherburne, 10 
the S. boundary- of the town. Pi- - 

lot and Willard's mountains, so call- 
ed from a dog and his iqaster, cov- 

er a considerable part of this town. 
Willard, a hunter, had been lost 
two or three days on these moun- 
tains, on the east side of which his 
camp was situated. Each day he 
observed his dog Pilot left him, as 
he supposed in pursuit of game; 
but towards night he would con- 

miles £. from Rutland. 

Ktlliwgworth, Ct. 

Middlesex co. This town, tiie 
Indian Hammonnasset, was first 
settled in 1663. The central part 
of the town is 38 miles S. E. froA 
Hartford, 27 W. from New Lon- 
don, and 17 S. by E. from Mid- 
dletown. Population, 1880, 9,484.' 
This town lies on Long Idand 


Soan4 with a harbor for small ves- 
sels. Many vessels are built at 
this place. There is 1,000 acres 
of good salt meadow in Killing- 
worth, and the soil of the uplands, 
although hard and uneven, are ren- 
dered productive by industry and 
skillful management. The village 
is very pleasant, with a wide strc^et 
a mile and a half in length, crossed 
about midway by Indian river, a 
small stream which enters the har- 
bor. This was a great resort for 
the Indians. " Immense masses 
d mouldering shells still point out 
the places where they dwelt." 
Killingworth is a healthful, inter- 
esting place. 

KHaaaniLoelCy Hie. 

Piscataquis co. This town is 
well watered by Piscataquis river 
and the outlet of Scootum lake. It 
lies 108 miles N. £. from Augusta, 
and 22 N. N. E. from Dover. In- 
corporated^ 1824. Population, 1880, 
188; 1837,313. 

Bllni^eUly Me* 

Franklin co. A fine farming 
towoil^hip, east of Mount Abraham, 
and watered by Seven Mile brook 
and one of its tributaries. It lies 
65 miles N. W. by N. from Au- 

fusta, and 25 N. from Farmington. 
opolation, 1837, 614. Incorpora- 
ted, 1808. Wheat crop of 1837, 
8y877 bushels. 

KiUgsbviy, Me* 

Incorporated, 1836. See "Down 

Kingston, ir« H« 

Rockingham co. This town is 
distant from Concord 37 miles S. £., 
from Exeter 6, and from Portsmouth 
20. There are several ponds in 
this town. The largest is Great 
pond, which lies on the W. of the 
village, and contains upwards of 
too acres, with an island of 10 or 12 
acres, covered with wood. There 
are no high hills in Kingston ; those 

called the Great hill and Rockri- 
mon are the highest. The soil of 
Kingston is generally loamy. The 
charter of Kingston was granted, 
1694. The grant also comprehend- 
ed what now forms the towns of 
East Kingston, Danville, and San- 
down. This town suffered in com- 
mon with others in the vicinity, from 
Indian depredations. Many Indian 
implements, with some ancient 
French coin, have been ploughed 
up in the vicinity of the ponds. 

Maj. Ebenezer Stevens, one 
of the early settlers, was a very 
distinguished and useful citizen. 

This town was also the residence 
of the Hon. Josiah Bartlett, 
one of the first worthies of the state, 
and an eminent physician. His 
public career commenced in 1765, 
and from that time to his death he 
was an unwearied advocate, and 
supporter of the liberties of Amer- 
ica. He was the first governor of 
the state under its free constitution. 
He died in 1795, aged 65. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 929. 

Kingston, Vt. 

Addison co. A mountainous town- 
ship settled soon after the revolu- 
tionary war. Population, 1880, 403. 
White river is formed in Kingston 
by the union of several streams. 
Here is a beautiful water fall of 
100 feet, 60 of which is perpendic- 
ular. At the bottom of the fall the 
water has worn a hole 10 feet in 
depth. Kingston lies 21 miles S. 
W. from Montpelier, and 14 £. from 

Hlngston, IfaMi* 

Plymouth co. This town lies 
within Plymouth harbor, 4 miles 
N. W. from Plymouth, and 31 S. 
E. from Boston. Kingston has a 
good hkrbor, a considerable stream 
of water and some excellent land. ^ 
There are a number of vessels en- 
gaged in the coasting trade, and 
some in foreign commerce. Many 
\ vessels are built here of the south 


ghare white oak, noted for its 
strength and durability. During 
the year ending April 1 , 1S37, there 
were 19 vesscU engaged in the cod 
and mackerel fishery. They took 
14,214 quintals of cod fish, and 8S6 
barrels of mackerel, the \ralue of 
which amounted to $4S,590. There 
is a cotton mill in Kingston, and 
manufactures of bar iron, nails, ax- 
es, cutlery, anchors, leather, shoes, 
palm-leaf hat9, and shingles : total 
value in one year $105,302. Monk*s 
hill presents an excellent view of 
Plymouth harbor. Kingston was 
incorporated in 1726. Population, 
1S37, 1,371. 

BUrbjr, Vt. 

Caledonia co. First settled, 1799. 
Population, 1S30, 401. There are 
some tracts of good land in Kirby, 
but the township is generally either 
wet and cold, or too mountainous for 
cultivation. It has a number of 
springs, brooks, and a good fish 
pond. The town lies 36 miles N. 
E. from Montpelier, and 14 N. £. 
from Danville. 

Klrklaady Me. 

Penobscot co. Kirkland is finely 
watered by Dead stream, Pushaw 
lake and its principal tributary riv- 
er. It lies 83 miles N. £. from 
Augusta, and 13 N. N. W. from 
Bangor. Incorporated, 1S25. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 258. 

Kittery, Me* 

York CO. A sea port town on 
the N. E. bank of the Piscataqua 
river, being the extreme southwest- 
ern boundary of the state on the 
Atlantic, adjoining York on the N. 
£. and Ejliot on the N. W. It is 
one of the earliest settlements in 
the province, or state, and had its 
share of trial and suffering with 
others of their days, from repeated 
incursions of the Indians. ■ The 
river or inlet, called Spruce creek, 
aflbrds a convenient harbor for ves- 
sels usually employed in the coast- 

ing trade and fishery, and formefif 
considerable trade was carried on 
with the West Indies fron tUs 
place ; — but there is little or nooB 
at present. 

Kittery point was the resMeocs 
I of Sir William Pepperell,whocoB- 
I manded the New EJagland troops in 
the celebrated expedition to Cape 
Breton, in 1745, which resnlted in 
the capture of Louisbui^. It is 
divided from Portsmouth, N. H. by 
the Piscataqua. A bridge connects 
it with that place. Another bridge 
connects it with Badger*8 island, on 
which is the United States Navy 
Yard. Kittery lies 103 miles S. W. 
from Augusta, and 50 S. W. fiimi 
Portland. Incorporated, 1663.— 
Population, 1837, 2,322. 

Knox, Me* 

Waldo CO. A beautiful farming 
town, named in honor of Gen. Hbh- 
RT Kifox, a patriot of the revolu- 
tion, who died at Thomaston, 180C, 
aged 56. This is one of the many 
towns in Maine fast rising in wealth 
and respectability, by the fertility of 
the s<hI and industry of the people. 
It lies 32 miles N. E. by £. from 
Augusta, and 14 S. W. from Bel- 
fast. Incorporated, 1819. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 815. Wheat crop, 
same year, 4,037 bushels. 

liftgranife, Me. 

Population, 1887, 287. Wheit 
crop, same year, 1,749 bnsheli. 
See « Down East." 

lAn&oille County', Vt* 

Hyde Park is the shire town.— 
This county was established in 1888. 
It is bounded N. by Franklin tad 
Orleans counties, E. by Orleans and 
Caledonia counties, S. by Washings 
ton county, and W. by Chittenden 
and a part of Franklin counties, i 
This county lies on the Green Bioan- 
tain range, and is the soiirce of ma- 
ny streams. The river Lamoille 
passes nearly through its ccmtrt, 
and, with its tributaries, givo tbft 


cooEty t great hydraulic power. 
Tli6^ elevation of the cotinty ren- 
ders the soil more adapted for graz- 
ing than for tillage, yet there 'are 
lai^ tracts of excellent meadow 
boMering its streams. Manufac- 
tarei flourish, and the exports of 
beef cattle and the products of the 
dairy are valuable, and annually 
increasing. In 1837, there were 
28,677 sheep. Population, 18<{0, 

I«anu»lll« RlTer, Vt. 

This river is formed in Greens- 
borough. Its general course is N. 
W. It passes through Hardwick, 
Wolcott, Morriston, Johnston, Cam- 
bridge, Fairfax and Georgia, and 
falls into Lake Champlain at Mil- 
ton, 12 miles N. from Burlington. 
This river ha*; numerous tributaries: 
it has several falls, which produce 
a valuable water power. Its banks 
in many parts are very fertile. It 
was discovered by Champlain in 

Xaneaster, N«II* 

Coos CO. Shire town of the coun- 
ty, and situated on the southeastern 
bank of Connecticut river, which 
forms and washes its N. W. bound- 
ary, a distance of 10 miles. It lies 
distant 110 miles W. from Portland, 
130 N. from Portsmouth, 95 N. 
from Concord, and 73 above Dart- 
mouth Cellege. Besides the Con- 
necticut, which is deep and about 
22 rods in width while it passes 
through Lancaster, the town is wa- 
tered by Israel's river, and several 
considerable brooks. Across this 
river a bridge and several dams are 
thrown, forming a valuable water 
power. There are several ponds 
in Lancaster, the largest of which 
is called Martin-meadow pond, from 
Martin, a hunter. This communi- 
cates with Little pond. 

Lancaster is situated near lofty 
mountains, but is not itself moun- 
teinous. There are three hills in 
the S. part of the town, called Mar- 

tin meadow hills ; and the land in 
the S. £. part lies too high up the 
mountains for cultivation. The soil 
along the Connecticut is alluvial, 
the meadows extending back near- 
ly three-fourths of a mile ; and at 
the mouth of Israel's river much 

The village, or most compact part 
of the town, lies on a street extend- 
ing from the bridge across Israel's 
river northwardly: — it is pleasant, 
and is the site of some manufactur- 
ingiestablishroents. Lancaster was 
granted and settled in 1763. The 
war of the revolution tended to- re- 
tard the settlement of the town. — 
After the war closed, the town set- 
tled with considerable rapidity, and 
has since gradually increased in 
wealth and business. Population, 
1830, 1,187. 

TaokeaMterf Mass* 

Worcester co. This town, the 
JVasawogg of the Indians, is the 
oldest town in the county ; it was r ^ 
for many years a frontier settlement, 
and greatly harrassed by the na- 
tives. In 1676, the town was at- 
tacked by 1,500 Indians ; many 
were killed on both sides ; the town 
was destroyed, and a number car- 
ried into captivity, among whom 
was the celebrated Mrs. Mary 
Rowlandson. Lancaster lies on 
both sides of Nashua river, and has 
a remarkably fine, alluvial soil, in 
a high state of cultivation. Per- 
haps there is no inland town in New 
England that possesses more natu- 
ral beauties, or that strikes the eye 
of the traveller more agreeably. — 
The village is very beautiful : — it is 
neatly built on an alluvial plain, 
surrounded by hills, and watered by 
a large and placid stream. Tlyre 
are 3 cotton and 1 woolen mills in 
the town, and manufactures of 
leather, boots, shoes, hats, forks, 
combs, palm- leaf hats, tenon ma- ' 
chines, copper pumps, piano-fortes, 
chairs, and cabinet ware : — annual 
value about $100,000. Some min- 


•rtl substances are found here. 
Lancaster waa first settled, 1643. 
Incorporated, 1G53. Populatloa, 
1837, 1,903. It lies 35 miles W. 
N. \V. from Boston, and 15 N. N. 
£. from Worcester. 

liftndafl; N. II. 

Gmfton CO. Its distance from 
Haverhill is about 12 miles N. E., 
and from Concord 90 N. by W. 
Wild Amonoosuck river runs from 
S. K. to N. W. through the S. part 
of the town. Through the north- 
westerly extremity passes the Great 
Amonoosuck river. Landaflf moun- 
tain in the £. part. Cobble hill in 
the centre, and Bald hill in the W., 
are the principal elevations. The 
soil i4 fertile. Landaff was granted 
in 1764, to James Avery and others. 
Population, iu 1830, 95*1. 

I.«n<lgroTe, Vt. 

Bennington co. This town is on 
elevated land at the N. E. corner 
of the county, 33 miles N. £. fiom 
Bennington, and about SR) S. V«'. 
from Windsor. Some of the head 
branches of West river have their 
sources here. The lands are too 
rough and high for much improve- 
ment. First settled, 1769. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 385. 

Berkshire co. This township lies 
on elevated ground* the sources of 
some of the head branches of Hons- 
atonick and Iloosack rivers. It is 
situated on two hills, with an inters 
vening valley. The lands in the 
valley are very luxuriant, and the 
hilly parts are admirably adapted 
for grazing. Lanesborougb is a 
beautiful town, under good cultiva- 

tiQjjL and very productive. The iu- 
haoitants are principally farmers, 
who make agriculture a husines3, 
and reap its rewartls. In 1837 there 
were in this town 12,333 sheep, 
whose fleeces weighed -12,489 lbs., 
estimated at $26,100. Limestone 
abounds here ; al<« beautiful mar- 

ble, and graphic slate. Then bl 
delightful pond partly in this 'owi 
and partly in Pittsdcld : it et»* 
tains trout and other fine fidL* 
Lanesborough was incorporita4» 
1765. Population, 1887, 1,09a It 
lies 125 miles W. by N. from 
ton, and UN. from Lenox. 

lians^ony If. H. 

Sullivan CO. Langdonis 18; 
S. S. W. from Newport, and 50 W« 
by S. from Concord. The prind* 
pal village it 3 miles E. from Con- 
necticut river, and 6 from BelUwi 
Falls. A considerable branch of 
Cold river passes S. W. through At 
whole extent of this town, and unittf 
with the main branch near the & 
line. Langdon, named in hongr 
of Gov. Langdon, was incorporated 
1787. Its settlement commenced ia 
1773. Population, 1830, 667. 

Itcbanon, Me* 

York CO. This town is bounded 
W. by Salmon Fall river, on. the 
line of New Hampshire. It is s 
large agricultural township, with 
some trade and manu&ctures. It 
lies 99 miles S. W. from Augusta, 
50 S. W. bv W. from Portland, sBd 
11 S. W. from Alfred. Incorpora- 
ted, 1767. Population, in 18S7, 

lielmnoM, If. B. 

Grafton CO. This pleasant town 
on Connecticut river, is 4 miles S. 
from Dartmouth College, 49 N. W. 
from Concord, and 90 N. W. fim 
Portsmouth. Besides the Connec- 
ticut on its W. border, this town ie 
watered by Mascomy river, running 
from £. to W. through its centre, 
and aflbrding many valuable mill 
seats and a constant supply of wa- 
ter. The soil here is alluvial^ the 
intervales on the Connecticat ex- 
tending back from the river aboot 
half a mile. There are meadofwaer 
intervales on Mascomy river. Tbt 
principal village is ntnated on %. 
plain near the central pvtt at dM 


haid of the fslb Of Hucomy riv- 
er. There are falls in the CoDnect- 
Vntt in thU toiTD, which have been 
'l»ekad and canalled b; a company, 
called the White Hiter Cnmpaay. 
Lyman'i bridge caanecta (hia tovii, 
with Hartford, Vt. A medicia,,! 
■priDg haa heen discovered. A 
lead mine has beeo opened, arid 
there has been found no Enfield line, 
near the outlet of (be Great ponil, 
m T«In of iron Ore. 

This ia > place of conalderable 
muiufactures, and of exteosivi^ 
trade: Lebuioa wa> granted IT61. 
It wu the iir^ town settled on Con- 
Decdcut river to theN. of Charles- 
town. The &nl aettlers were a 
hardy, brave people, tenacioua ul' 
their principles ; mostof them vreri! 
meo of strong minds, good habiii, 
correct principles, and good com- 
mon education. Populaliaii, 1830, 

New London co. Lebaoan \Ui 
SO mile* S. E. from Hartford, and 
10 N. W. from Norwich. First 
aettled about ITOO. Pt^oUtion, In 
1830, 2fiU. The surface of the 
town Ii uneven — moderately hilly. 
The soil is of a chocotite color;^ — 
a rich deep mould, very fertile, and 
well adapted forgras9. Husbandry 
is the principal Eusioess of the in- 
habitants. ThBvillagcisonaitreet 
more than a mite in length, wide, 
^asantand interesting: it was the 
reaidence of the Trumbull fami- 
ly, celebrated for iheir genius and 
patriotism. On llie family tomb, in< 
the village, is the followinf; inscrip- 
tion to ths memory of the Gnt gov- 
ernor Trumbull. 

or jHiweH\d connexioofl, but bleaihil 
with ■ niriiis and vinuous mind, arrivm 
to the higheil stution in govommeut. 
Hia patriotism and Armnesa during .'K> 
yean emplajmeat in public life, and 
partieulariy in the teiy important patt 
u Wtad M tlw Aniericu Baiolutioii, 

9th, nSi.-EutisTB.'' 

This tomb contains the aahea of two 

governors, one commisaary general, 

ner of the Declar "' 


New London co. Tbistown wai 
Uken Irom Groton in ISSG. It was 
formerly called North Groton. It 
is T miles N. by E. fromNew Lon- 
don, and H S. from Norwich. There 
is a pretty village, of some thirty 
houses, at Gale's ferry, on the 
Thames. The population of the 
town, in 1S36, was about !,000. 
About twenty of the Peqnol tribe 
of Indians reside hero : a miserable 
remnant of a great and powerful 

Tliis town was named in hotter 
of (wo brothers, natives of Groton: 
Col. LEDYARD.the brave defend- 
er of Groton Heights, in 1781 ;— 
and John Leovakd, the celebra- 
ted traveler, who died at Cairo, in 
£|^pt,inlTS9, agcdSS. JohnLed- 
yanl was probably as distinguiahed 
a traveler as can be found on le- 
cord.. " Endowed with an original 
iprehen^ve genius, he be- 
held with in(cres(, and described 
wi(h energy, (he scenes and ohjec(B 
around hirui and by comparing them 

kind pays the following tribute li 

" I bav 
"that I 

always remarked," says 
- ■! all c - ' 

e civil and obliging, tender and 
imane : that tbey areevcr inclin- 
B b, ,.,- .,d cb.„M, Um» 
US and modest; and that they do 
it hoNtate, like men, to pertom 


a generous action. Not haughty, 
nor arrogant, nor supercilious, they 
are full of courtesy, and fond of 
society ; more liable in general to 
err than man, but in general also 
more virtuous, and performing more 
good actions, than he. To a wo- 
man, whether civilized or savage, I 
never addressed myself, in the lan- 
guage of decency and friendship, 
without receiving a decent and 
friendly answer. With man it has 
often been otherwise. In wander- 
ing over the barren plains of in- 
hospitable Denmark, through hon- 
est Sweden and frozen Lapland, 
rude and churlish Finland, unprin- 
cipled Russia, and the wide spread 
regions of the wandering Tartar ; 
if hungry, dry, cold, wet, or sick, 
the women have ever been friend- 
ly to me, and uniformly so. And 
add to this virtue, so worthy the 
appellation of benevolence, their 
actions have been performed in so 
free and kind a manner, that if I 
was dry, I drank the sweetest 
draught, and if hungry, I ate the 
coarsest morsel, with a double rel- 

Ttttif Me* 

Wheat crop, 1837, 8,450 bushels : 
population, the same year, 536. It 
lies 125 miles from Augusta. See 
«* Down East." 

Iiee, N. H. 

Strafford co. In the N. part of 
the town lies Wheelwright's pond, 
containing about 165 acres, and 
forming the principal source of Oys- 
ter river. 

This pond is memorable for the 
battle which was fought near it in 
1690, between a scouting party /)f 
Intflans, and two companies of ran- 
gers, under Capts: Floyd and Wis- 
wall. The engagement lasted two 
hours. Wiswall, his lieutenant, 
sergeant, and 12 men were killed 
and several wounded. Floyd con- 
tinued to fight till his men, wearied 
and wounded, drew off and obliged 


him to follow. The enemy also ro» 

Lee is 28 miles E. S. E. (turn 
Concord, and 12 S. W. from Dover. 
From the N. E. extremity of £p- 
ping. Lamprey river enters Lee, 
and after a serpentine course of 
about 7 miles, it passes into Dur- 
ham. Other parts of the town are 
watered by Little, North, and Oys- 
ter rivers. Lee was originally a 
part of Durham, and was incorpo- 
rated, 1766. Population, in 1830, 

Ii«e» Uass* 

Berkshire co. This is a pleasant 
town on the Housatonick river, ad" 
mirably located for manufacturing 
purposes. It contains a cotton and a 
woolen mill, 12 paper mills, and va- 
rious other manufactures by wa- 
ter power. The amount of manu- 
factured goods for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, was $405,000. The 
paper manufactured, amounted to 
$274,500. The articles manufac- 
tured, besides paper, cotUm and 
woolen goods, were leather, hats, 
boots, shoes, bar iron, iron castings^ 
axes, shovels, spades, hoes, forks, 
ploughs, chairs, tin, cabinet and 
wooden ware, carriages, chair stuff, 
&c. The soil of the town is good, 
particularly for grazing. The wool 
of 2,000 sheep, in 1837, was val- 
ued at $4,500. There is an abund- 
ant supply of iron ore and marble 
of excellent qualities.. Lee was 
incorporated in 1777. It lies 180 
miles W. from Boston, and 5 S. £. 
from Lenox. Population, in 1830, 
1,825; 1837,2,095. 

IieedSy Me. 

Kennebec co. This is a large 
and flourishing agricultural town, 
finely watered by a large and beau- 
tUll pond. The outlet of this pond 
into the Androscoggin, gives the 
town a good water power, for saw 
mills and other manufactories. 

The villages in Leeds are veiy 
neat and pleasant. The soil is for- 


tile tnd productive. Wheat crop, 
1837, 5,421 bushels. Leedsi was 
incorporated in 1802. It lies 30 
miles W, S. W. from Augusta. — 
Population, 1837, 1,743 . 

Iieieester, Vt« 

Addison co. Leicester is water- 
ed by a rivet of its own name, by 
Otter creek, and by a part of lake 
Dunmore. These waters are too 
sluggish to afford the town much 
water power. The soil is a sandy 
loam, interspersed with some flats 
of clay. Along the rivers the soil 
is rich and pr^uctive. The high 
lands are hard and fit for grazing. 
About 4,000 sheep are kept here. 
Leicester lies 36 miles S. W. from 
Montpelier, and 10 S. by £. from 
Middlebury. First settled, 1773. 
Population, 1830, 638. 

I<«Ieester, Mass* 

Worcester co. This town is on 
the height of ground between Bos- 
ton harbor and Connecticut river. 
It lies 46 miles W. from Boston, 6 
W. S. W. from Worcester, 42 E. S. 
£. from Northampton, and 44 N. W. 
from Providence. It was first set- 
tled in 1713, and incorporated about 
the year 1721. Its Indian name 
was TovDtaid, Population, 1837, 
2,122. This town is well watered 
l>y French river, and branches of 
the Connecticut and Blackstone, 
which rise here, and afford mill sites 
for numerous manufactories. 

Leicester Academy was founded 
in 1784. It has considerable funds, 
commodious buildings, and is highly 
respectable. It accommodates 100 
pupils throughout the year. 

The surface of the town is uneven 
-with a strong, deep soil. There 
are 5 woolen mills in the town, and 
manufactures of machines, hand 
cards, machine cards, chairs, cabi- 
net ware, scythes, leather, boots and 
shoes : total value the year ending 
April 1, 1837, $531,939. 

A sodety of -Jews built a syna- 
fOgue» and resided here from 1777 to 

1783. They were much esteemed. 
The families of Denny, Earle and 
Henshaw, have been numerous in 
Leicestier, and highly respectable. 

Lcmmliigton^ Vt« 

Essex CO. A mountainous town- 
ship, on the W. side of Connecticut 
river, with a small oortion of inter- 
vale. There are several brooks in 
the town, and a beautiful cascade 
of 50 feet. There is a mountain in 
the town called **the Monadnock 
of Vermont," from which may be 
discovered that this town, general- 
ly, is not fit for cultivation. It lies 
64 miles N. £. from Montpelier, 
and 24 N. from Guildhall. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 183. 

Iiempstery N* II. 

, Sullivan co. It is 40 miles W. 
from Concord. The surface is, in 
general, uneven, and the eastern 
part is mountainous. The soil is 
moist, and better suited for grass 
than grain. The town is well 
watered, although its streams are 
small. One branch of Sugar river, 
and the S. and W. branches of Cold 
river afford conveniences for water 
machinery. Near the W, bound- 
ary line is a pond 320 rods long 
and 80 wide. Sand pond lies in 
this town and Marlow. Lempster 
was granted 1761. It was settled 
about 1770, by emigrants from Con- 
necticut. Population, in 1830, 999. 

Iienoxy Me* 

See « Down East." 

Iienoxy ]lbiss* 


Berkshire co. Shire town. This 
is an excellent township of land, 
watered by Housatonick river, and 
surrounded by beautiful mountain 
scenery. It lies 130 miles W. from 
Boston, 25 N. E. from Hudson, N. 
Y., and 55 N. W. from Hartford, 
Ct. Lenox is accommodated with 

I a water power, and contains mines 
of rich iron ore, 'and quarries of 
beautiful marble. There are some 


manufactures of iron, leather, mar- 
ble, &c., in the town, but agricul- 
ture is the chief pursuit of the in- 
habitants. Incorporated, 1767. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 1,277. 

TieiMntnster> Mass* 

Worcester co. A beautiful town, 
t>f an excellent soil, and great wa- 
ter power, on both sides of a prin- 
cipal branch of Nashua river, 42 
miles N. W. from Boston, and 20 
N . from Worcester. This town was 
taken from Lancaster in 1740, and 
shared with that town in the suffer- 
ings occasioned by Indian hostility. 
The manufactures of Leominster, 
for the year ending April 1, 1837, 
exclusive of the product of 5 paper 
mills, was $111,505. The articles 
manufactured were leather, boots, 
shoes, hats, axes, chairs, cabinet 
ware, combs, tin ware, straw bon- 
nets, palm-leaf hats, chaises, car- 
riages, and harnesses. Population, 
1037, 1,944. 

A rich alum rock has been found 
in this town which is said to be a 
decomposed mica slate. It con- 
tains an abundance of beautiful 
pluihose, or feather form alum, like 
that of Milo, one of the Grecian 
isles, mixed with the gre'en crys- 
tals of copperas, or sulphate of iron. 

Ttcraxtt, Me* 

Penobscot co. This town lies 
principally on the S. W. side of 
Kenduskeag stream, by which and 
its tributaries it is well watered. 
The soil is good and productive. — 
The wheat crop of 1837 was 3,432 
bushels. Levant lies 78 miles N. £. 
from Augusta, and 10 N. W. from 
Bangor. Incorporated, 1813. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 747 ; 1837,1,081. 

Iieverett, Mass. 

Franklin co. A good grazing 
town, on high ground, 85 miles W. 
N. W. from Boston, and 10 S. E. 
from Oreenfield. The town is wa- 
tered by Roaring brook, a rapid 
■tream, od which is a cascade, and 

some wild scenery, worthy of the 
traveler's notice. Incorporated, 
1774. Population, 1837, 902. 

lie'wlstony Me* 

Lincoln co. Lewiston lies on the 
E. side of Androscoggin river, at 
the falU. The waters of that river 
descend 47 feet in the distance of 
12 to 15 rods, and produce a valu- 
able hydraulic power. The town 
extends on the river about 13 miles, 
and is connected with Minot by a 
bridge, at the foot of the falls, of 
1 ,000 feet in length. This is a town- 
ship of good land, with some manu- 
factures of woolen and cotton goods, 
and a number of saw mills. Wheat 
crop, 1837, 1,920 bushels. Incor- 
porated, 1795. Population, 1830, 
1,549; 1837, 1,737. Lewiston is 
28 miles S. W. from Augusta, 34 
N. by E. from Portland, and 25 N. 
W. from Bath. 

Iiezln^tony Me* 

Somerset co. This town lies 57 
miles from Augusta. Population, 
1837, 457. Wheat crop, same year, 
2,346 bushels. See « Down East." 

liexlni^Uin, Mitsfl* 

Middlesex co. This pleasant town 
lies 10 miles N. W. from Boston, 
and 7 £. from Concord. Incorpo- 
rated, 1712. Population, 1887, 
1,622. There are some excellent 
farms in this town, large tracts of 
meadow on some of the branches 
of the Shawsheen, which rise here, 
and some valuable woodland. The 
manufactures consist of boots, shoes, 
caps, clocks, cabinet ware, and cal- 
ico printing : annual valine, about 

Lexington will ever be an inter- 
esting place, as here the first bloOd 
was shed in the causp of American 
Independence. " A detai:hinent of 
British soldiers were sent at day- 
light on the morning of the 19th of 
April, 1775, to take or destroy a 
quantity of military stores collected 
at Cmicord. Thbj were under Him 


command of Col. Smith and Maj. 
Pitcalrn. On reaching this place, 
a militia company were exercis- 
ing on the common. A British offi- 
cer rode up and ordered them to 
disperse, hut not being instantly 
obeyed, he discharged his pistol 
and ordered his men to fire, which 
they did, and eight of the Ameri- 
cans fell dead on the spot! The 
militia retreated, and the British 
proceeded .to Concord, and in part 
succeeded in destroying the stores, 
but .were so harassed on their re- 
turn, that they would inevitably 
have been cut off, had they not 
been met at this place by a strong 
detachment of artillery under Lord 
Percy. The party suffered ex- 
tremely by the fire of the Ameri- 
cans, aimed with deadly effect from 
the buildings, trees, and fences; 
and left 65 killed, and had 180 
wounded. The Americans had 60 
killed and 34 wounded. There is 
a monument on the spot where the 
first victims fell, to perpetuate the 
memory of the slainv and of this 

Iieydea, Mass. 

Franklin co. Leyden is watered 
by Green river and several small 
streams. It is 100 miles N. W. from 
Boston, and 7 N. by W. from Green- 
field. It is a mountainous town- 
ship, iQore fit for grazing than till- 
age. The number of sheep in the 
town, in 1837, was 3,142; their 
fleeces weighed 9,326 pounds ; val- 
ue of the wool, $5,129. The town 
"was incorporated in 1809. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 656. 

There is a romantic spot in Ley- 
den, called *< the Glen,'* a curious 
place, worth looking at. 

JAhertjy Me* 

Waldo CO. This town is 29 miles 
E. from Augusta, and 18 W. S. W. 
from Belfast. It is watered by 
large ponds and small streams. The 
soil is good and produced, in 1837, 
2,022 bushels of wheat Incorpo- 


rated, 1827. Population, 1837, 804. 
A short time since a pine tree 
was cut in Liberty, which measur- 
ed 7 feet in diameter, at the stump. 
It had three branches. The tree 
was sound, and 10,610 feet of square 
edged boards were made from it 

Iiimerlelc^ Me. 

York CO. Little Ossipee river 
waters this town. It lies 28 miles 
W. from Portland, 85 S. W. from 
Augusta, and 15 N. by W. from 
Alfred. This is a good farming 
town, with a pleasant village, and 
an academy, incorporated in 1812. 
The town was incorporated in 1787 
Population, 1837, 1,484. 

TJmtiigton, Me. 

York CO. This town is bounded 
on the S. by Limerick, and is wa- 
tered by Saco river on the S. and 
W. The town has a good soil, very 
productive of hay, wheat and other 
grain. It lies 89 miles S. W. from 
Augusta, and 28 W. S. W. from 
Portland. Incorporated, 1762. — 
{Population, 1837, 2,223. 

Idneoln County^ Me. 

WisecLsset, Topsham and War- 
ren are the county towns. Lincoln 
county is bounded N. by the coun- 
ties of Kennebec and Waldo, £. 
by Waldo county and Penobscot 
bay, S. by the Atlantic ocean, and 
W. by Cumberland county and Cas- 
co bay. Area about 950 square 
miles. This county is bounded on 
the ocean nearly fifty miles, and 
like the county of Hancock in this 
state, comprises an almost innumer- 
able number of bays, coves, inlets, 
commodious harbors and fertile isl- 
ands. The waters of the Muscon- 
gus, Damariscotta and Sheepscot 
pierce its centre, and the noble 
Kennebec finds all its Atlantic har- 
bors in the county of Lincoln. 

Considerable attention is paid to 
agriculture, for the soil is generally 
fertile and well adapted to the pur- 
suit ; but this county is essentially a 


■itrithne Metkm of New England, 
poiseuing every requisition for for- 
eign commerce, the coasting trade 
and fisheries. The tonnage of the 
three districts, Bath, Wiscasset and 
Waldohorough, in 1837, was 93,847 
tons. This county contained, in 
1837, 84,000 sheep, and raised 87,- 
968 bushels of wheat. Population, 
1820, 53,189 ; 1830, 57,181 ; 1837, 
60,226 : 63 inhabitants to a square 

Idneoln, Me. 

Penobscot co. This is a very 
large town, more than double the 
common size. It lies on the E. side 
of the Penobscot, at the mouth of 
Matanaucook river, where is a 
pleasant and flourishing village, 45 
miles N. by £. from Bangor, and 
114 N. E. from Augusta. Lincoln 
has recently been incorporated, and 
possesses a soil of remarkable fertil- 
ity. Population, 1830, 414 ; 1837, 
1,045. Wheat crop, 1837, 4,263 

Ui&eolny N. H., 

Graflon co., a mountainous town- 
ship 70 miles N. from Concord. — 
The middle branch of the Pemige- 
wasset passes through nearly the 
centre of the town. It has its 
source in Ferrin's pond, in the S. 
part of Franconia. There are sev- 
eral ponds, viz : Bog, Fish and Loon 
ponds. There are many elevations, 
of which Kinsman's mountain is 
the most considerable. In the N. 
part of the town are two large gulfs, 
made by an extraordinary discharge 
of water from the clouds in 1774. 
The numerous "slips," as they are 
called, from the mountain are wor- 
thy of notice. They commence 
near the summit of the mountain, 
and proceed to its base, forcing a 
passage through all obstructions. 
The soil here is poor. Wild ani- 
mals, such as bears, raccoons, foxes, 
sables, otters, deer^ &c., are very 
numerous. Lincoln was granted in 
1764, to James Avery and others. 
Populttifm, 1830, 60. 

UneoUa^ Tt. 

Addison co. Lincoln wis fint 
settled by a number of " Friends," 
in 1790. The town is on high 
ground with an uneven surface. It 
lies 21 miles S. W. from MonQM- 
lier, and 15 N. £. from Middlebury. 
Population, 1830, 639. 

IJneolA, BIami. 

Middlesex co. Lincoln is boimd- 
ed W. by Sudbury river. It iiet 
16 miles N. W. by W. from Boston, 
and 3 S. from Concord. Incorpcra* 
ted, 1754. Population, 1837, 694. 
It has some good farms and a large 
fish pond. The manufactures of 
the town consist of clothing, leath- 
er, straw bonnets, boots and shoes. 

UneolnTllle^ Me* 

Waldo CO. On the W. side of 
Penobscot bay, 10 miles S. from 
Belfast, 7 N. from Camden, and 51 
E. from Augusta. Incorporated, 
1802. Population, 183T, 1,999.-^ 
This township has a good seil lor 
grass, grain and potatoes. Wheat 
crop of 1837, 4,212 bushels. The 
town is well located for any branch 
of navigation. Duck Trap is an ex- 
cellent harbor, and a busy place in 
the coasting trade. 

IiinaeiiSy Me. 

Washington co. This 'town is 
the source of a branch of the Mat- 
tawamkeag ; and of a branch of the 
Meduxnekeag, flowing into the St. 
John's. It lies 8 miles S. W. from 
Houlton. Population, 1837, 208. 
Wheat crop same year, 2,514 bush- 
els. Incorporated, 1836. 

Lisbon, Me. 

Lincoln co. Lisbon lies oii tiie 
E. side of Androscoggin river, and 6 
miles below Lewiston Falls. There 
are falls in the river at this place, 
called the « Ten mile falls." Lis- 
bon has some manufactures of cot- 
ton and wool , a number of saw mOlf, 
and is united with Doriiun hf% 


bridge. Wheat crop 1887, 8,781 
bashels. Population, same year, 
2,600. It lies 30 miles S. S. W. 
fit>m Augusta, and 22 W. by N. 
from Wiscasset. 

£iibon, N. H. 

Grafton co. It is 20 miles N. E. 
from Haverhill, and 90 from Con- 
cord. It is watered by Amonoo- 
suck river, running through, the 
whole extent of the town, and by 
several smaller streams. There 
are several ponds, the most noted 
of which is called Mink pond, ly- 
ing in the S. part of the»town, af- 
fo^ng mill seats at its outlet. The 
soil admits of three divisions ; the 
meadows or intervales on Amonoo- 
suck river, which are generally 
very productive; the plain land, of 
a light, thin soil, requiring consid- 
erable manure to make it produc- 
tive ; and the uplands, of a strong 
deep soil, which afford many good 
farms. Blueberry mountain is the 
principal elevation. Large quan- 
tities of iron ore and limesto&e are 
found here. Maple sugar is man- 
ufactured and clover seed is raised 
in considerable quantities. This 
town was called Concord until 1824. 
Population, 1830, 1,485. 

Idflbon, Ct. 

New London co. This town is 7 
miles N. from Norwich, from which 
it was taken in 1786. It is water- 
ed by Quinnebaug and Shetucket 
rivers, which unite in the S. part 
of the town. The soil is a gravel- 
ly and sandy loam, with some allu- 
vial meadow. This is an excellent 
farming town : the inhabitants are 
generally industrious and independ- 
ent. In that part of the town call- 
ed Hanover, is a woolen and silk 
factory. Lisbon is 45 miles S. E. 
from Hartford. Population, 1880, 

IiUelifleld, Me. 

Kennebec co. An excellent 
township of land, pleasantly situa- 

ted 10 miles S.^W. from Gkrdiner. 
and the source of some of the Cob- 
besseecontee waters. Litchfield liee 
16 miles S. S. W. from Augusta, and 
was formerly a part of Lincoln 
county. Incorporated, 1795. Pop- 
ulation, 1887, 2,341. Wheat crop, 
same year, 5,123 bushels. 

Idtcl&lleld, N. H., 

Hillsborough co.,^is a small fer- 
tile township on the E. bank of 
Merrimack river. It is 8 miles E. 
from Amherst, and 30 S. by £. from 
Concord. This town has an excel- 
lent soil. There are two ferries, 
Thornton's, near the meeting house, 
on the post road from Amherst to 
Portsmouth; and Read's, 3 miles 

Litchfield was taken from Dun- 
stable in 1734. It was originally 
known ^y the Indian name of JSTat' 
tieott, and by the English one of 
BrentorCs Farm, The settlement 
commenced about 1720. 

The Hon. Wysemajt Clagett 
closed his life in this town. He 
was a native of England, came to 
this country before the revolution 
commenced, and sustained several 
important offices. He was attorney 
general under the provincial and 
state governments, and filled the 
office with dignity and honor. Pap- 
ulation, 1830, 506. 

Litcl&lleld County, CU 

Litchfield, county town. This 
is the largest and most elevated 
county in the state. The surface 
is hilly and in some parts mountain- 
ous. The soil is chiefly a gravelly 
loam, under good cultivation, and 
very productive of butter, cheese, 
beef and pork. It abounds iu iron 
ore, which is extensively manufac- 
tured. This county contains an area 
of 885 square miles. Population, 
1820, 41,267; 1830, 42,855; con- 
taining 48 inhabitants to a square 
mile. This county is watered by 
numerous ponds ; by the beautiful 
Housatonick, and by many rivera 


rising in (he high grounds. . The 
streams give a valilable water pow- 
er, and flourishing manufacturing 
establishments are found in almost 
every town. The number of sheep 
in this county, in 1837, was 72,832. 
Litchfield county was incorporated 
in 1751. It is bounded N. by Berk- 
shire county, Mass., £. by Hart- 
ford and New Haven counties, S. 
by the counties of New Haven and 
Fairfield, and W. by the state of 
New York. 

Idtclilleld, Ct. 

Litchfield co., chief town. This 
town, the Indian Bcmtam, com- 
prising, as it was supposed, ten miles 
square, was valued at J&300 in the 
year 1718. Bantam was first set- 
tled in 1720, and incorporated by 
its present name in 1724. It was 
a frontier town for many years, and 
during the wars between England 
and France was much harassed by 
the Canadians and Indians. Litch- 
field is an elevated township, and 
its surface presents a diversity of 
hills and valleys. The soil is a gra- 
velly loam, deep, strong, and admi- 
rably adapted for grazing. Great 
pond is a beautiful sheet of water ; 
it comprises an area of 900 acres, 
and is the largest pond in the state. 

The watei'S of the Naugatuck, 
Shepung and Bantam give the town 
a good water power, and manufac- 
tures of cotton, wool, iron, and oth- 
er articles are in successful opera- 
tion on their banks. 

Litchfield village, on " Litchfield 
Hill,*' was incorporated in 1818. It 
is a delightful place. It is situated 
on an elevated plain,^ surrounded by 
interesting scenery, and affords ex- 
tensive prospects. The two prin- 
cipal streets cross each other nearly 
at right angles ; they are wide, well 
shaded, and built upon with great 
taste and elegance. It lies 30 miles 
W. from Hartford, and 35 N. W. 
from New Haven. Population of 
the town, 1830, 4,458. 

la the W. part of the town Mount 

Tom rears a front of 700 feet above 
the Naugatuck, presenting a pano- 
ramic landscape of great beauty and 
vast extent. Near this mountain 
is a mineral spring « which is satu- 
rated with iron and sulphur. The 
water issues from the £. side of the 
mountain in considerable quantities. 
The mud from the bottom of the 
spring burns with a blue flame, and 
the principal part of it consumes." 

A law school of great respecta- 
bility was established in this town, 
by the Hon. Tappiito Reeve, in 
1784. The Hon. James Gould 
was associated with Judge Reeve, 
as instructor, for some years. This 
institution continued nearly thirty 
years, and furnished instruction to 
many of our most eminent jurists. 

Oliver Wolcott, one of the 
signers of the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence, resided here. He was 
the son of the Hon. Roger Wolcott 
He died December 1, 1797, aged 
72. He was distinguished for in- 
tegrity, decision of character, and 
for his love of order and religion. 

Oliver Wolcott, son of the 
preceding, was born in 1760.— 
When a lad of 17, he lent his aid to 
the cause of his country : he was 
present in the engagement with the 
British at the time of their invasion 
of Danbury. On the formation of 
the U. S. Government, in 1789, he 
was appointed first auditor of the 
treasury ; and in 1794 he succeeded 
Gen. Hamilton asi^ecretary of the 
treasury. In 1817 he was elected 
governor of Connecticut, which of- 
fice he held till 1827. He ws^ the 
last survivor of the administration 
of Washington. He died in New 
York, June 2d, 1833, aged 74. 


nel in the revolutionary army, was a 
^resident of this town. He. was an 
ardent patriot and sincere chcistian. 
He was honored with the confidence 
of Washington in several hazard- 
ous and important trusts. He died 
at Litchfield, March 7, 1835» aged 


Ethak Allxk, abrigadier>geii- 
eral in the American service, dis'^ 
tinguished for his dario^g and intre- 
pid spirit, was a native of this town. 

«« While he was young, his pa- 
rents emigrated to Vermont. At 
the commencement of the disturb- 
ances in this territory, about the 
year 1770, he took a most active 
part in favor of the Green Moun- 
tain boys, as the settlers were then 
called, in opposition to the govern- 
ment of New York. An act of 
outlawry against him was passed by 
that state, and 500 guineas wer% of- 
fered for his apprehension : but his 
party was too numerous and faith- 
ful to permit him to be disturbed by 
any apprehensions for his safety. 
In all the struggles of the day he 
was successful; and he not only 
proved a valuable friend to those 
whose cause he had espoused, but 
he was humane and generous to- 
wards those with whom he had to 
contend. When called to take the 
field, he showed himself an able 
leader and an intrepid soldier. 

** The news of the battle of Lex- 
ington determined Col. Allen to en- 
gage on the side of his country, and 
inspired him with the desire of dem- 
onstrating his attachment to liberty 
by some bold exploit. While his 
mind was id this state, a plan for 
taking Ticonderoga and Crown Point 
by surprise, which was formed by 
8evel*al gentlemen in Connecticut, 
was communicated to him, and he 
readily engaged in the project. 
Receiving directions from the gen- 
eral assembly of Connecticut to 
raise the Green Mountain boys, and 
conduct the enterprise, he collected 
230 of the hardy settlers and pro- 
ceeded to Castleton. Here he was 
unexpectedly joined by Col. Ar- 
nold, who had been commissioned 
by the Massachusetts committee to 
raise 400 men, and effect the same 
object, which was now about to be 
accomplished. As he had not rais- 
ed tbe men, he was admitted to act 
il on amtstent to Col. Allen. They 

reached the lake opposite Ticonde- 
roga on the evening of the 9th of 
May, 1776. With the utmost diffi- 
culty boats were procured, and 83 
men were landed near the garrison. 
The approach of day rendering it 
dangerous to wait for the rear, it was 
determined immediately to proceed. 
The commander in chief now ad- 
dressed his men, representing that 
they had been for a number oi years 
a scourge to arbitrary power, and 
famed for their valor, and conclud- 
ed with saying,. * I now propose to 
advance before you, and in person 
conduct you through the wicket 
gate; and you, who will go with 
me voluntarily in this desperate at- 
tempt j poise your firelocks.' At 
the heiid of the centre file he 
marched instantly to the gate,where 
a sentry snapped his gun at him, 
and retreated through the covered 
way : he pressed forward into the 
fort, and formed his men on the 
parade in such a manner as to face 
two opposite barracks. Three huz- 
zas awaked the garrison. A sentry, 
who asked quarter, pointed out the 
apartments of the commanding offi- 
cer ; and Allen with a drawn sword 
over the head of Capt. De la Place, 
who was undressed, demanded the 
surrender' of the fort. * By what 
authority do you demand it ?' in- 
quired the astonished commander. 
* I demand it (said Allen) in the 
name of the great Jehovah and of 
the continental congress.' The 
summons could not be disobeyed, 
and the fort, with its very valuable 
stores and 49 prisoners was imme- 
diately surrendered. Crown Point 
was taken the same day, and the 
capture of a sloop of war, soon af- 
terwards, made Allen and his brave 
party complete masters of Lake 

Gen. Allen possessed strong pow- 
ers of mind, but they never felt the 
influence of education. Though 
he was brave,'humane and gener- 
ous, yet his conduct does not seem 
to have been much influenced by 


coniiderstiolur' r«ipeetlag that holy 
■nd merciful Being, whose charac- 
ter and whose commaoris are din- 
closed to u> ia the *criplurei." 

Gen. Allen died at Colchester, 
Feb..I8, 1789, aged S2. 

la Maine, has Its soartes in ponds 
in the (owns of Woodstock, Gre«n- 

~ wood, and Norway; it passes ia > 
■oulheaBterly direction through Ox- 
ford, and falls into the Androscog- 
gin between Minot and Danville, 
oppoBlte toLewistoD. 

lAUlt CotapUm, R. I. 

Newport CO. Thisvery pleasant 

' ID, the Indian SeaciHinet, lies on 

the 01 

it the e 

.-t> Narraganset baf,9iDi1es 
N. from Newport, 80 S, S. E. from 
Providence, and 12 S. from Fall 
Hiver, Han. The ami of the town 
la UDcammonly fertile, and being 
cultivated by an induslrioui class 
of men, is very productire of com 
and other grain} beef, pork, but- 
ter, cheese, and wool. 

Seaconnet Rocks, ft the soudi- 
eaatern extremity of the town, 
where a break- water has been 
erected by government, I* well 
known to sailors, and memorable as 
the place where a treaty was made 
betweentheEogli^andthe Queen 
of the powerful Seaconnet tribe, in 
1674. That tribe ia now extinct: 
Seaconnet Jiacfo is their only mon- 

Litde Comptoa is becoming cel- 
ebrated as a place of resort, in sum- 
mer months, for sea air and bath- 
ing; and very justly so, for very 
few parts of our coast exhibit a 
more interesting loclition. 
Unie KuUu * UMIe Rlvnr*. 

See Cutler. 

Uttleton, H. H. 

Grafton co. On Connecticut riv- 
er. Its estentonCoonecCicutriver 
la abool 14 nules It is 80 miles 

N. by £. from HavertiiU, and 80 

N.N. W. fromConcord. Conneo- 
tieut river, in passing down the 
rapida called F^een Mtie Paili, 
extonding (he whole length of lit- 
tleton, rum in foaming waves fiir 
miles together, which reader it ini- 
possible to ascend or descend wilh 
boats in safety. There are three 
bridges over the Connecticut in Lit- 
tleton. Amonoosuck river waters 
the S. part, having on its banks •mall 
tracts of excellent intervale. Tlw 
principal village is on this rirer,io 
theS, part of &e town, and is called 
Qiynvilie. Raspberry, Black, Palm- 
er's and Iron mouotains Skre the 
most prominent elevatjoos. Near 
Amonoosuck river, there is a min- 
eral spring, the water of whieh is 
said to be similar to the Congress 
spring at Saratoga. The land eaat- 
prehending Littleton was first grant- 
ed in 1T64, by the name of Chit' 
wick. It was re-granted in 1T70, 
by the name of ApthOTf. In 1784, 
Apthorp was divided, and the towns 
of Littleton and Dalton incotporat* 
ed. Papulation, 1830, 1,4S6. 

Middlesex co. The IndlaniciII- 
ed this town JVat\abak. It Is >T 
miles W. N. W. from Boston, and 
10 N, v. from Concord. lacorpi*- 
rated, 1715. Peculation, IBST, 8T8. 
There are several beautilul ponds 
In the town, and limestone. Tb» 
soil is tolerably good, and adapted 
for the growth of rye and hops. 
There are some manufactures i^ 
boots, shoes, and straw bonnets. 

UrenBore, Ms. 

Oxford CO. An excellent town- 
ship of land, on both sides tif the 
Androscoggin river, 26 miles W. 
from Augusta, and IS N. E. &oa 
Peris. Incorporated, 1795. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 3,4G6; 18ST, iflU. 
There are three pleasant viltagM 
in the town, fine falls on the riVM, 
nw mills aikd other maniifar tiji— 


Wheat ert^ of 1837, 8,472 bush- 

Itondonderry, N. H* 

Rockingham co. Adjoining the 
£. line of the county of Hillsbo- 
rough. This town contains very lit- 
tle waste land, and it is believed, 
has as extensive a body of fertile 
soil as any town in the E. section 
of the state. It lies 25 miles S. S. 
£. from Concord, and 85 S. W. from 
Portsmouth. Population, in 1830, 

' Londonderry, which formerly in- 
cluded the present town of Derry, 
was settled in 1719, by a colony of 
presbjrterians, from the vicinity of 
the city of Londonderry, in the N. 
of Ireland, to which place tiieir an- 
cestors had emigrated about a cen- 
tury before from Scotland. They 
were a part of 120 families, chiefly 
from three parishes, who with their 
religious instructors came to New 
England in the summer of 1718. 
In October, 1718, they applied to 
the government of Massachusetts 
for the grant of a township, and 
received assurances that a grant 
should be made them when they 
should select a place for its location. 
After some time spent in viewing 
the country, they selected the tract 
afterwards composing the town of 
Londonderry, at first known by the 
name of JVutfield, In 1719, six- 
teen families, accompanied by Rev. 
James McGregore, one of the cler- 
gymen who had emigrated from 
Ireland with them, took possession 
of the tract, and on the day of 
their arrival attended religious ser- 
vices and a sermon under an oak 
on the east shore of Beaver pond. 
The inhabitants of Londonderry in 
1720, purchased the Indian title, 
and although it was long a frontier 
town, were never molested by the 
Indians. They introduced the cul- 
ture of the potatoe, a vegetable till 
then unknown in New England, 
and the manufacture of linen cloth, 
which, though long since declined. 

was for many years k considerable 
source of their early prosperity. 

Rev. Matthbw Clark, sec- 
ond minister of Londonderry, was 
a native of Ireland, who had in 
early life been an officer in the 
army, and distinguished himself in 
the defence of ^e city of London- 
derry, when besieged by the army 
of King James II. A. D., 1688-9. 
He afterwards reUnquished a mili- 
tary life for the clerical profession. 
He possessed a strong mind, mark- 
ed by a considerable degree of ec- 
centricity. He died January 25,J|- 
1735, and was borne to the grave, 
at his particulfr request, by his for- 
mer companions in arms, of whom 
there were a considerable number 
among the early settlers of this 
town ; several of whom had been 
made free from taxes throughout 
the British dominions by King Will- 
iam, for their bravery in that mem- 
orable siege. 

A company of 70 men from this 
town, under the command of Capt. 
George Reid, were in the battle of 
Breed's hill, and about the same 
number were in that at Benning- 
ton, in which Capt. David M*Clary, 
one of their citizens, a distinguish- 
ed and brave officer, was killed. 
Major-general John Stark and Col. 
George Reid, officers of the army 
of the revolution, were natives of 
this town. 

Iiondonderry-y Vt. 

Windham co. West river passes 
though this town and receives sev- 
eral tributaries in it. The land on 
the streams is rich and fertile ; the 
uplands are good for grazing, ex- 
cept those parts that are mountain- 
ous. First settled, 1774. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,302. It lies 28 miles 
S. W. from Windsor, and 80 N. E. 
from Bennington. 

Iiong^ Island Sound. 

This inland sea washes the whole 
southern boundary of Connecticut, 
and is formed by Long' Island, in the 

« . 


state of New York. This island 
extends from Moutauk Point, off 
Stouington, to tlie harbor of New 
York. Its length is 120 miles. 
The widest pait, 20 miles, is off 
New Haven.; the narrowest parts, 
on the border of New England, are 
off the mouth of Connecticut river, 
about S miles, and off Greenwich^ 
or Saw Pits, 7 miles. 

This Sound, as far as Hurl Gate, 
is navigable for vessels of any bur- 
then, and the passage to and from 
the sea round Montauk, is remark- 
j||»ly easy at any time of tide, and 
fn all weather. See Judith Point. 
Hurl Gate, 8ometii]|M«alled Hell 
Gate, but properly xtorll Gatt, 
a Dutch term, signifying a whirl- 
pool, is a narrow strait of difficult 
passage between Long and New 
York Islands. At half tide the 
current runs 7 or 8 miles an hour. 
It contains numerous whirlpools, is 
rocky and bears a threatening as- 
pect; but good pilots navigate it 
with ease when the tide is favora- 
ble. Steam-boats press through at 
all times of tide. Through this 
passage a vast amount of the pro- 
ductions of Connecticut and Rhode 
Island pass to New York market. 

A survey for a ship canal, uniting 
these waters and Narraganset bay 
with Boston harbor, was commenc- 
ed by the government of the Uni- 
ted Slates in 1827. From a tide^ 
lock at Braintree, in Boston harbor,* 
to a tide lock at Somerset, Mass., 
on Taunton river, the distance is 86 
miles. The summit level is at 
Randolph, Mass., 134 feet above 
high water mark at Boston. A ship 
canal in this direction, or one across 
Cape Cod, at Sandwich,, would save 
many lives, and a vast amount of 

Some of the distances from Prov- 
idence, and along the northern coast 
of this Sound, to the city of New 
York, are here given. 

From Providence to Newport, 30 
miles: — to Judith Point, 11 — 41 : — 
to ^6 mouth of Stoai&gton har- 

bor, 27 — 68 : — to the mouth of New 
London harbor, 8—76 :— to the mouth 
of Connecticut river, 13 — dd: — to 
the mouth of New Haven harbor, 
27— 116;— to Stratford Point, 10— 
126 : — to the mouth of Fairfield har- 
bor, 6—132 ;— to Norwalk, 8—140 : 
— to Greenwich, or Saw Pit»y 15-— 
155 :— to Throg's Point, 14—169 : — 
to Hurl Gate, 6— 176:— -to New 
York,, making the distance 
from Providence to New York, by 
water, 183 miles. 

As the rail-road from Boston to 
Albany, although in good progress, 
is not completed; and as many of 
our friends at the north visiting, the 
interior of the state of New York 
find it more agreeable to pass 
through the city of New York and 
up the Hudson ;'iver, rathec than 
cross the country, we think it may 
be useful to give some of the dis- 
tances on that noble river, from the 
city of New York to the city of 

Note. — w. denotes west ^de, e. 
east side. . 

From New York to Hoboken,w. 
2 miles : — to Manhattanville, e. 6 — 
8 :— to Fort Lee, w. 2—10 :— to 
King*8Bridge,3— 13:— (The Palis- 
adoes, perpendicular clifSi of great 
elevation, on the west bank ol the 
river, commence at Hoboken, and 
extend 20 miles to Tappan bay) to 
Fort Independence, e. 2 — 16: — to 
Tarrytown, e. 12 — 27 : — to Sing 
Sing, e. 5—32 :— to Stony Point 
light-house, w. 8 — 40 : — to Fort 
Fayette, Verplanck*s. Point, e, 1 — 
41 : — to Dunderburgh Mountain, 
w. and Peekskiil, e. 2 — 43 : — (Here 
we enter the justly celebrated 
Highlands, pronounced by every 
honest Yankee to be equal if not 
superior to any scenery of the kiod. 
in his own country) to St. Antho- ■ 
ny's Nose, e. and Forts Montgome- 
ry and Clinton, w. 3 — 16 : — to But- 
termilk Falls, w. 4—50 :— to Weft 
Poinjt— Fort Putnam, w. 2— 62:-*- 
to West Mountain, w. and Cold 


Spring, e. 4 — 56 : — to Newburgh, 
w. 5—61 : — to Hamburgh, e. 7 — 
6S : — to Poughkeepsie, e. 4 — 72 : — 
to Hj^e Park, e. 9 — 81 : — to Lew- 
is* Landing, e. and Esopus, w. 5 — 
86: — ^to Kingston Landing, w. and 
Rhinebeck Landing, e. 4 — 90 : — 
to Upper Red Hook Landing, e. and 
Ulster, w. 11—101 :— to Catskill 
Landing, w. 9 — 110 : — to Hudson, 
e. and Athens, w. 6 — 116: — to 
Coxsackie Landing, w. 8 — 124 : — 
to Kinderhook Landing, e.3 — 127: — 
to Coemans, w. 5 — 132 : — to the 
Overslaugh, (sand bars) 9 — 141 : — 
to Albany, w. 3 — 144 : — to Troy, e. 
6 — 150. The whole distance from 
Boston to Troy, by this route, is 357 

At Catskill Landing, visitors to 
the Catskill mountains stop. Pine 
Orchard Hotel, a splendid building, 
b 12 miles distant. This Mountain 
House is 2,274 feet above the tide 
of the Hudson. A few years ago 
this enchanting spot was a wilder- 

*< From this lofty eminence all 
inequalities of surface are overlook- 
ed. A seemingly endless succes- 
sion of woods and waters — farms 
and villages, towns and cities, are 
spread out as upon a boundless map. 
Far beyond rise the Tagkannuc 
mountains, and the highlands of 
Connecticut and Massachusetts. To 
the left, and at a still greater dis- 
tance, the Green mountains of Ver- 
mont stretch away to the north, and 
their blue summits and the blue sky 
mingle together. The beautiful 
Hudson, studded with islands, ap- 
pears narrowed in the distance, 
with steam-boats almost constantly 
in sight; while vessels of every 
description, spreading their white 
canvas to the breeze, are moving 
rapidly over its surface, or idly 
loitering in the calm. These may 
be traced to the distance of nearly 
seventy miles with the naked eye ; 
and again at times all below is en- 
veloped in dark clouds and rolling 


mist, which, driven about by the 
wind, is constantly assuming new, 
wild, and fantastic forms. From 
the Pine Orchard a ride or walk of 
a mile or two brings you to the 
Kauterskill falls. Here the outlet 
of two small lakes leaps down a 
perpendicular fall of 130 feet — then 
glides away through a channel 
worn in the rock, to a second fall 
of 80 feet. Below this it is lost in 
the dark ravine through which it 
finds its way to the valley of the 
Catskill." _ 

• m 

Troy is a beautiful city. It lies 
on the east jide of Hudson river, 
in the county of Rensselaer, New 
York, at the head of navigation, 
and at the junction of the northern 
and western canals with that noble 
river. The city is on an elevated 
plain, regularly laid out : the streets 
are wide and well shaded : the 
buildings are uniformly neat, and 
many of them in a style of superior 
elegance. St. Paul's church, and 
the new Presbyterian, are splendid 
edifices, and display great taste in 
their construction. 

The city of Troy is abundantly 
supplied with excellent water from 
the neighboring hills, at an expense 
of $150,000. The source of the 
water is 75 feet above the level of 
the city. At the corner of every 
street are hydrants, and a hose plac- 
ed on these sends the water up 
higher and with greater force than 
a fire engine. 

The squares and private. gardens 
are ornamented with perpetual wa- 
ter fountains. 

In Washington Square is an Ital- 
ian marble fountain, chaste and clas- 
sic in its construction, in the centre 
of the city. It sends up the water 
ten or fifteen feet, and in its descent 
resembles the weeping willow — 
This significant emblem of purity 
gives this beautiful square an addi- 
tional charm. 

Two streams, affording immense 


water facilities, empty into the 
Hudson within the limits of the 
city, and one of them rolia down a 
beautiful cascade, a short distance 
from Washington square; an ob- 
ject worthy of a visit from the curi- 
ous traveler. These streams move 
the machinery of numerous mills. 

About a quarter of a mile from 
the centre of the city. Mount Ida 
rears its head three or four hundred 
feet in height, from whose summit 
every building in the city, the 

Sindings of the canals and river, 
le foaming of the Mohawk, and 
the neighboring towns of Albany, 
Waterford, and Lansiogburgh, are 
distinctly seen. 

Troy was incorporated as a vil- 
lage in 1801. It then had a popu- 
lation of 2,000. Population, 1810, 
8,895. In 1816 it became a city. 
Population, 1820, 5,264; 1825, 
7,875; 1830,11,405; 1836,18,000. 

Troy has risen to its present state 
of opulence and population by its 
favorable position for trade, but 
more especially the enterprize and 
economical habits of its people. — 
Many of the first settlers of Troy 
came from New England in humble 
circumstances. Some of those who 
thus came have amassed princely 
fortunes, and acquired a name more 
valuable than gold. A recent 
Mayor of the city came from the 
east as a day laborer. The late 
chief magistrate of the justly styled 
** Empire State," a New Englander, 
was found in 1822 soliciting the 
patronage of the Trojans as an at- 
torney at law. Troy was formerly 
called Vanderheyden, in honor of 
a worthy Dutchman whose farm 
comprised the most compact part of 
the city. 

A notice of Mrs.Willard^s Fe- 
male Seminary must not be omitted 
in this brief account of the "Foun- 
tain City," as it is an institution of 
rare excellence, conducted by a 
lady of extraordinary attainments. 

This BcEiOol was commenced at 

Troy in 1821, since which time a 
commodious building, ou a pleas- 
ant site, has been erected, ISO feet 
by 40. The number of scholars 
varies from 200 to 275. They comt 
from every state in the union, the 
Canadas, the West Indies^uid even 
from Europe, but chiefly fiom tiie 
state of New York and New Eng- 
land. Mrs. Willard's plan of edu- 
cation has received the approbation 
of some of the wisest men in Eu- 
rope. Dr. Combe quotes it, in his 
essay on education, with unqualifi- 
ed approbation. This institution is 
conducted almost entirely by fe- 
males : it is, in fact, a female coU 
lege, and many are the degrees of 
usefulness conferred by its learned 
principal on its numerous and love- 
ly graduates. 

The institution is incorporated, 
and it cannot fail of receiving the 
best wishes of the community. — 
May no event occur to mar its pro0» 
perity and usefulness. 

The traveler will visit the "Foun- 
tain City " again, on bis way from 
Champlain Lake. See Burlington, 
Vt., in the Register, 

Lonsf Meadoir, Sbuuu 

Hampden co. This is a beauti- 
ful town with a fine soil, on the E. 
side of Connecticut river, 97 mUes 
S. W. by W. from Boston, 5 S. from 
Springfield, and 22 N. from Hart- 
ford, Ct. Incorporated, 1783. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 1,251. There are 
several tanneries in the town, and 
some other manufactures, but the 
inhabitants are generally engaged 
in cultivating the soil. The Indian 
name of the place was Massacsiek, 

Iiong^ Ijalncy Me. 

This is a sheet of water at the 
northern part of Piscataquis county, 
about 15 miles in length and 2 in 
width, which empties by Namjam- 
skillecook river into Temisconata 
lake, the head waters ol Madawa^ 
ka river. It lies about 210 miles 
N. by £. from Augusta. 


l^ngPond, Me. 

See Bridgeton. 

Iiomdon, ST. H. 

Merrimack co. Soucook river 
passes from Gilmanton S. through 
LoudoUy famishing valuable mill 
privilege*. There is some good in- 
tervale on its borders. Loudon was 
originally a* part of Canterbury ; 
was incorporated, 1773. Loudon 
lies 7 miles N. £. from Concord. 
Population, 1830, 1,642. 

Itovelly Me. 

Oxford CO. This town embraces 
Kezer pond, a large sheet of water, 
and other ponds whose outlet is into 
the Saco, at Fryeburgb. Lovell 
lies 10 miles N. from Fryeburgb, 
20 W. S. W- from Paris, and 67 W. 
S. W. from Augusta. Incorpora- 
ted, 1800. Population, 1837, 876. 

" In this town are Lovell's Falls, 
which are an object of great natu- 
ral curiosity. Where the water 
makes over into the tremendous ba- 
sin below, it falls perpendicularly 
40 feet. Above the falls, there is 
a chain of eight ponds, partly in 
Lovell and partly in Waterford, con- 
nected by small natural dams one 
or two rods in width, through which 
there are sluiceways, which will 
admit the passage oi a common sail 
boat. The scenery of the moun- 
tains and ascending lands in the vi- 
cinity is rural and beautiful." 

IiOiirell, Me. 

Penobscot co. Formerly called 
HuntresaviUe, Incorporated by its 
present name in 1838. ** See Down 

liOweU, Vt. 

Orleans co. This town was first 
settled in 1806, and was called JTeZ- 
leyvale for a number of years. It 
lies 36 miles N. from Montpelier, 
and 10 S. W. from Irasburgh. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 314. This township 
is mountainous, and the fountain 
bead of Missisque river* 

Ito^velly Mass. 

Middlesex co. County town.—- 
This city, the American Manches- 
ter, is remarkable for the extent of 
its water power, its rapid growth, 
and the height to which it has rais- 
ed the American character, by the 
perfection of its manufactures. 

Lowell has risen to eminence by 
the remarkable energy and skill of 
a few individuals ; among whom 
Patrick T. Jacksodt, Esq. of 
Boston, and the late Kirk Boot, 
Esq. were distinguished. 

It lies on the S. side of Mei!f|. 
mack river, below Pawtucket Falls, 
and at the anion of Concord river 
with the Merrimack. 

In 1815, the site where the city 
stands was a wilderness, with the 
exception of a few lonely dwell- 
ings. In 1824, Lowell, then a part 
of Chelmsford, was incorporated as 
a town. In 1835, it became a city. 
Lowell is situated 25 miles N. from 
Boston, 14 N. N. E. from Concord, 
37 N. E. from Worcester, and 38 S. 
S. E. from Concord, N. H. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 6,474 ; 1837, 18,010. 

The hydraulic power of this place 
ks produced by a canal, of a mile 
and a half in length, 60 feet in 
width, and 8 feet in depth, extend- 
ing from the head of Pawtucket 
Falls to Concord river. This canal 
has locks at its outlet into Concord 
river; it also serves for the passage 
of boats up and down the Merri- 
mack. From this canal, the water 
is conveyed by lateral canals to va- 
rious places where it is wanted for 
use, and then discharged, either in- 
to the Merrimack or Concord. 

The canal is owned by " The 
Proprietors of the Locks and Canals 
on Merrimack river." .This com- 
pany was incorporated in 1792, and 
have a capital of $600,000. They 
dispose of lands and mill privileges, 
and own the machine shop, and 
carry on the manufacture of ma- 
chinery. The first cotton mill at 
this place was erected in 1822. 

The whole fall of the Merrimack 



at this place is 30 feet, and the 
quantity of water never falls short 
of 2,000 cubic feet per second, 
and is very rarely so low as that. 
This quantity of water is estimated 
to carry 286,000 spindles, with all 
the preparatory machinery. There 
is therefore an unimproved water 
power at this place sufficient to 
carry eleven mills of the usual size, 
making the whole number of mills 
89, when all the water is improved. 

There are 10 corporations, with a 
capital stock of $8,250,000 : 28 mills 
besides machine shops, print works, 
&c., all warmed in cold weather by 
hot air or steam. 

There are 150,404 spindles, and 
4,861 looms. There are 61,147,200 
yards of cloth manufactured per an- 
num; 12,220,000 yards dyed and 
printed, and 16,161,600 lbs. of cot- 
ton used annually, besides a large 
quantity of wool. 

There are annually used in these 
manufactories, 11,000 tons of An- 
thracite coal, 4,810 cords of wood, 
600,000 bushels of charcoal, 63,489 
gallons of oil, 610,000 pounds of 
starch, and 3,800 barrels of flour 
for starch in the print works and 

The number of females employ- 
ed in the mills, is 6,295 : number of 
males, 2,047. Total number of 
hands, 8,342. The average wages 
of females per week, clear of board, 
is $1,75; of males, 80 cents per 
day, clear of board. The average 
amount of wages paid per month 
is $106,000. 

The goods manufactured in these 
mills consist of sheetings, shirtings, 
drillings, calicoes, broadcloths, cas- 
Bimeres, carpets, rugs, negro cloth ; 
machinery for mills, and for en- 
gines and cars for rail- roads. The 
quality of these goods is general- 
ly superior to those imported. The 
annual amount of goods manu- 
foctured by these mills is about 

The mills are built of brick, and 
are about 157 feet in length, 45 in 

breadth, and from 4 to 7 stories in 

The Locks and Canals Machine 
Shop, included among the 88 millsy 
can furnish machinery complete §m 
a mill of 5,000 spindles in fiNir 
months, and lumber and materiab 
are always at command, with which 
to build or rebuild a mill in that 
time, if required. When building 
mills, the Locks and Canals Com- 
pany employ directly and indirect- 
ly from a thousand to twelve hun- 
dred hands. 

There are also in Lowell 10 
powder mills, a flour mill, glass 
works, the Lowell bleachery, flan- 
nel mills,and manufactories of cards, 
whips, planing and reed machines, 
boots, shoes ; brass, copper and tin 
wares, carriages, harnesses, inm 
castings, &c. &,c. ; the annual pro- 
ceeds of which amount to about 
$500,000, emplojing about 200 

Lowell is finely situated in regard 
to health : it is surrounded by pleas- 
ant hills and valleys, and seated on 
a rapid stream. We are enabled to 
state on good authority that 6 of 
the females out of 10 enjoy better 
health than before being employed 
in the mills, and that one half of the 
males derive the same advantage. 

Lowell is very handsomely locat- 
ed : it is laid out into wide streets ; 
all the buildings are of recent con- 
struction, and in a style of neatness 
and elegance. 

With regard to the fu^are pros- 
perity of this interesting city, noth- 
ing need be said to those who know 
that it was founded, and is princi- 
pally sustained, by the most emi- 
nent capitalists of Boston; a city 
renowned for its enterprize, wealth, 
and public spirit. 

To strangers we would say— ;«ifif 
it. It is a pleasant ride of aboot an 
hour from Boston, by the rail-road. 
Foreigners view Lowell with ad- 
miration ; and every American who 
sees it feels proud that such a city 
exists on this side of the Atlantic 


Xiubeey Me. 

Washington co. Lubec compris- 
es a township of good land, lying 
at the. northeasterly comer of the 
■tate, and contains a point of land 
extending easterly on which West 
Qooddy Head light-house is situa- 
ted, at the western entrance into 
Passamaqnoddy bay. This place 
possesses an admirable harbor for 
vessels of any draught of water ; it 
is easy of access and never obstruct- 
ed by ice. There are also within 
the town a number of bays, coves, 
and several islands. Grand Menan 
stretches off the mouth of the har- 
bor on the £. 5 or 6 miles distant, 
and Campo Ballo, another English 
island, lies very near and protects 
the harbor on the north. This 
town was taken from Eastport in 
1811, and contained 380 inhabit- 
ants. Population, 1820, 1430 ; 1830, 
2,081; 1887,4,161. 

Lubec, in common with Eastport, 
enjoys a very extensive trade with 
the Bay of Fundy and the great 
waters of Passamaquoddy bay. 
The village, or principal place of 
business, is beautifully located on a 
point of land jutting out into the 
harbor ; it makes a nne appearance, 
commands an active trade, and is 
flourishing in its navigation and 
fishery. It lies 3 miles S. from 
Eastport, 80 E. from Machias, 173 
E. by N. from Augusta, and 31 S. 
E. from Calais, at the head of navi- 
gation on the St. Croix river. 

limdlowy Vt. 

Windsor co. Black and Williams' 
rivers give this town a good water 
power. It is likewise watered by 
a number of large ponds well stor- 
ed with fish. Ludlow was first set- 
tled in 1784. It lies 61 miles S. 
from Montpelier, and 18 S. W. from 
Windsor. Population, 1830, 1,227. 

The town is mountainous, but 
contains good land for the grazing 
of sheep and other cattle. The 
Tillage is very pleasant, ind the 
centre of considerable trade with 


the surrounding country. Some 
valuable minerals have been discov- 
ered here. 

IimdloiVy Mass. 

Hampden co. This town lies N. 
of Wilbraham, and is separated from 
it by Chickopee river. It is 84 
miles W. by S. from Boston, and 10 
N. £. from Springfield. Incorpo- 
rated, 1774. The Chickopee here 
is a large stream, and adds much to 
the beauty of the place. There 
are two cotton mills in the town, 
and manufactures of palm-leaf hats 
and ploughs: total value, in one 
year, $160,850. Population, 1837, 

Lnnenburgb, Vt. 

Essex CO. On the west side of 
Connecticut river, and watered by 
Nears branch and pond, and Cat- 
bow branch; — good mill streams. 
Some of the land is very good, but 
the most of it is stony, appearently 
of diluvial formation, consisting of 
rounded masses of granite embed- 
ded in clay and gravel. This is a 
good grazing town, and produces 
some cattle, and butter and cheese 
for market. First settled about 
1770. Population, in 1830, 1,054. 
Lunenburgh lies 45 miles £. N. 
£. from Montpelier, and 8 S. from 

Iinnenburgl&y Mass. 

Worcester co. The soil of this 
town is good, the surface uneven 
and watered by some branches of 
Nashua river. Considerable amount 
of books are printed and bound in 
this town, and there are some man- 
ufactures of palm-leaf hats, chairs^ 
cabinet ware, leather, boots and 
shoes. Lunenburgh is a very pleas- 
ant town: 42 miles N, W. from 
Boston, and 24 N. from Worcester. 
Incorporated, 1728. Population, 
1837, 1,250. 

Xiynuuty Me* 

York CO. This is a pleasant 


town, watered by several pondj 
which empty, some into the Saco, 
and others into the Kennebunk and 
Mousum. It lies 87 miles S. W. 
from Augusta, 5 E. from Alfred and 
6 N. N. W. from Kennebunk. Pop- 
ulation, 1837, 1,528. 

Grafton co. On Connecticut riv- 
er. This town is 13 miles above 
Haverhill, 90 miles N. N. W. from 
Concord. There is one considera- 
ble elevation, called Lyman's moun- 
tain. The N. W. branch of Burn- 
ham's river has its source from this 
mountain. There are several ponds 
in the E. part of Lyman, through 
the largest of which Burnham's 
river has its course. The lowor bar 
of the Fifteen Mile falls is in this 
town. Carloton's falls are several 
miles below, and below these is 
Stevens' ferry, which communi- 
cates with Barnet. Lyman was 
granted in 1761. Population, in 
1830, 1,321. 

Ttyxmef 9r* HI* 

Grafton co. This town is 6 miles 
S. from Orford, and 64 N. W. from 
Concord. The soil here is similar 
to that of other towns on Connecti- 
cut river, with this difference, that 
there is a less proportion of inter- 
vale, and a less difference between 
that directly adjoining the river and 
the other parts of the town. There 
are three small streams passing 
through Lyme and emptying into 
Connecticut river. There are two 
small ponds, the largest of which is 
called Ports pond. There is a moun- 
tain, called Smart's mountain, lying 
in the N. E. part of the town. — 
Lyme was granted 1761. The town 
was settled 1764. Population, in 
1830, 1,804. 

Lym.9, CU 

New London co. Lyme |s situ- 
ated at the mouth of Connecticut 
river, on the east side, opposite to 
Say brook. It is a pleasant town. 

generally of good sollp but greaflf 
diversified in regard to surfiuB*: 
some parts are mountainmu and 
rocky, while others are lentil with 
large tracts of salt meadovr. Tha 
town is watered by several streatts 
and ponds, and the shores on tba 
sound and river are indented br 
small bays and harbors, which af« 
ford the town some navigable privi- 
leges. There are several neat vil- 
lages in the town, a cotton mill, 
2 woolen factories, and about 6,000 
sheep. Lyme was first settled in 
1684. Incorporated, 1667. It lies 
40 miles S. £. from Hartford, and 40 
E. from New Haven. Population, 
1830, 4,084. Its Indian name was 

Among the first settlers was 
Matthew Griswold, the ances* 
tor of two governors, and of a nu- 
merous and highly respected family 
in the state. 

A tract of land, once an Indian 
reservation, was for some time in 
dispute between the towns of Lyme 
and New London. It was finally 
agreed to settle their respective ti- 
tles to the land in controversy, by a 
combat between two champions, to 
be chosen by each for that purpose. 
The combatants were chosen, and 
on a day mutually appointed, the 
champions appeared in the field, 
and fought with their fists till vic- 
tory declared in favor of each of the 
Lyme combatants. Lyme then qui- 
etly took possession of the contro- 
verted tract, and has held it un- 
disputed, to the present day. 

Deacon Marvin, a large land . 
holder and an exemplary man, was 
exceedingly eccentric in some of 
his notions. His courtship, it is 
saidj was as follows : — Having one 
day mounted his horse, with only a 
sheep skin for a saddle, be rode in 
front of the house where Betty Lee 
lived, and without dismounting re- 
quested Betty to come to bim ; on 
her coming, he told her that the 
Lord had sent him there to marry 
her. Betty, without much hesi- 


tetta» replied. The Lord's wUl be 

TIm fcOowing is on the Deacon's 
maoiillheikt in the grave yard, dated, 
pctcd>er 18, 1737. 

'This Deacon aged 68 : 
Jb flPBed on earth from serving 
May for a crown no longer wait : 
Lyme's Captain Reynold Marvin. 

"Lyndehorougbi, N* H* 

Hillsborough co. This town is 
10 miles W. N. W. from Amherst, 
and 35 S. S. W. from Concord. It 
is an elevated township, having a 
considerable mountain which di- 
vides it from E. to W. There is, in 
the N. £. part of the town, below 
the mountain, a plain, where there 
is a small village, pleasantly situat- 
ed near Piscataquog river. The 
soil of' this town, though stony, is 
deep and strong. For grazing it is, 
perhaps, not exceeded by any town 
in the county. The streams are 
small, originating principally from 
sources in the town, and running 
N. and S. from the mountain. — 
Lyndeborough was originally grant- 
ed in 1690. In 1753, Benjamin 
Lynde, Esq. of Salem, purchased a 
considerable part of the township, 
and adjoining lands. From him, 
the place, when it was incorporated 
in 1764, took the name of Lyndebo- 
rough. It was settled as early as 
1750. On the 15th of Nov., 1809, 
three children were burnt in a barn, 
while their parents were attending 
an installation at Mont Vernon. — 
Population, in 1830, 1,147. 

Caledonia co. First settled, 1788. 
It lies 34 miles N. £. from Mont- 
pelier, and 10 N. N. E. from Dan- 
ville/ Population, 1830, 1,822. 
Ljrndon is one of the best townships 
in the state : its surface is undulat- 
ing, with a soil of rich loam, free 
from stone, easy to cultivate, and 
Tery productive of wool, cattle, 
pork, butter and cheese. It is ad- 
mirably well watered by the Pas- , 

sumpsic and some of its tributaries. 
Two important falls of that river 
are in the town, one of 65 feet in 
the distance of 30 rods ; the other 
of 18 feet. These are called Great 
and Little Falls, and afford a water 
power of great extent. Agaric 
mineral, used for chalk, and a good 
substitute for Spanish white, is found 
here. The principal village is very 
pleasant and the seat of considera- 
ble business. The scenery about 
the town is picturesque and inter- 
esting. There is probably no inte- 
rior town in the state that contains 
more valuable water privileges than 

Lynity Jllass. 

Essex CO. Lynn is one of the 
most flourishing and beautiful towns 
in the state. It lies on a plain, sur- 
rounded by rising ground, except 
on the east, where it opens to Lynn 
bay, embracing the romantic pen- 
insula of J^Tahant, with its beauti- 
ful beach, and Phillips' Point, both 
highly esteemed resorts for all class- 
es of people ;— the sick, the serious, 
and the gay. The soil of the town 
is fertile and well cultivated. It is 
watered by the river Saugus, the 
Indian name of the place. The 
town is neatly built on wide and 
pleasant streets, and contains a pop- 
ulation of about 10,000. It lies 9 
miles N. E. from Boston, and 5 S. 
W. from Salem. 

Lynn has risen to wealth and 
importance by the enterprise and 
industry of its people, in die manu- 
facture of shoes, particularly for 
which, more than any other town 
in the country, it is justly celebra- 
ted. The manufacture of ladies* 
shoes was commenced here before 
the revolutionary war, and it is cu- 
rious to observe the great changes 
that have occurred in the fashion 
and manufacture of that article. 

** In olden times," says the New- 
buryport Herald, "ladies' shoes 
were made in Lynn of common 
woolen cloth, or coarse curried 


leather; afterwards of stuffs such 
as cassimere, everlasting, shalloon 
and russet ; some of satin and da- 
inask,others of satin lasting and flor- 
entine. They were generally cut 
with straps, for large huckles, 
which were worn in those days by 
women as well as men. Ladies' 
shoes, 70 years ago, were made 
mostly with white and russet rands, 
and stitched very fine on the rand 
with white-waxed thread. Some 
were made turn pumps and channel 
pumps, all haying wooden heels, 
called cro88-euty common, diud court 
heels. Then the cork, plug, and 
wedge or spring heels, came into 
use. The sole-leather was all 
worked with the flesh side out. 

" Previous to the war of the revo- 
lution, the market for Lynn shoes 
was principally confined to New 
England ; some few, however, 
were exported to Philadelphia. 
Many individuals with small capi- 
tal carried on the business in their 
own families. Fathers, sous, ap- 
prentices, and one or two journey- 
men, all in one small shop, with a 
chimney in one corner, formed the 
whole establishment. 
"After the revolution, the business 
assumed a different aspect. Enter- 
prising individuals embarked in the 
business in good earnest; hired 
a great number of journeymen ; 
built large shops, took apprentices, 
and drove the business. Master 
workmen shipped their shoes to 
the south, so that Lynn shoes took 
the place of English and other im- 
ported shoes. Morocco and kid 
leather, suitable for shoes, began 
to be imported from England, which 
soon took the place of stuffs. Roan 
shoes were now little called for; 
and the improvement of working 
the sole-leather grain side out, was 
now generally adopted, making 
what is called duff bottoms. About 
the year 1794, wooden heels began 
to go out of use, by the introduc- 
tion of leather spring heels. This 
improvement progressed gradually. 

until the heel making, which 
once a good business, was totallif 

In the year ending April l#18tTt 
there were manufactured in Xyna 
2,543,929 pairs of shoes, and 2,2M 
pairs of boots, valued at $1,689,788. 
In this manufacture, 2,631 males 
and 2,664 females were employed ; 
total number, 6,185. During that 
time the manufacture of vessels, 
cordage, tin ware, oil casks, moroc- 
co leather and shoe boxes amounted 
to $188,409. During the same pe- 
riod there were 5 vessels employed 
in the whale and 14 in the cod and 
mackerel fishery. Besides this, 
4,608,000 pounds of cod, haddock, 
halibut and other fish were tak- 
en in boats and sold fresh. The to- 
tal value of the fisheries amounted 
to $170,320. Total value of the 
manufactures and fisheries of Lynn, 
in one year, $2,048,522. Lynn 
was first settled in 1629. Incorpo- 
rated, 1637. 

Lynnfleldy IfauM* 

Essex CO. The sur&ce of this 
town is uneven, and the soil rather 
hard and unproductive. It contains 
some good farms, a number of pleas- 
ant ponds, and is watered by Ips- 
wich river on the north. There is 
a woolen mill in the town, and man- 
ufactures of bar iron , ploughs, boots 
and shoes; annual value about 
$50,000. Incorporated, 1782. — 
Population, 1837, 674. Lynnfield 
is 12 miles N. from Boston, and 9 
W. by N. from Salem. 

Macliias Rivers and Bay, Me. 

The river in Washington County 
is formed of two branches, which 
receive their head waters from sev- 
eral ponds, at the distance of about 
40 miles, in a N. W. direction.— 
The eastern branch passes thitMigh 
East Machias. These brandies 
unite near the line of Madiias and 
Machias Port, and in their coarse 
produce a great and valtlable hy- 
draulic power. 


Miaehitts and Little MachitM riv- 
CTfy in Penobscot county, are im- 
portant tributaries to the Aroostook. 
TliAir course is easterly, and their 
mouths meet near each other about 
80 milea W. N. W. from Mars Hill. 

Machiaa Bay sets up from the 
sea about 10 miles and meets Ma- 
chias Port. This bay is 4 or 6 miles 
in width at its mouth, and contains 
in its bosom several coves, harbors, 
and beautiful islands : Cross island 
lying at its mouth is the largest, 
being about 3 miles by 2. 

MaclUaSy Me. 

Washington co. County town. 
This was a famous lodgement of the 
Indians. First settled, 1762. It 
ifas incorporated in 1784, and was 
the first corporate town between 
Penobscot and St. Croix rivers. It 
formerly comprised East Machias 
and Machias Port. The village is 
situated on the east side of the 
west branch, and near the mouth 
of Middle river. It contains the 
county building, numerous saw 
mills, and has an extensive trade, 
particularly in lumber. Machias 
lies 143 miles E. N. £. from Augus- 
ta. Population, 1837, 1,239. This 
is a plerasant and interesting town. 

Ulacl&las Forty Me. 

Washington co. Incorporated 
in 1826. It is the southern part of 
Old Machias, and extends north- 
ward to the union of the branches 
of Machias river. It has a great 
number of mills, and is very exten- 
sively engaged in the lumber trade. 
It is a port of entry : — it has an 
excellent harbor, and considerable 
navigation in the coasting and fish- 
ing business. The tonnage of the 
district in 1837, was 8,360 tons. In 
this part of Old Machias the Ply- 
mouth Colony established a trading 
house in 1630. It was subsequent- 
ly occupied by the French for sev- 
eral years. Machias Port lies 146 
miles E. N. E. from Augusta, »nd 

3 S. from Machias. Population, 
1837, 821. 

Madantisoontls River, Me., 

Rises in a large pond, and emp- 
ties, from the N. W. into Penobscot 
river, about 45 miles above Ban- 

Madavraska River, Me. 

This river is in the county of Pe- 
nobscot, and is the outlet of Temis- 
couata lake, and other large bodies 
of water in the northern part of the 
county bordering on the line of 
Lower Canada. This river and 
these lakes, with their numerous 
tributaries, water a country of great 
extent, and which is said to equal 
any country in the world in fertili- 
ty, even fhe luxuriant prairies of the 
" boundless west." The course of 
these waters is N. W. and traverse a 
distance of more than 100 miles. 
From the mouth of Madawaska in- 
to the St. John's to Augusta is about 
240 miles N. N. E. 

Madawaska, Me. 

Washington co. This town was 
incorporated in 1831, and comprises 
the territory marked F. and K. on 
Greenleafs map. It is bounded E. 
by the British Province of New 
Brunswick, N. near the passage of 
St. John's, across the line of the 
state ; and W. and S. by a vast and 
fertile territory between the Aroos- 
took and St. John's rivers ; at pres- 
ent but thinly inhabited. This town 
was the place where the land agents 
of Maine were taken, by order of 
the British government, and impris- 
oned at Frederickton, N. B. In 
1837, Madawaska was supposed to 
contain a population of 2,487. It 
lies about 220 miles N. E. by N. 
from Augusta, and 130 N. W. from 
Frederickton, N. B. 

Madbnrjr, N. H., 

Strafford co., is bounded N. £• 
by Dover, S. W. by Durham and 


Lee, N. W. by Barrington. The 
soil of this town is generally pro- 
ductive. In some parts of the town, 
bog iron ore has been dug up in 
considerable quantities, and in some 
instances red and yellow ochre. — 
Bellamay bank river is the only 
stream of any magnitude, and Bar- 
badoes pond the only considerable 
body of water. This pond lies be- 
tween Dover and Madbury, and is 
120 rods long, 60 wide. Madbury 
formerly conatituted a part of the 
ancient town of Dover; but was set 
off and incorporated May 31, 1755, 
by its present name. Population, 
in 1S30, 510. 

Madifloiiy He. 

Somerset co. This township lies 
on the £. side of Kennebec river, 
84 miles N. from Augusta and 
bouhded S. by Norridgewock. It 
was incorporated in 1804. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,272 ; 1837, 1,608. It 
is watered by a beauti^l pond, the 
outlet of which if>t Skowhegan. 
There are three pleasant villages in 
the town : — the people are general- 
ly husbandmen. The best compli- 
ment that can be paid to the soil is, 
that it produced, without any extra- 
ordinary efibrt, 10,188 bushels of 
wheat, in 1837. 

MadUony Ct. 

New Haven co. This town was 
taken from Guilford in 1826. It lies 
on Long Island Sound, and embra- 
ces what is called Hammonasset 
Point. This town lies IS Ailes E. 
by S. from New Haven, and 33 S. 
from Hartford. Population, 1830, 
1,809. The soil of the town is 
stony, and naturally hard to culti- 
vate ; but it is made quite produc- 
tive of corn, rye and potatoes by the 
nse of white fish, ploughed in. — 
These fish appear in the sound about 
the 1st of June, and continue 3 or 
4 months. They are taken in great 
quantities and are considered an ex- 
cellent manure. They were first 
thus used about the year 1798. — 

About 10,000 of these fish are oo&- 
sidered a good dressing for an acrs 
of land. 

This place has a small harbor and 
some navigation. Ship building is 
thejnost important mechanical pur^ 

The Hon. Thomas Chitteic- 
DEN, for many years governor of 
Vermont, and his brother Ebekte- 
ZER Chittendek, a gentleman 
of great mechanical genius, were 
natives of this town. The former 
was born in 1730, and died in 1797. 

The following is the inscription 
on a monument in the grave yard, 
in memory of an old sea captain. 

Though Boreas' blasts and Neptune's 

Have toss'd me to and firo, 
In spite of both by God's dMeo 

I narbor here l)elow, 
Where I do at anchor ride 

With many of our fleet 3 
Yet once a^^ain I must set sail 

Our Admunl, Christ, to meet. 

Blad Rlv^ers. 

Mad Miver in JIT. M,, rises 
among the mountains in the N. £. 
part of Grafton county ; it crosses 
the S. E. part of Thornton and falls 
into the Pemigewasset at Campion. 
Mad River, Vt. A rapid stream, 
rises in the high lands S. of War- 
ren, and after passing through 
Waitsfield, it falls into Onion riv- 
er at More town. 

Madrid, Me. 

Franklin co. This township was 
incorporated in 1836. It is watered 
by some of the head branches of 
Sandy river and contains a part of 
Saddleback mountain. The boM ii 
excellent and yielded, in VSA^ 
3,387 bushels of wheat. Pepnla- 
tion same year, 851. It lies 25 
miles N. W. from Farmington and 
about 105 N. W. from Augusta. 

]IIadiuUKeeiut]c Rlvery Ble* 

Penobscot co. A tributary of 


EMes CO. This 
township lies on the W. Bide or 
CotuwcticQl river : it U watered b; 

a pleasant pond and by Panl'l 
Btrcam. Il has BOme good land, but 
mosl of it is poor. FLrat Bellied, 
ITTO. Fopulfitioa, IS30, 236. It 
lies 54 miles H. E. from Mantpelier, 
and 8 N. from Guitdliall 


ThiiSt*t« was originally granted b; James I. to the Plymouth Compa- 
nj, in 1606, by nbom it waa transrcrred la Mason and Gorges in 1624. 
This grant compriBcd all the territory between Merrimack river and 8a- 
gadahock. TTie territory wa? afterwards purchased by Massachusetla for 
jet,3Sa, who obtained a conSrmalion of the charter in 1691, wi(h the ad- 
dition of the residue of Miune and Nova Scotia, including what is now 
called the Province of Netv Brunswick. 

Tills state, rormeriy the District af Maine, became independent of 
M*UBchn9e(ts in 1S20. By the Conslitution, the legistative power 1* 
verted in a Senate and House of Representatives, elected annually b; 
the people, on the second Monday in September. The number of SeD- 
■tora cannot be less than 20, nor more than 31. The number of Repre* 
•enUtives cannot be less than 100, nor more than 200. No town or ciljr 
is entitled to more than seven Representatives. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, who is chosen annuallj 


by the people, on the second Monday in September : — His official term 
commences on the first Wednesday in January. 

The Legislature meets at Augusta, on the first Wednesday in Jana« 
ary, annually, on which day seven Counsellors are elected, by joint bal- 
lot of both Houses, to advise the Governor in his executive duties. 

The judicial power of the state is vested in a Supreme Judicial Court, 
apd such other courts as the Legislature may, from time to time, estab- 
lish. The Judges are appointed by the Governor and Council, and hold 
their offices during good behavior, but not beyond the age of 70 years. 

The state of Maine is bounded northwest and north by Lower Canada, 

east by New Brunswick, south by the Atlantic ocean, and west by New 

Hampshire. It is situated between 43^ 5', and 4S° 3' N. lat. and TO^' 

'55', and 66° 47' W. Ion. It contains an area of about 33,000 square miles. 

The surface of the state is diversified by hills and valleys. A tract on 
the west side east of the white mountains, and a part of the north bound- 
ary is mountainous, though not of extraordinary elevations. The high- 
est mountains lie in detached groups, but they are not numerous. 

The range of high land which crosses Vermont and New Hampshire, 
enters the northwest corner of Maine, passing round Chaudiere river 
and the head waters of Megantic lake, in Canada, and runi^ng nearly 
parallel with the St. Lawrence river, at the distance of about twenty 
miles, terminates on the gulph of St. Lawrence, near Cape Rosier. — 
This is the «« Height of Land" or the «* North East Ridge," spoken of in 
the treaty of 17S3, between Great Britain and the United States, and 
which was never called in question until 1814, when the Britlah pleni- 
potentiaries at Ghent proposed to the American Commissioners to discuss 
and revise |he boundary, so as to prevent future uncertainty and dispute. 
They stated that they desired a direct communication between Quebec 
and Halifax, and left it to the Americans to demand an equivalent. This 
proposition was refused by the Americans, on the ground that there was 
no question in regard to the limits of their territory. The " disputed ter- 
ritory,'* so called, includes most of the country north of latitude 46^, in- 
cluding a part of New Hampshire, and most of that large and valuable 
portion of Maine watered by the Madawaska, St. John's, Walloostook, 
Aroostook, and other rivers. This question involves nearly a third part of 
the territory of the state. 

In the 2d article of that treaty are the following words : — " Jlnd duU 
all disputes which might arise in future, on the subject of bouniariii 
of the United States, may be prevented, it is hereby agreed and deeUir* 
ed that the following are, and shall be, their boundaries, viz : from thi 
northwest angle of JSTova Scotia, (New Brunswick) viz ; that angle 
which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix 


river to the highlands ; along the said highlands which divide those rir- 
era thfit empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence from those which 
fall into the Atlantic ocean, to the north westernmost head of the Connec- 
ticut river." 

*< Our commissioneFS at Ghent, having successfully resisted every attempt 
for the dismemberment of Maine, agreed upon an article with the British 
commissioners, not to revise or to change the ancient treaty boundary, 
but to run and establish upon the ground that very boundary, without 
any alteration, and to ascertain " the northwest angle of Nova Scotia ; ** 
its place of beginning. This article is the fifth in the treatjr* Under it, 
each party appointed a commissioner. These commissioners disagreed. 
According to the treaty, the question was then referred to the King of the 
Netherlands, as umpire, whose award was rejected by the United States, 
because it did not even profess to decide the controversy according to the 
terms of the submission, but proposed a compromise, by a division of the 
disputed territory between the parties. Great Britian has also since an- 
nounced her abandonment of this award; and now, at the end of more 
than half a century after the conclusion of the treaty of 1783, the ques- 
tion not only remains unsettled, but threatens to involve the two nations in 
a dangerous dispute. 

** The northwest angle of Nova Scotia waa a well known point, capa- 
ble of being^ easily ascertained, ever since the proclamation of 1763, by 
aimply running a due north line from the source of the St. Croix, to in- 
terseet&e southern line of the Province of Quebec, which consists of 
the highlands running from the western extremity of the bay of Chaleur, 
to the head of Connecticut river, and dividing those rivers that empty 
themselves into the river St. Lawrence from those which Ikll into the 
Atlantic -ocean. It is certain as the laws of nature, that these highlands, 
from which we know that streams do flow in opposite directions, can be 
found on the face of the country. 

" The whole argument of the British government rests upon the assump- 
tion that the St. John's is not a river falling into the Atlantic ocean, be- 
cause it has its mouth in the Bay of Fundy, What is the Bay of Fundy, 
if it be not a part of the Atlantic ocean ? A bay is a mere opening of 
the main ocean into the land — a mere interruption of the uniformity of 
the sea coast by an indentation of water. These portions of the ocean 
have received the name of bays, solely to distinguish them from the 
remainder of the vast deep to which they belong. Wouldjt not be the 
merest special pleading to contend that the bay of Naples was not a por- 
tion of the Mediterranean, or that the Bay of Biscay was not a part of 
the Atlantic ocean ? 

«* Again, the description of the treaty is, " rivers which fall into the 



Atlantic ocean." Can it be said, with any propriety, that a river doei 
not fall into the Atlantic, because in reaching the main ocean it may 
pass through a bay ? And yet this is the British argument. The Dela- 
ware does not fall into the Atlantic, because it flows into it through the 
bay of Delaware ; and, for the same reason, the St. John's does not faU 
into the Atlantic, because it flows into it through the bay of Fundy.'* 

It is ardently wished that tliis perplexing controversy may soon beami- 
eably settled between two friendly powers, whose interests are so closely 
united. This will probably be the event. Maine is determined to vin- 
dicate her rights, and the whole country stands ready to sustain them. 

Maine is divided into the twelve following counties : York, Cumber- 
land, Lincoln, Kennebec, Waldo, Hancock, Oxford, Somerset, Penobscot^ 
Washington, Franklin, and Piscataquis. 

Succession of Governors* 

William King, 1820. Albion K. Parris, 1821—1825. E. Lincoln, 
1826—1829. Jonathan G. Hunton, 1830. Samuel E. Smith, 1831— 
1833. Robert P. Dunlap, 1834—1887. Edward Kent, 1838. John 
Fairfield, 1839— 

Succession of CMef Justices. 

Prentiss Mellen, 1820—1834. Nathan Weston, 1834— 

The soil of Maine is various. For some miles from the sea coast it is 
rocky, sandy or clayey, with some fertile portions; generally this is the 
least productive part of the state. Advancing into the interior, the soil 
increases in fertility. The average quality of the soil is considered to be 
equal if not superior to any other portion of New England. In some 
parts it is not exceeded in fertility by any section of the Union. Some 
of the most fertile parts of Maine are now almost a wilderness. 

The ability of the soil of Maine to furnish an ample supply of bread 
stuffs, was fully tested in 1837, by the production of more than a million 
bushels of wheat, besides vast quantities of rye and corn. 

The natural productions in the state, already known to exist in ex- 
haustless quantities, are pine and hemlock timber; granite, slate, lime, 
iron, and all the materials in the composition of glass. Of tbe first 
report of the learned and indefatigable Dr. Jackson, on the geolpgjif 
Maine, the celebrated professor Silliman thus speaks : . ' ' 

" Maine is a country chiefly of primary rocks, with a large diviaioA 
of those of transition, and towards New Brunswick it has an important 
region of the lower secondary. Every where it has alluvial and diluvial 
deposits, and vast igneous formations, not only in the interior, but form* 


ing a barrier against the ocean surge along a considerable part of an iiii« 
mense sea coast, indented as it is by bays and estuaries almost beyond 
example. Among tlie mineral formations of Maine, are granite, gneiss, 
mica and talcose, and other slates, including roofing slate and alum 
slate ; also, soapstone, limestone and marble, sandstones and brecciated 
rocks of many varieties; jasper, including the beautiful greenstone, 
trap and its varieties, and porphyry. The trap dykes are numerous and 
exceedingly distinct : They cut through most of the other rocks, and pro- 
duce upon them^ most distinctly, those peculiar effects, which to a de- 
monstration prove their igneous origin. Scientific geology is greatly 
indebted to this survey for some of the most lucid and convincing facts 
on this head ; while the diluvial deposits, the boulders and ruins, the dilu- 
vial furrows in the rocks, the sea shells now adhering to and inherent in 
rocks which once formed the sea coast, although elevated twenty-six 
feet above the sea board, a salt spring at Lubec, and many other topics 
equally illustrate other parts of scientific geology. 

Dr. Jackson is entirely master of his subject, as well as of the kindred 
sciences of mineralogy and chemistry, and his report is remarkable for 
its lucid clearness and its attractive style." 

The sea coast of Maine, extending more than 230 miles, indented by 
an almost countless number of bays, harbors and islands of romantic beau- 
ty, presents facilities for navigation unrivalled by aay portion of the globe. 
The great rivers, St. Croix, Penobscot, Kennebec, Androscoggin, and 
SaiMS with their numerous tributaries piercing the interior, give to the 
farmer aad mechanic a cheap and easy mode of transportation. These 
rivers, and thousands of ponds and other streams, dispersed throughout 
the state, afford a water power of vast extent and usefulness. 

The celebrated John Smith made an unsuccessful attempt to settle 
this part of the country as early as 1614. The first permanent lodgment 
of the whites in the state was made from the Plymouth colony, at York, 
in 1680. 

The first settlers of Maine were a race of men of good minds, stout 
hearts and strong arms. By them and their sons the stately forests were 
converted into an article of commerce, of immense value ; thus prepar- 
ing the soil for its ultimate staples, whkat, beef, and wool. See 


Maiden, Mass. 

Middlesex co. A bridge over 
Mystic river, 2,420 feet in length, 
connects this town with Charles- 
town. It lies 5 miles N. from Bos- 
ton, and 16 £. by S. from Concord. 
First settled, 1648. Incorporated, 
1649. Population, 1830, 2,010; 
1837, 2,303. It contains a large 
tract of salt meadow, and considcr- 
^h\e timber. The uplands are 
rough and uneven. The manufac- 
tures of Maiden consist of leather, 
boots, shoes, block tin, tin ware, 
twine, lasts, and manufactures of 
iron and dye-wood : total amount, 
the year ending April 1, 1837, 

Mancl&ester, N. II., 

Hillsborough co., lies on the east 
side of Merrimack river, by which 
it is bounded on the W. for 8 miles ; 
on the N. and E. it is bounded by 
Chester, S. by Londonderry and 
Litchfield. There are several 
streams which have their origin in 
this town, and which discharge 
themselves into the Merrimack. — 
Cohass brook, issuing from Massa- 
besick pond, is the largest. It re- 
ceives two other small streams from 
the S., and empties itself at the S. 
W; angle of the town. Massabe- 
sjck is a large pond, at the £. side 
of the town, and partly within its 
limits. There are several smaller 

The soil of a considerable part of 
the town is light and sandy. The 
intervales on the river are easy of 
cultivation, and productive. 

The canal by Amoskeag falls is 
in this town, and was projected and 
constructed by the ingenuity and 
perseverance of the late Samuel 
Blodget, Esq. At these falls are the 
works of the Amoskeag Manufac- 
turing Company, where the founda- 
tions of another Lowell are being 
laid. The water power is im- 

This town was formed of a part 

of Londonderry, a part of Chester, 
and a tract of land called Harry- 
town, and incorporated Sept. 3, 
1751, by the name of Derryfield,. 
This name it retained until 1810, 
when it was changed to Manches- 
ter, by an act of the legislature. 

The venerable general John 
Stark had his residence in this 
town, where he died May 8, 1822, 
at the great age of 93 years 8 months 
and 24 days. He was born at 
Londonderry, August 28, 1728; 
was taken prisoner by the Indians, 
while hunting near Baker's river, 
in Rumney, April 28, 1752. In 
1775, he was appointed a oolonel of 
one of the three regiments raised 
in New Hampshire ; was engaged 
on the heights of Charlestown, June 
17, 1775 ; was at the battle of Tren- 
ton, in 1776 ; captured Col. Baum 
and 1,000 of the British at Benning- 
ton, August 16, 1777. This event, 
in the language of president Jeffer- 
son, was " the first link in the chain 
of successes which issued in the 
surrender of Saratoga." He was 
soon after appointed a brigadier- 
general of the United States army, 
and, at the time of his death, was 
the only surviving American gen- 
eral officer of the revolution. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 887. 

Manel&efltery Vt. 

Bennington co. One of the 
county towns. Situated between 
the Green mountains on the E.,and 
Equinox mountain on the W. The 
latter is 3,706 feet above the sea. 
There are two neat villages in this 
valley; the county buildings are 
in the south village. The scene- 
ry here is very beautiful. The 
town is watered by the BattenUll 
and its branches, and afibcdi good 
mill sites. The soil ftlong flto Wft* 
ter courses is good, but tlMB princi- 
pal part of the town is better fir 
grazing than tillage. Here tre 
large quarries of beautiful marble^ 
some manufactures, a curious caT- 
em, and about 0»OOO sheep. 


ehester lies 32'milea N. by E. from 
Seaoiagtoii, and about 40 W. from 
Bellom Falls, across the moun- 
tains. Flnt seltled, 1764. Popu- 
latioD, ISaO, l,fi2S. 

Miuk«lie*t*r, nsM. 

Essex CO. This is a flourishing 
fishing town on Maraachusetts bay, 
2ti miles N. E. from Boston, nnd 9 
8. \r. from Gloucester. It was 
taken from Salem in 1649. Popu- 
lation, 1S3T, 1,316. There are a 
number of vessels beloneing la (he 
tonn employed in the hshing and 
coasting husinesa. The value of 
the fishorj, the year ending April 
l.ia3T.BmonntedIo$i2,800. The 
value of the articles manufnctur- 
•d naa $96,473. Those aHicles 
consisted of vessels, boots, shoes, 
leather, chain, cabinet ware, palm- 
leaf hats, and ships' wheels. The 
village Is very pleasant, and com- 
mands fine prospects. Although 
Manchester is a rocky, rough 
township, It can boast a rare native 
production in this climate, — the 
magooliai ■ beautiful Sowerirg 

it«, Ot. 

Hartford CO. An Important m 
afactutiag town on the Hockani 
a valuable mill stream, 10 miles 
from Hartford. The first col 

mill ii 

this SI 

There are three pleasant 
villages, uxor seven paper mills, 
two powder mills, woolen sod other 
manufactures. The face of the 
town is uneven, but (he soil, a sandy 
and gravelly loam, is quite produc- 
Uve. It was called Orford.a par- 
iah in East Hart fan], until its incor- 
poration. In 1S23. Population, 
ISM, l^TJB. 

This bland lies off Muacongus 

bay, Lincoln county. There is a 

light-house OQ it, (he tower of which 

l« SO lect high. It bears S. from 



Lamoille co. There is some 
good land in this tonn, on Brown'i 
river and the branches of Water- 
bury river, but in general it is too 
mountainous even tor grazing. It 
lies 20 miles N. W. from Montpe- 
2U £. by N. from Burlington, 
and 13 S. W. from Hyde Park.— 
Population, ISitO, 279. First sg(- 
(led, 1799. 

Matufield Moimtain$ extend 
through the (own of Mansfield from 
N.toS. They belong to the Groen 
mountain range, and the noie and 
chin, BO called, from their resem- 
blance to the face of a man lying 
on his back, exhibits some of (he 
lila in the state. The 


Bristol CO. This (own lies 26 
miles S. a. W. from Boston, IB N. 
and 11 N. N. 

. froi 

It * 

from Norton in IJJO, and is watered 
by several branches of Taunton riv- 
er. The soil is (bin and the sur^ 
face level. Population, 1837, 1,444. 
There are 6 cotton and 1 wodten 
mills in the (own, and 2 nail ^ac^■ 
nes. The manufactures consist dL 
cotton and woolen goods, nailt,V 
straw bonnets, palm-leaf hats, and \ 
baskets: total annual amount, aboat \ 

A mine of anthracite coal was 
discovered in this town a few year* 
since, near the Boston and Provi- 
dence rail road, which promises t* 
be of inestimable value to (ho com- 
munity. It was discovered in dig- 
ging a well. An incorporated com- 
pany has purchased the right of 


. They sunk a shaft whict 

at the depth of 20 feet, running N. ' 



E. and S.W., and dipping to the N. 
W. 52°. The shaft was continued 
44 feet further, to another vein, 
which exceeded 5 feet in thickness, 
and which afforded coal of a better 
quality than that found above. — 
Subsequent operations have shown 
that the veins are numerous, and 
the quantity inexhaustible. The 
coal is of an excellent quality, more 
easily broken than the Pennsylvani- 
an, and has less polish on its surface. 

Mansfield, Ct. 

Tolland co. Mansfield, the In- 
dian JSTawbesetuckf was taken from 
Windham in 1703. It lies 27 miles 
E. from Hartford, 12 S. E. from Tol- 
land, and 19 N. N. W. from Nor- 
wich. Population, 1830, 2,661.— 
The face of the town is uneven, and 
some of the hills have considerable 
elevation. The town is watered by 
Williraantic river, and the Nat- 
chaug and its tributaries — Mount 
Hope and Fenton. 

A larger quantity of silk is man- 
ufactured here than in any other 
place in the United States. This 
branch of industry was introduced 
into the country by Dr. Aspinwall, 
of this place, above seventy years 
since, who established the raising 
of silk worms in New Haven, Long 
Island and Philadelphia. At this pe- 
riod half an ounce of mulberry seed 
was sent to every parish in Con- 
necticut, and the legislature for a 
time oiTercd a bounty on mulberry 
trees and raw silk : 265 lbs. were 
raised in 1793, and the quantity has 
been increasing ever since. In 
1830, 3,200 lbs. were raised. Two 
small silk factories have been es- 
tablished in this town by an English 
manufacturer, with swifts for wind- 
ing hard silk ; 32 spindles for doub- 
ling ; seven dozens of spindles for 
throwing ; 32 spindles for soft silk 
winding ; and 2 bread and one fringe 
silk looms. There is machinery 
enough to keep 30 broad silk looms 
and fifty hands in operation. There 

are in the town two cotton factories. 
Screw augers and steelyards are 
manufactured here. 

BlarMeUeady Mass. 

Essex CO. This is a noted fishing 
town, on a rocky point of land ex- 
tending into Massachusetts bay, 
with a hardy and intrepid crew of 
fishermen and sailors. The harbor 
is commodious and easy of access. 
The quantity of fish exported from 
this place in 1794 amounted to 
$184,532. Since that time the fish- 
ing business has greatly increased, 
and this place has now become one 
of the largest fishing ports on the 
American coast. There belong to 
this place from 90 to 100 sail of 
fishing, coasting aiid merchant ves- 
sels. Tonnage of the district, in 
1837, 10,037. First settled, 1631. 
Incorporated, 1649. Population, 
1837, 5,549. It lies 14 miles N. E. 
from Boston, and 4 S. £. from Sa- 
lem. The value of the cod and 
mackerel fishery the year ending 
April 1, 1837, was $153,487; em- 
ploying 500 hands. The manufac- 
tures of Marblchead, the same 
year, amounted to $398,565. The 
articles manufactured consisted of 
boots, shoes; bar iron, chairs,^ cabi- 
net and tin wares, vessels, soap, 
glue, cards and wheels. This is a 
romantic place ; nearly allied to its 
neighbor, Nahant; — only 6 miles 
across the bay. 

Marg^allaiv^ay River, N, H., 

Has its source among the high- 
lands which separate Maine from 
Lower Canada, in the N. E. ex- 
tremity of New Hampshire, about 
30 miles N. from Errol. After a S. 
course of nearly 20 miles on the 
western border of Maine, it enters 
New Hampshire at the S. E. part 
of the 2d grant to Dartmouth col- 
lege, where it forms a junctioQ with 
the united streams of Dead and 
Diamond rivers. Thence, after a 8. 
course of about 6 miles to Errol, it 


'^eceires the waters of Umbagog 
lake. After this junction the main 
stream is the Androscoggin river. 

jUariavllley Me* 

Hancock co. This is a townsnip 
of good land, finely located on the 
E. side of Union river, 8 miles N. by 
E. from Ellsworth, and 89 E. N. E. 
from Augusta. This town has an 
extensive water power and many 
saw mills. It was incorporated in 
1836. Population, 1837, 257. 

Marlon, Me. 

Washington co. This township 
is bounded E. by Edmonds, and S. 
by Whiting. Population, 245.— 
Incorporated, 1834. See " Down 

Marlborong^hy N. If., 

Cheshire co., is bounded N. by 
Roxbury, E. by Dublin and Jaffrey, 
S. by Troy, W. by Swanzey and 
part of Keene. It is 6 miles S. E. 
from Keene, and 55 S. W. from 
Concord. There are several ponds 
which are the sources of some of 
the branches of Ashuelot river. — 
The soil is rocky, but good for graz- 
ing. Marlborough was granted, 
1751. The first settlement com- 
menced about 1760. Incorporated 
Dec. 13, 1776. Population, in 1830, 

Marlborougl&y Vt. 

Windham co. First settled, 1763. 
It lies 8 miles S. from Newfane, 
and 24 E. from Bennington. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,218. Mrs. Whitte- 
more, the wife of one of the first 
settlers, spent the winter of 1764-5 
in this then wilderness, alone, her 
husband being absent in the pursuit 
of his calling, as a tinker. During 
tbui. winter Me saw no human be- 
ing, except her little daughter and 
some lutnters who happened acci- 
dentally to pass that way. She cut 
down, amber and furnished browse 
for their cattle, and thus kept them 
ohre through the winter. Mrs. W. 

was very useful to the settlers, both 
as a nurse and a midwife. She pos- 
sessed a vigorous constitution, and 
frequently travelled through the 
woods upon snow shoes from one 
part of the town to another, both))y 
night and day, to relieve the dis- 
tressed. She lived to the age of 87 
years, officiated as midwife at more ^ 
than 2,000 births, and never lost a 

T^he town is well watered by the 
W. branch of West river. Whet- 
stone brook, and Green river. It 
has a good soil, and is very produc- 
tive in wheat, rye, and other grain, 
fruit and potatoes. Here is a pleas- 
ant village, several fine trout ponds, 
various kinds of minerals and me- 
dicinal springs. Marlborough suf- 
fered some by the Indians, and did 
much for the cause of independ- 

Marlborong^b, Mass. 

Middlesex co. This is a large ' 
farming town, with a soil of great 
fertility and undulating surface. — 
The inhabitants are principally de- 
voted to agricultural pursuits, and 
by their industry and skill, have ac- 
quired a great degree of independ- 
ence. Among the productions of 
the town, are fat cattle, pork, fruit, 
and all the varieties of the dairy ; a 
large amount of which is annually 
sent to Boston market. A branch 
of Concord river, and a number of 
beautiful ponds, water the town. — 
The manufactures consist of boots, 
shoes, straw bonnets, leather, chairs 
and cabinet ware : annual amount, 
about $75,000. Marlborough, the 
Indian Okamakamesit, was first 
settled in 1654. It was taken from 
Sudbury in 1660 ; it suffered much 
during the Indian wars, and was 
for many years the residence of a 
number of Indians who had em- 
braced the christian religion. The 
villages are very pleasant : the 
richness of the soil, and surround- 
ing scenery ; its excellent roads and 
convenient access to Boston by the 


rail roftd, renders Marlborough a 
desirable residence. It is 2S milef 
W. from Boston, 14 S. W. from Con- 
cord, and 16 E. from Worcester. — 
Population, 1837, 2,089. 

Marlborong^li Ct« 

Hartford co. Marlborough was 
taken from three towns which be- 
longed to three different counties, 
in 1803. It lies 14 miles S. E. 
from Hartford. The surface of the 
town is hilly and stony, and the 
lands best adapted for grazing. It 
has a cotton factory, a bed of black 
lead, and a good fish pond. Dark 
holloxVy in the western part of the 
town, presents some wild scenery 
of more terror than beauty. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 704, 

MarlOMT, N* H. 

Cheshire co. It is 15 miles N. 
from Keene, and 45 W. by S. from 
Concord. Ashuelot river passes 
through almost the whole length of 
the town. There are no ponds of 
note, nor any mountains. Marlow 
was chartered, 1761. Population, 
1830, 645. 

MarsUfleld, Vt. 

Washington co. This town, con- 
taining 23,040 acres, was granted 
to the Stockbridge Indians in 1782, 
and sold by them to Isaac Marsh, 
in 1789, for £140. A part of the 
soil is good and a part wet and stony. 
The town produces considerable 
wool, and some cattle are reared 
for market. It has a pleasant pond, 
and Onion river passes through it. 
It lies 12 miles N. E. from Mont- 
pelier. First settled, 1790. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 1,271. 

MarslLfield, Mass. 

Plymouth co. A pleasant town 
on Massachusetts bay, 25 miles S. 
E. from Boston, and 16 N. by W. 
from Plymouth. It is watered by 
North and South rivers, has a toler- 
able harbor, and some navigation. 
Ship building is an important branch 

of business in the town. Here are 
two cotton mills, an air and cupola 
furnace, a nail factory, and manu- 
facturei of cotton and satinet warp. 
Peregrine White, the first Eng- 
lish chud born in New England, 
died here in 1704, age^83. Incor- 
porated, 1640. Population, 1837, 

JUara HUl, Me* 

This celebrated mountain is situ- 
ated about a mile west from the east 
boundary of the United States ; — 
200 miles N. N. E. from Augusta, 
and 80 N. W. from Frederickton, 
New Brunswick. 

The British Queen seems desir- 
ous of annexing this portion of the 
territory of the United States to 
her wide and fair possessions. This 
notion of the pretty maiden -i» alto- 
gether preposterous : when she ha^ 
maturely considered the treaty made 
by her grandfather and the United 
States, at Paris, in 1783, we trust 
her good sense will deter her from 
urging the claim. 

The approach to this mountain is 
difficult : its sides are rugged, and 
its summit bold. It has two spurs; 
one of which is 1,506, the other 
1,363 feet above the waters of 
Goosequill river, in New Bruns- 

Marslipee, Mass. 

Barnstable co. An ancient In- 
dian territory, and an incorporated 
district of 10,500 acres, or about 16 
square miles. It lies 12 miles S. 
E. from Barnstable, 8 S. S. E. from 
Sandwich, and 8 E. from Falmouth. 
It is bounded on the S. by the ocean. 
There are 350 colored inhabitants 
on this territory, and some whites. 
There now remain only seven in- 
habitants, of pure blood of the fadi- 
ers of the forest. Their laud is 
good for grain of all sorts, and is 
well wooded. The territory is pleas- 
ant, and some parts of it afford beau- 
tiful scenery. The Marshpee and 
Quashmct ai*e considerable streamat 


which, with numerous ponds and 
the ocean, afford an abundant sup- 
ply of fish of various kinds. These 
people live by agricultural pursuits, 
the manufacture of various articles 
of Indian ware, by the sale of their 
wood, and by fishing, fowling, and 
taking deer. They are docile and 
hospitable; they appear to relish 
moral and religious instruction ; and, 
under the superintendence of a hu- 
mane and intelligent commissioner, 
appointed by the state, they are 
prosperous and happy. This is the 
largest remnant of all the tribes of 
red men west of Penobscot river, 
who, 218 years ago, were fee sim- 
ple proprietors of the whole terri- 
tory of New EIngland ! 

Martha's Vineyard^ Mats. 

The principal of a cluster of isl- 
ands lying off and S. of Barnstable 
county and Buzzard's bay, compris- 
ing the towns of Edgarton, Tisbu- 
ry and Chilmark. See Dukes 

Mason, 1'^. H. 

Hillsborough co. It is 15 miles 
8. W. froia Amherst, 43 S. S. W. 

from Concord, and 50 N. W. from 
Boston. The surface is uneven; 
the hills are chiefly large swells, 
with narrow valleys between them. 
The streams are rapid. There are 
no natural ponds. The principal 
meadows were formerly beaver 
ponds. Souhegan is the principal 
stream, affording many fine mill 
seats. The small streams run into 
Nashua river, and into Tanapus, or 
Potanipo pond, in Brookline. The 
soil in the £. part is rather light. 
The W. part is mostly a strong deep 
soil, red or dark loam, but stony. 
It is good for grass and grain. In 
Mason village, on the Souhegan, 
are cotton and woolen manufacto- 
ries, and other machinery. Mason 
was granted by charter, Aug. 26, 
1768. It was formerly known by 
the name of JVo. 1. The first ef- 
fort to settle this place was in 1751, 
and the next year a permanent set- 
tlement was made by Enoch Law- 
rence, from Pepperell, Mass. Pop- 
ulation, in 1830, 1,433. 

Massabesick Pond, N. II. 

See Chester, 



Tli[> BDcient eaTnmoimeBUh, (he mother of New Englaod caloniet, of 
free states, and of Americaa liberty, waa first permanenUf settled by 
Europeans, at Plymouth, on the 22d of December, 1620. 

The history of Ihia stale is deeply interesting; it is intertroi'ei) wiOl 
every political aod moral event of important occurrence in the settle, 
menl and progress of fho whole of North America, which preceded Of 
waa connected with the revolution of 1775. 

The name of this state probably arose from the name of a tribe of ta- 
diaos formerly at Barnstable ; or from two Indian words — Vo» and W<- 
ititet ; the former signifying an Indian arrow'i head, (he latter, Hitt, 
It Is stated lha( the Sachem who governed in (his region about the time 
of the landing of our forefathers, lived Qn a bill in the form of an Indian 
arrow's head, a few miles south of Boston, and was called by tbe Indiuu 
— Masfeeivtet, 

Massachusetts is bounded east, southeast, and south by the Atlantic 
ocean. It has, exclusive of tbe island counties of Dukes and Nantudl- 
et, a sea-coast of about 290 miles. It is bounded south and west by tiw 
■tateof Rhode Island, about es miles; south by the state of ConnecUent, 
8T mites ; west by the state of New York, 50 miles ; north by (he sUb ol 
Vermont, 42 miles ; and north by the state of New Hampshire, 87 milel. 
It lies between 41= 31', and 42° 63' N. laf., and 63" 4S'. and TS" IT W. Ion. 
from Greenwich. Its area is about 1,800 square miles, er 4,992,000 acre*. 


The state comprises 14 counties, to wit : Barnstable, Berkshire, Bris- 
tol, Dukes, Essex, Franklin, Hampden,'Hampshire, Middlesex, Norfolk, 
Nantucket, Plymouth, Suflfolk, and Worcester. 

The legislative power of this State is vested in a Senate and House of 
Representatives. The Senate consists of 40 members, and are chosen 
by districts. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor, Lieutenant Governor, 
and a Council of 9 members. The Council is elected b y the joint ballot 
of the Senators and Representatives, from tbe Senators ; and in case tbe 
Council thus elected or any of them decline, the deficiency is supplied 
from among the people. 

By the Constitution as amended in 1837, each town or city, having 300 
ratable polls, at the last preceding decennial census of polls, may elect 
one representative ; and for every 450 ratable polls, in addition to the 
first 300, one representative more. 

Any town having less than 300 ratable polls, shall be represented 
thus : — The whole number of ratable polls, at the last preceding valua- 
tion census of polls, shall be multiplied by 10, and the product divided by 
300, and such town may elect one representative, as many years within 
ten years, as 300 is contained in the product aforesaid. 

Any city or town, having ratable polls enough to elect one or more 
representatives, with any number of polls beyond the necessary number, 
may be represented as to that surplus number, by multiplying such sur- 
plus number by 10, and dividing the product by 450; and such city or 
town may elect one additional representative, as many years within the 
ten years, as 450 is contained in the product aforesaid. 


J^umber of Representatives to which each town is entitled f or 10 y ears f 
from 1837, according to the Constitution, as amended in 1837. 

The column in the following table marked tenths, shows how many jrears in 10 
the respective towns are entitled to an additional Representative. 

































































G. Barrington, 


















The Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Senators, and Representattves, 
are chosen annually by the people, on the 2d Monday of November, and 
meet at Boston on the 1st Wednesday of January. 

The Judiciary power is vested in a Supreme Court, a Court of Com- 
mon Pleas, and such other courts as the Legislature may, from time to 
time, establish. The Judges are appointed by the Governor and Coun- 
cil, and hold their offices during good behavior. 

Succession of Governors* 

John Hancock, 1780—1784. James Bowdoin, 1785, 1786. John 
Hancock, 1787 — 1793. Samuel Adams, 1794 — 1796. Increase Sumner, 
1797—1799. Caleb Strong, 1800, 1806. James Sullivan, 1807, 1808. 
Christopher Gore, 1809. Elbridge Gerry, 1810, 181 1. Caleb Strong, 
1812—1815. John Brooks, 1816—1822. William Eustis, 1823, 1824; 
Levi Lincoln, 1825—1833. John Davis, 1834, 1835. Edward Everett, 

Succession of Chief Justices of the Supreme Judicial Coort* 

William Gushing, 1776—1789. Nathaniel Peaslee Sargent, 1789— 
1791. Francis Dana, 1791—1806. Theophilus Parsons, 1806—1814. 
Samuel Sewall, 1814. Isaac Parker, 1814 — 1830. Lemuel Shaw, 

The foundation of a school fund was laid by legislative enactment, in 
1834, by appropriating " all moneys remaining in the treasury on the 1st 
day of January, 1835, arising from the sale of public lands, and from pay- 
ments made to this commonwealth by the United States, on account of the 
claim for military services and disbursements during the late war, to- 
gether with one half of all future proceeds of the sales of public lands, 
as a permanent fund for the encouragement and support of common 
schools, which fund is never to exceed one million of dollars.** 

A trigonometrical and astronomical survey of the state, by order of the 
general court, for the purpose of a new map, was commenced in 1830, 
and will soon be completed. Surveys of the mineralogy, botany, zoolo- 
gy, and agriculture of the state have been commenced ; some favorable 
reports have been made, and the researches of scientific men are con- 
tinued, and promise great public usefulness. 

The surface of the state is generally undulating. The most level 
parts are found in the counties of Plymouth, Barnstable, and BristoL 
The Green and Taughkannic ranges of mountains pass through the west- 
ern counties, but in few places are they remarkable for their elevation. 

The soil of the state is well adapted to the growth of all the grasses, 
grains, fruits and vegetables common to a temperate climate. In no part 


of our country is agriculture more honored, or better understood and re- 

The resources of Massachusetts in its commerce, navigation, manufac- 
tures and fisheries are immense : they are stated under the counties and 
towns, and will be given summarily, with other statistics of New Eng- 
land, in the Register, 

Although Massachusetts cannot boast of her navigable rivers and ca- 
nals, to facilitate the commerce of her capital ; yet she can boast of the 
most beautiful bay on the map of the western world ; of her noble 
streams for water power; of her luxuriant vales, of her granite hills, of 
her ships, and the material for building them ; and of her gallant sailors 
who traverse every sea, and who well understand the uses of the hook, 
harpoon and cannon. 

Mas— clmsetti Bay. 

The whole of this bay is within 
the limits of Massachusetts. The 
exterior bounds of this celebrated 
bay are Capes Cod and Ann. The 
former is in N. lat. 42° 6', and W. 
long. 70° T, The latter in N. lat 
42<» 45', and W. Ion. 70o 17'. Cape 
Ann bears from Cape Cod, N. N. 
W., about 40 miles. 

The lensth of this bay is about 
G2 miles, fiom. N. W. to S. E. : its 
breadth is about 25 miles. Numer- 
ous bays and rivers of various sizes 
set in from this bay, and its whole 
coast is lined with commodious 
harbors, and pleasant commercial 

This bay is noted for its delight- 
ful scenery, and as containing the 
first settlements of the Pilgrim 
Fathers of New England. 

Mata'vraiiaJceaif Rlvery Me. 

This is one of the most important 
tributaries to the Penobscot. It 
unites with that river at the Indian 
township from the E., about 60 miles 
N. hy £. above Bangor. 

Jnatawamkeag Plantation^ on 
HMm river, lies 128 miles N. E. from 

MaUnlcns Islands, Me. 

A duster of islands at the en- 

trance of Penobscot bay. The 
principal, or Marshall's island, is a 
plantation attached to the county of 
Hancock. The light on Matinicus 
bears about S. by £. from Thomas- 
ton, 15 miles. 

Mazflelcly Me. 

Penobscot co. This town was 
incorporated in 1824. It is water- 
ed by Piscataquis river and Seboois 
stream. It lies 111 miles N. N. W. 
from Augusta, and 25 E. by N. 
from Dover. Population, 1837, 215. 
Wheat crop, same year, 1,804 bush- 

Mayileldy Me. 

Somerset co. On the E. side of 
Kennebec river and about 10 miles 
from it. It is 58 miles N. from 
Augusta, and about 29 N. by E. 
from Norridgewock. Incorporated, 

1836. Population, 1837, 224. 

Medileldy Mass. 

Norfolk CO. This town is water- 
ed by Charles and Stop rivers. It 
is 17 miles S. S. W. from Boston, 
and 8 S. by W. from Dedham. 

During the year ending April 1, 

1837, there were manufactured at 
Medfield, 124,000 straw bonnets, 
the value of which was $135,000. 
There are also manufactures of 


bootiy shoes, leather, cutlery, and 
brushes. Medfield was taken from 
Dodham. in 1661. 

During king Philip's war, in 
1766, the town was hum't, and ma- 
ny of the inhahitants murdered hy 
the Narragansets. Philip rode on 
an elegant horse, and directed the 
massacre. Population, 1887, 899. 

Medfordy Blass. 

Middlesex eo. This beautiful 
town is situated at the head of nav*; 
igation on Mystic river, 6 miles N. 
W. from Boston, and 14 S. from 
Concord. The Boston and Lowell 
rail-road, and Middlesex canal pass 
throuffh the town. The finest ^ips 
that float on jUie ocean, are built 
here : during the five years preced- 
ing April 1, 1887» MXty vessels 
were built, the tonnage of which 
was 24,196 tons: value $1,112,970. 
There are also manufactures of 
leather, spirits, linseed oil, bricks, 
boots, shoes, pIoUEhs, hats and hat 
bodies. The soU of the town it 
very fertile, and in a high stat^, o^ 
cultivation. The business of the 
town is much associated with .th^ 
city, and many delightful country 
seats are scattered over and deco- 
rate the grounds improved as a farm 
by Governor Winthrop in 1638. 

Winter Hill, memorable as the 
place of encampment of Greneral 
3urgoy9e and bis arm^, after their 
capture at Saratoga, is in tbis town. 
It is 126 feet above tide water, and 
presents a view of great extent and 
beauty. Medford was incorporf^ 
in 1680. Population, 1830, 1,766 ; 
1887, 2,072. 

In the old burying ground, a beau- 
tiful granite monument is erected, 
bearing the following inscription : 

Sacred to the memoir of 
Wh6wBS bora in Medford, in the 
month of Mav, 1769^d educated at 
the Town ScnooL lie took up aims 
for his country on the 19th April, 
1776. He .commanded the regiment 
iriUdi'int entered the enemy's lines 

at Saratoga, and served with honor to 
the close of the war. He was ap- 
pointed Marshal of the District of 
Massachusetts by President Washing- 
ton, and after filling several important 
civil and military offices^ he was in the 
year 1816, chosen Governor of the 
Commonwealth; and discharged the 
duties of Uiat station for seven sue 

fessive years, to eeneral acceptance 
le was a kind and skilfhl physician, a 
brave and prudent officer, a wise, firm, 
and impartial magistrate, a true patri- 
ot, a good citizen, and a faithfhl fnend. 
In manners he was a gentleman, in 
morals pure, and in profession and 

Sractice a consistant Christian, l^e 
eparted this life in peace "en the first of 
March. 1825, aged 73. This monu- 
ment to his honored memory was 
erected bv several of his fellow citi- 
xens and mends in the year 1838. 

Kedwayy BDUMk 

Norfolk CO. Medway waa taken 
from iy[edfield, in 1718. Charles 
river afibrds this town an excellent 
water power. There are 6 cotton. 
And 2 woolen mills In the town, 2 
cotton wadding factories, and a bell 
foundry. The manu&ctures of cot- 
ton and woolen goods, boots, shoes, 
scythes, chairs, cabinet ware, 
ploughs, cotton wadding, and straw 
bonnets, the year ending April 1, 
1887, amounted to $830,680. Pop- 
ulation, 1887, 2,060. Medway lies 
.22,miles S. W. from Boston, and 12 
S. W. from Dedham. 

Megwntleoolc River «iid Pond* 

This river rises in a pond of libe 
same name, in Lincolnville, Waldo 
county. The pond is about 9 miles 
in length, crooked and very hand- 
some. It afibrds an excellent mill 
stream, which falls into Penobscot 
bay. at Camden. 

This lake is about 80 miles in 
length, and two or three mUes III 
width. About seven miles of it lies 
in the county of Orleans, the resi- 
due in Canada. It receives the wa- 
ters of Barton, Black, Clyde and 
other smaller streams in Yermontf 


and discharges into the St. Francis, 
in Canada. On an island in this 
lake is a quarry of JVovaetUite, or 
the " Magog Oil Stone." This ma- 
terial is transported and manufac- 
tured. See Burke, Vt. 

Menan IslancU* 

Grand Menan belongs to the 
British, and lies off the mouth of 
St. Croix river, and Passamaquoddy 
bay. It is 16 miles in length, and 
its average breadth is about 5. On 
the south side are a number of isl- 
ands, and several small harbors. 
The inhabitants are principally fish- 

Little Menan, or "Petit Menan," 
in Washington county. Me. lies off 
the harbors of Goldsborough and 
Steuben. It has a light house, with 
a tower 25 feet in height. It lies 
about 3 miles S. S. £. irom Golds- 
borough harbor. 

Blendony Vt* 

Rutland co. This was formerly 
called Parker8town,and lies 47 miles 
S. S. W. from Montpelier, and S £. 
from Rutland. There is some good 
land in the town, but it is generally 
too high up the Green mountains for 
cultivation. Population, 1830, 432. 

Mendony Mauis* 

Worcester co. The Indian name 
of this town was Q^anshipauge. 
It was first settled by people from 
Roxbury, about the year 1647. In- 
corporated, 1667. Mendon is a 
township of variegated surface, ex- 
cellent soil, and in a good state of 
cultivation. The products of the 
dairy are large and valuable. — 
Blackstone river and canal pass its 
southwestern border, and Mill river 
traverses its whole extent. These 
streams afford an excellent hydrau- 
lic power. There are 8 cotton and 
4 woolen mills in the town, and 
manufactures of boots, shoes, iron 
castings, scythes, ploughs, straw 
bonnets, palm-leaf hats, machinery, 
wagons and harnesses ; total value, 

I the year ending April 1, 1837, — 
[ |629,282. This very pleasant and 
nourishing town lies 32 miles S. W. 
from Boston, 18 S. £. from Worces- 
ter, and 22 N. from Providence. 
Population,1830, 3,153; 1837,3,657. 

Mereer, Sle* 

Somerset co. Mercer has a fine 
soil, and is watered by a beautiful 
pond. It lies 32 miles N. N. W. 
from Augusta, and 6 S. W. from 
Norridgewock. Incorporated, 1804. 
The village near the pond is beau 
tifully located. Wheat crop, 1837, 
6,868 bushels. Population, same 
year, 1,525. 

Mereditby If. H., 

Straflbrd co., is bounded N. by 
Centre Harbor and Winnepisiogee 
lake, N. £. and £. by said lake and 
river, S. E. by Great bay, S. and S. 
W. by Sanbornton, W. and N. W. by 
New Hampton and Centre Harbor. 
This town was incorporated, in 
1767, and was first called Jfew Sa" 
lent. It lies 29 miles N. from Con- 
cord, and 8 N. W. from Gilford. 
There is in this town a pond adjoin- 
ing Centre Harbor, about 2 miles 
long and one wide, emptying into 
the lake, near the village; be- 
sides this there are several smaller 
ponds. There is probably no town 
in the country more pleasantly and 
advantageously situated, or of a bet- 
ter soil, than Meredith. The wa- 
ters of the Winnepisiogee washing 
the boundaries of a great part of the 
town, convey many heavy mercan- 
tile articles to and from almost the 
doors of several of the inhabitants 
in the summer ; and in the winter, 
the ice serves as a level and easy 
road. Near the upper or N. W. 
part of the town, the traveler pass- 
ing along the road, is presented 
with a very beautiful landscape. On 
the E. and S. £. the placid Winne- 
pisiogee, the largest lake in New 
Hampshire, with its numerous isl- 
ands, arrests the eye, and bounds 
the circle of vision in a S. £. di- 


rection. On the N. E., Ossipee 
mountain rises boldly to view. On 
tlie N., the prospect is intercepted 
by Red Hill, a pleasant and noted 
eminence in Moultonborough, only 
a few miles distant. At Meredith 
Bridge is a handsome and flourish- 
ing village, and the seat of much 
business. Here are 2 cotton mills, 
an extensive tannery, oil mill, &c., 
in another village are also some im- 
portant manufactures. The water 
power of Meredith is immense. 
It is connected with the principal 
village of Gilford by a bridge over 
the Winnepisiogee. 

Hon. Ebenezer Smith, moved 
into this town at an early period of 
its settlement, and was as a father t6 
the new settlei's for many years. 
He died Aug. 22, 1807, aged 73. 
Population, in 1830, 2,682. 

Merldeny Ct. 

New Haven co. This hilly and 
somewhat mountainous township 
has, in general, a fertile soil, and is 
watered by Quinnepiac river. It 
lies 17 miles S. E. from Hartford, 
and 17 N. W. from New Haven. 
It was formerly a part of Walling- 
ford, and incorporated in 1806. — 
Population, 1830, 1,708. 

This is one of the most flourish- 
ing and enterprising manufacturing 
towns in the state. There is a con- 
siderable variety, of manufactures 
here, forming the chief employment 
of the inhabitants. The following 
is a list of the manufactories, viz : 

2 for patent augers and auger bits, 

3 for ivory combs, 6 for tin ware, 4 
for Britannia ware, 2 iron foundries, 
1 manufactory for coffee mills, 1 for 
clocks, 1 for Norfolk door latches, 3 
for block tin spoons, 1 for wood 
combs, 1 for skates and iron rakes, 
and 1 for gridirons. The value 
of articles manufactured yearly, has 
been estimated from 800,000 to 
1,000,000 of dollars. 

About thirty years since a road 
was constructed from the noKh- 
western part of Meriden to Berlin, 

through a narrow and romantic 
glen, between two ridges of the 
Blue mountains; this pass, which 
is more than a mile in extent, is 
called the Cat Hole. In some parts 
of this glen there is but barely room 
for a path ; small angular fragments 
of rocks rise on each side, at about 
an angle of forty five degrees: 
these rocks have been beaten down 
and covered with earth, which must 
have been brought here for the 
purpose. A few yards south of this 
place, elevated perpendicular rocks 
appear on the left, one of which has 
very much the appearance of a pro- 
file of the human face, and it is 
thought by some to resemble in a 
slight degree the profile of Wash- 
ington. Following the foot of the 
mountain on the right, for about a 
mile, you will find large pieces of 
rocks lying upon each other in great 
disorder, which have evidently fal- 
len from the precipitous heights 
above. Underneath these rocks ice 
may be found in almost every month 
in the year. A spring issues from 
between them, called the Cold 
Springy and is a place of resort for 
parties in summer. 

Merrimack River, K* H*, 

One of the principal rivers of 
New England, is formed of two 
branches. The N. branch called 
Pemigewasset, rises near the Notch 
of the White mountains, and passes 
southwardly through the corner of 
Franconia, Lincoln,Peeling, Thorn- 
ton and Campton,fbrming the bound- 
ary between Plymouth and Holder- 
ness, and also the boundary line be- 
tween the counties of Straflbrd and 
Grafton from the S. corner of Hol- 
derness to near its junction with the 
Winnepisiogee. It receives several 
considerable branches in its course; 
Mad river in Campton, Baker*s in 
Plymouth ; and sti^eams flowing 
from Squam and Newfound lakes, 
with numerous small tributaries. — 
The E. branch is the Wimiepisio- 
gee, through which pass the waters 


of the lake of that name. The de- Menimaolc OoniitT', '• H* 
scent of this branch from the lake to Concord is the county town. 
Its junction with the Pemigewasset, The county of Merrimack is bound- 
IS 282 feet. The confluent stream ^^ N. E. by the county of Straf- 
bears the name of Merrimack, and fo^ g. E. by the county of Rock- 
pursues a S. course, 78 miles, to ingham, S. W. by the county of 
Chelmsford, Mass. ; thence an E. Hillsborough, and N. W. by the 
course, 3a miles, to the sea at New- counties of Sullivan and Grafton, 
buryport. On the N. hne of Con- j^ greatest length is 88 miles; 
Corel, the Contoocook discharges its j^g ^^^\^^^^ ^^ the broadest part is 
waters into the Merrimack. The 26 miles. It contains an area of 
Soucook becomes a tributary in ^06,000 acres. The surface is un- 
Pembroke, and the Suncook be- ^^^n, and in some parts rugged 
tween Pembroke and Allenstown. ^nd mountainous j but its general 
The Piscataquog unites m Bedford ; fertility, is perhaps equal to either 
the Spuhegan in Merrimack and a ^f the other counties in the state, 
beautiful river called Nashua m j^ ^he towns of Hopkinton, Henni- 
Nashua. The principal tributaries ^er, Boscawen, Salisbury, Canter- 
are on the ^V. side of the river, bury. Concord, &c., are seen many 
mostly rising in the highlands be- extensive and well cultivatod farms, 
tween the Connecticut and Merri- j^^ northerly part of the county is 
mack. There are numerous falls rough and mountainous. Kearsarge 
in this river, the most noted of is the highest mountain, its summit 
which are Garven s, in Concord, ^^- 2,401 feet above the level of 
the falls m Hooksett, and Amos- ^^^ ^^^ ^ jg composed of a range 
keag in Goflfetown and Manchester, ^f ^^^^^^ running north and south 
These falls are all rendered passa- ^^^^^ ^^^ ^1,^^ j^g j^, ^ 
ble by locks, and boat navigation jg ^^ ^ and crag|y, excepting 
has for several yearsbcen extended ^hen its roughnesris shaded by 
as far as Concord. There are sev- ^^e woody covering that darkens its 
er^ bndges. over the Merrimack, gj^^g The Ragged mountains, so 
and Its principal branches, besides ^^^^^^ f^^ t^lir appearance, lie 
a number of femes. The Merri- northeast of Kearsarge, and be- 
mack, whose fountains are nearly tween Andover jmd Hill. These 
on a level with the Connecticut, ^^g ^g^rly 2,000 feet high at the 
being much shorter in its course, north points of the range. Bear's 
has a far more rapid descent to the Hill, in Northfield, Sunapee moun- 
Bea than the latter river. Hence the ^^^^^ in Newbury, Catamount, in 
intervales on ite borders are less ex- pittsfield, and the peak in Hook- 
tensive, and the scenery less beau- g^^^^ ^re the other most considerable 
tiful, than on the Connecticut. It elevations. A part of lake Suna- 
is, however, a majestic river ; its jj^g j^ Newbury ; and there 
waters ^ generally pure and heal- ^^^ numerous ponds interspersed 
thy ; and on its borders are situated throughout the whole territory. 
some of the most nourishing towns ^ 

in the state. The name of this riv- The Merrimack river meanders 
er was originally written Mcrra- through nearly the centre of the 
maeke and Monnomake, which in county, and forms the boundary 
the Indian language signified a some distance at the northeastern 
sturgeon. Its width varies from 50 part. It receives from the west the 
to 120 rods; and at its mouth it pre- Blackwater and Contoocook rivers. 
Bents a beautiful sheet of half a and from the east, Soucook and Sun- 
mile in width. cook, and other smaller streams. 



This county was constituted by 
an act of the legislature, 1 July, 
1823 — being taken from the coun- 
ties of Rockingham and Hillsbo- 
borough, ten towns being separated 
from the former, and thirteen from 
the latter. Population, 1820, 32,- 
843; 1880, 84,619. Twenty four 
towns, 44 inhabitants to a square 
mile. In 1887, there were 66,152 
sheep in this county 

Merrin&aelcy N. Il.y 

Hillsborough co., is bounded N. 
by Bedford, £. by Litchfield, S. by 
Nashua, and W. by Amherst. — 
It is 6 miles S. £. from Amherst, 
and 27 S. from Concord. Merri- 
mack river waters its £. border 
through its whole extent, opening 
a communication by water from 
this place to Boston. Souhegan en- 
ters this town from Amherst, pur- 
sues a winding course to the Mer- 
rimack, where it discharges itself 
one mile above Thornton's ferry. 
There are fine water privileges on 
this stream. Babboosuck brook, 
issuing from Babboosuck pond in 
Amherst, empties into Souhegan 
river, and Penichook bi*ook from a 
pond in Mollis, forms the southern 
boundary. The soil in various pla- 
ces is very fertile, but a considera- 
ble portion of the land is plain. 
There are some fine intervales on 
the Merrimack. Some of the best 
and most extensive water privileges 
the county affords, about 1 1-2 mile 
from the Merrimack, on Souhegan 
river, lie unimproved. 

This town claims the first discove- 
ry in this region of making what 
are called leghorn bonnets. They 
were first made several years since, 
by the Misses Burnaps. Some of 
their bonnets were sold at auction 
in Boston for ^50. 

This town was formerly called 
Souhegan East. It was incorpo- 
rated, 1746, having been settled 
about 13 years. 

The first house in this town was 
erected on the margin of the river 

for a house of traffic with the la- 
dians. For some time one Crom- 
well carried on a lucrative, trade 
with the Indians, weighing their 
furs with his foot, till, enraged at 
his supposed or real deception, 
they formed the resolution to mur- 
der him. This intention was com- 
municated to Cromwell, who buried 
his wealth and made his escape. J 
Within a few hours after his flight, 
a party of the Penacook tribe arriv- 
ed, and not finding the object of 
their resentment, they burnt his 

Hon. Matthew THORifToir, 
one of the signers of the Declara- 
tion of American Independence, 
resided many years in this town. 
He died in 1808, at the age of 89. 
Population, 1830, 1,191. 

Merrjm&eetlng Bays* 

MerrymeeHng Bay, in Maine, is 
at the junction of the Androscoggin 
with the Kennebec, about 5 miles 
above Bath. It is a large expanse 
of water, and contains Swan and 
other islands. The passage through 
this bay, of 10 or 12 miles in lengUi, 
is delightful. 

MerrymeeHng Bay, in New 
Hampshire, is an arm of Winne- 
pisiogee lake, extending about 1,800 jj 
rods into the town of Alton, and fai 
27 miles from the navigable wateifl 
of Piscataqua river. 

Metl&aeny BKass* 

Essex CO. In this town is a beau- 
tiful water fall of 30 feet, on Spick- 
et river, which furnishes an excel- 
lent hydraulic power. Methuen 
lies on the N. bank of Merrimack 
river, and is 25 miles N. by W. from 
Boston, and 20 N. W. by N. fiptai 
Salem. It was taken from Haver- 
hill in 1725. Popujation, 1830, 
2,011; 1837, 2,463. There ace S 
cotton, and 2 paper mills in the 
town, and manufactures of leather, 
shoes, hats, ploughs, segars, essen- 
ces, chaises, harnesses, chairs, tin 
and cabinet wares, and piuu>-fort» 


frames : value, for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, $462,525. An ex- 
cellent bed of peat has recently 
been discovered. It is 14 feet in 
depth, and very extensive. The 
■oil of Methuen is very good, the 
village is pleasant, and the scenery 
<ffoand St, romantic and beautiful. 

Meadlooy He* 

Oxford CO. This town lies on the 
north side of Androscoggin river, 
mnd is watered by two of its tribu- 
taries. It has a good soil and a good 
water power. It lies 47 miles W. 
N. W. from Augusta, and 20 N. 
from Paris. Incorporated, 1818. 
Population, 1887, 447. Wheat crop, 
tame year, 1,662 bushels. 

rnddleborongliy BImmi* 

Plymouth co. This is the Indian 
^amasket; formerly thickly popu- 
lated by the people of that tribe, 
and governed by the noted sachem 
TiMptuan. On the rocks, in this 
town, are the prints of naked hands 
and feet, -supposed to be the work 
of the Indians. Here are numer- 
ous ponds, several kinds of fish, and 
larae 'quantities of iron ore is found 
In me ponds. These ponds, of which 
! jSie jSisawanuet and Long pond are 
nie largest, empty into Taunton 
river, and produce an extensive wa- 
ter power 

This town lies 84 miles S. by E. 
from Boston, 14 S. S. W. from Ply- 
mouth, and 10 S. £. from Taunton 
Incorporated, 1660. Population, 
1887, 6,006. This is probably the 
laivest town in ihe state : it is 16 
mifea in length, and about 9 aver- 
age breadth : it has several pleasant 
v&lages. There are 2 cotton mills, 
"2 forces, an air and cupola furnace, 
a naiTfactory, and manufactures of 
leather, shovels, spades, forks, 
ploughs, wrought nails, chairs, cab- 
toet ware, tacks, straw bonnets, and 
various other articles: total value, 
in one year, $200,000. 

In IToS; Shubael Thompson found 
a land turtle, marked on the shell 

J. W., 1747. Thompson marked it 
and let it go. Elijah Clapp found 
it in 1773 ; William Shaw found it 
in 1775; Jonathan Soule found it in 
1784; Joseph Soule found it in 1790, 
and Zenas Smith, in 1791: each 
marked it with his initials. Wheth- 
er the critter is dead or gone to the 
west, we have no account. 

Middiebnrjr, Vt« 

Addison co. Chief town. This is 
a large and flourishing town on both 
sides of Otter creek, 81 miles S. W. 
from Montpelier, and S3 S. S. £. 
from Burlington. The fathers of 
this town were Col. John Chipman 
and the Hon. Gamaliel Painter, who 
came here and settled in 1773. The 
settlement advanced but slowly un- 
til after the revolutionary war; it 
then began to increase and is now 
one of the most important towns in 
the state. In 1791 it became the 
shire town of the county, and in 
1800 Middlebury college was found- 
ed. The surface of the town is 
generally level. Chipman's hill, 
439 feet above Otter creek, is the 
highest elevation. The soil is fer- 
tile and productive, and furnishes 
large quantities of wool, beef, pork, 
butter and cheese. The town is 
admirably watered by Otter creek 
and Middlebury river. At the falls 
oh Otter creek, the site of the flour- 
ishing village, are extensive manu- 
facturing establishments ; and large 
quantities of white and variega- 
ted marble, with which the town 
abounds, are sawed and polished 
for various uses and transported to 
market. Middlebury is a very 
beautiful town, and the mart of a 
large inland trade. Population, in 
1830, 8,468. See Register. 

Middlebury JRiver rises in Han- 
cock, and passing through Ripton 
falls into Otter creek at Imddlebury . 
This mountain stream is about 14 
miles in length, affords a fine wa- 
ter power, and is very romantic in 
its course. It passes some distance 


■long (he road from Wiadaor to 
Vergannes, and presents Bgma ie- 
Ughtful Bcenery. 

Middlebiirjf <^i 
New Hareo co. The surface of 
Ihb towQ is hilly nnd rocky ; the 
•oil B coarse, gravelly loam, 6t for 
grazing and the growth of rye. It 
lies 36 miles W, S. W. from Hart- 
ford, and S2 N. W. from New Ha- 
ven. Incorporated, 1807. Popu- 
laUon. 1830, 818. The town Is 
watered by QuBsepaug pond, whicli 
empties into the Hou?MoDick, and 
furnishes a waterpower for a sattn- 
et factory, and other machinery. 
MlddlcSeld, Ha». 

Hampshire co. This is an eleva- 
ted agricultural township, watered 
by abranch of Westfield river. It 
lies 110 miles W. from Boston, 24 
W. from Northampton, and IT S. E. 
from I^ttsG eld. Incorporated, 1783. 
Population, 1S87, 710. There are 
2 woolen mills in thp (own, and 2 
tanneries. Annual value ofgcxHis 
man u (acta red, about $7B,000.^ 
Among the productions of liie soil, 
there were, in 1837, 0,724 fleeces 
of saxony wool, which weighed 
26,741 pounds, value, $17,332. 
Ml<ldl«ex, Vt. 

Washington co. Onion river apd 
other streams give this town a gfiod 
water power. It has numerous 
manufacturing concerns, and a very 
pleasant village. The aoil along 
the s(reamB b good, and thnt of the 
uplands, generally, is adapted fot 
grazing. It lies 30 miles E. S. E. 
from Burlington, and is bounded hj 
Monlpelier on the S. E. First set- 
tled, in 1781. Population, 1S3D. 

There is a curious chasm in Mid- 
dlesex, on Onion river, near More- 


1 pas- 

sage through rocks 30 fee( in dep(h, 
60 feet in width, and about 80 rods 
la length. The walls on each nde 
■re very smoolli,orer which a bridge 

is thrown. This place UwoHhyof 
Hlddlesei Ooniity, Masa. 

Concord, Cambridge, and Ltv- 

ett, are the shire towns. The snr- 
face of this county is uneven ai 
(he soil various. It present* ■ great 
iety for the admiration of the 
patriot, scholar, farmer, mechanic, 
and the painter. It is bounded N. 
by New Hampshire; N. E. by the 
lunty of Eaaei ; S. E. by Charles 
Ber, Boston harbor, and Norfolk 
lUDty; and W. by (he coun(y of 
orcester. Area, 800 square miles: 
ipulalioo, in 1820,01,478; 1830, 
n,969 ; 183T, SS,&66. Populatioa 
lo a aijuare mile, 123. The princi- 
pal rivers in this county, are the 
Merrimack, Charles, Mysdc, Sud- 
bury, Concord, aad Nashua. The 
Middleeeie Canal passes through 
its Eortheaatera section. In 18>T 
ttiere were S,166 sheep in the coun- 
ty. Tlie value of manuftcturM for 
the year ending April 1, 18S7, 
amounted lo $10,008,028. FUheiy, 
same year, $33,000. 

MMdleeez G«uatr, 0«. 

Shire towns — Middleteton anl 
Baddam. This county is bootuM 
N. by Hartford county, E. by Hut- 
ford and New London countie*, 8. 
by Long Island Sound, and V, by 
New Haven county. The general 
surface of the county is uneven. 
The soil is generally good, partica- 
larly adjacent to Connecticut river- 
There are many small atieana 
which afibri mill privileges, (util- 
izing (he soil and giving beauty t* 
the county. The waters of the 
Connecticut aSord it ■a impcHsal 
business in navigatioD, especially 
in the coasting trade. The lonnu* 
of the district of Middletown, la 
1837, was 13,133 tons. There ate 
numerous manufacturing eitsbllth- 
ments In the county ; large qoanti- 
Hesof freestone are quairled and car- 
ried to market, and the ahid Gdiuj 


gives employment to many of its 

Middlesex county contains an 
area of 842 square miles. Popula- 
tion, 1S20, 22,405 ; 1830, 24,845, 
containing a population of 73 in- 
habitants to a square mile. Con- 
siderable amounts of the productions 
of the soil are exported, and in 
1837, there were in the county 
12,401 sheep. 

Mlddleton, N. H. 

Strafford co. This is a very lev- 
el township, having no high ground 
except a part of Moose mountain, 
which separates it from Brookfleld. 
There are no rivers nor ponds, and 
the soil is rocky. It lies 25 miles 
N. W. from Dover. Middlcton was 
incorporated in 1778. Population, 
1830, 562. 

Middletony Mass* 

Essex CO. A pleasant town on 
both sides of Ipswich river, 19 miles 
N. from Boston, and 7 N. W. from 
Salem. This place contains a large 
and expensive paper mill. This is 
the principal manufacturing con- 
cern in the town. Incorporated, 
1723. Population, 1837, 671. 

Middletoivn, Vt. 

Rutland co. This town lies be- 
tween two mountains, is w<itered 
by Poultney river, and has a good 
soil for grazing. It keeps, among 
other cattle, about 4,000 sheep. It 
lies 14 miles S. W. from Rutland. 
It has a neat and flourishing vil- 
lage, a woolen factory, marble fac- 
tory, and other manufactures. — 
Population, 1830, 919. 

.Bliddletoivny Ct. 

Chief town of Middlesex co. — 
MiDDLETOwx City, and port of 
entry, lies on the W. bank of Con- 
necticut river, 30 miles from its 
mouth, 15 S. from Hartford, 24 N. 
E. from New Haven, 83 N. W. 
from New London. Lat. 41^ 34' 
N., long. 72® 89' W. The city is 

very pleasantly situated on ground 
rising gradually from the river. 
The principal street, called Main 
street, runs parallel with the river. 
This and other streets, are inter- 
sected by cross streets, leading to 
the river. 

The wharves are commodious for 
shipping, there being ten feet of 
water for all vessels that can cross 
the bar at the mouth of the river. 

Two high wharves are appropria- 
ted for two lines of steam-boats, of a 
large class, which afford a daily com- 
munication with the cities of New 
York and Hartford. 

The streets and side-walks are 
pleasantly shaded with trees, and 
the side-walks are remarkably well 

The population of the city, is 
about 3,500 ; of the town, above 

The public edifices are a court- 
house in the Grecian style of arch- 
itecture, built in 1832 ; a custom- 
house handsomely built of Chatham 
freestone } 2 banks, and a savings 
bank, &c. The places of public 
worship in the city, and the princi- 
pal houses and stores are of brick, 
many of which are built with great 

The Wesletan XJniversitt, 
under the patronage of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal church, was founded 
in 1831, and is very rapidly acquir- 
ing a high standing. It has now 
160 students. Its officers are a 
president and 5 professors. 

The college buildings command 
an extensive view of the surround- 
ing country, as well as of the val- 
ley of the Connecticut, so justly 
famed for its beauty. 

The college library, with those 
belonging to the societies, comprises 
about 10,000 volumes. It has ma- 
ny rare an<i choice works, an entire 
set of the Latin Classics, and most of 
the Greek, a set of the Philosophical 
Transactions, and all of the most 
important latu* scientific works of 


F,rance. There is also a collection 
of bibles and testaments in 81 lan- 
guages and dialects, oriental, &c., 
into which the bible has been trans- 

The philosophical and astronomi- 
cal apparatus, has been lately in- 
creased at great expense. There 
is a telescope, with a six inch object 
glass, a splendid altitude and Azi- 
muth instrument, so constructed as 
to be used for meridian transits. 
RusselPs magnificent Orrery, an 
unrivalled instrument, and the only 
one of the kind. There is a noble 
Plate Electrical machine, with two 
plates 86 inches in diameter, &c. 

The chemical department has a 

food laboratory and apparatus. — 
'he cabinet of minerals is becom- 
ing extensiye. In geology, besides 
specimens, there are several valu- 
able charts to illustrate the different 
states, and many districts of £Ing- 

In botany, there are several of the 
best standard works, and for the 
preservation of the science, the 
richness in species of the native 
plants about Middletown, is not 
surpassed by any location in New 
England. The place is also remark- 
able for the variety and abundance 
of its rare minerals. 

The rising reputation of its uni- 
Tersity, the great salubrity of its 
atmosphere, and the activity of its 
manufacturing capital, render Mid- 
dletown equally attractive to the 
traveler, the man of science, or of 
business. There are besides in this 
city, several fine cabinets of shells, 
insects, minerals, &c., and an Her- 
barium of considerable extent, of 
North American as well as of Eu- 
ropean plants, also several choice 
private libraries. 

The library of the Rev. Dr. Jar- 
vis, contains 13,000 volumes of ex- 
ceeding choice books, collected by 
him, during a residence of sev- 
eral years in Europe, and his gal- 
lery of about 120 paintings, is re- 
garded as being very valuable.— 

About 70 of these pictures formed 
the gallery of the Archbishop of 
Tarento at Naples, and are of the 
old masters — Titian, Rubens, Tin- 
toretto, Salvator Rosa, Carlo Dolce^ 
Lueca, Giordano, Jordens, Spagno* 
letto, &c. There is also in another- 
coUection some very fine paintingi 
of the old masters, and an ezqiS- 
site piece of statuary by the Cbevi- 
lier P. Marches! of Milan, repre- 
senting Christ when 12 years of 
age ! This is the only work of the 
distinguished sculptor, that has yet 
arrived in this country. 

The township from N. to S. is 
about 9 miles long, its breadth va- 
rying from 4 to 10 miles at its great- 
est area, or about 48,520 acres. — 
The Indian name of the town was 
Mattabesett. The town is divided 
into 4 societies or parishes. 

There is in the city a prepara- 
tory school connected with the uni- 
versity, as well as several flourish- 
ing piivate schools. 

The public records of this town 
commenced in 1654. The city was 
incorporated in 1784. 

The burial grounds contain many 
curious, as well as antique monu- 
ments of its earliest settlers. 

The burial ground at the N. part 
of the city, and by the river, was 
laid out in 1650. 

Middletown meadows, north of the 
city, contain about 640 acres. The 
height of the base of the village is 
160 feet above the river, and is 
from it, five eighths of a mile. Main 
street is from 40 to 50 feet above thCf 

The Connecticut river is here 
generally closed with ice about the 
middle of December, and opens 
about the end of the third week in 

The manufactures in this city» 
are 8 establishments on a large 
scale for the manufacture of armSy 
for the United States service ; 
broadcloths and cotton goods, brit* 
annia and tin' wares, stoves, eombs^ 
tubs, machinery, steam engtneib 


cotton machtnerj', paper, ponder, 
jewelry, brass wire, steel pens, 
buttons, looking- glasses, carriages, 
cirpeDter'B toola and locks, besides 
many manulaclures of miDor im- 

MiddletOLwn rests on 
, red sandslone ; williio 2 
mlloa of the city, soutb, (here is a 
^«iiite ridge, here known hy Ihe 
name of the While rocks. It runs 
N. N. E., and forma Ihe stiaiu of 
ihe Conoecticut river. This granite 
ridge is from 400 lo 600 feel above 
the Ude water. Here occursanin- 
cxbanstlble quantity of Ihe finest 
ftldfpar, the material used for Ihe 

_, 1 ,jj„_ x|jig„aa firs' 

itice in 1633, at th( 
□ of Dr. Barrett. A 
large quantity of it has been sent to 
Europe, as well as Tieiug used in 
this country, and it has been prosed 
ta be of the best quality. 

The feldspar is often so pure at 
Ae quarry opened on the Haddam 
road, Ibat masses of several hun- 
dred weight occur without any ad- 
mixture of quartz and mica. 
niddletDRn, R. I. 

Newport CO. This is the middle 
township oD the island of Rhode 
bland. It lies 2 miles N. E. from 
Newport, and 2S S. by E. from 
Pravidence. The surface of the 
town is undulating, and afjbrds ma- 
ny interesting and bcauliful land- 
■etpes. The soil is a rich lo.ini, 
veiV productive and under a high 
■tate of cultivation ; the lands are 
llisbly valued end commnnd a great 
price. The Inhabilants of the town 
■re principally farmers; Ihcy are 
distinguished for (heir habits of in- 
dustry and economy, and for the 
■nlfbrmity, plainness, and simplici- 
tj of their manner of living. The 
jnaducts of the town consist «f 
eon, barley, hay, and great varic- 
Um of fruits and vegetables for 
Newport market. Incorporated, 
Vta. Population, 1S30,»I{>. 

Coos CO., is 139 miles N. by E. 

from Concord, and about 22 N. E, 
from Lancaster. This tract was 
granted in 1771, and was called 
Pauhburgh, until 1B24. The Up- 
per Amonoosuck and Androscoggin 
rivers pass through this toiro. — 

considerable mountains. Poputa- 
tioo, 1630, 57. 

mifttrd. He. 
Penobscot county. See " Dowb 

UlUord, N. B., 

Hillsborough co., is bounded E. 
by Amberel, and is 31 miles 8. by 
W. from Concord. Milford lies on 
both sides of Souhcgan river, which 
runs through the town from W. to 
E., forming a rich meadow or inter- 
vale, from 1-4 lo 1-2 a mile wide. 
The banks of this river are annual- 
ly overflowed, by which means, 
the soil, which is black and deep, is 
much enriched. Thistownbasei- 
cellent water privileges, and there 
valuable factory ia the village 
Population, 1330, 1,303. 

HUfam, I 



m, the 

Indian WepoiDagt, is well watered 
by Charles and Mill rivers. lilies 
"TmilesS.lV. byW.fromBoston.and 
IS, E, from Worcester. Incorpora- 
ted, 1780. Popnlalion. 1837,1,637. 
The soil is generally fertile, and 
the surface pleasantly diverslfiod. 
The manufactures of the town, for 
the year ending April 1, 1837, 
amounted lo $257,671. They con- 
sisted of cotton goods, leather, boots. 

BUlford, Ct. 

'Old Jurisdiction of New Haven." 


The settlement commenced in 1639. 
The first purchase of land was made 
of the Indians, for the considera- 
tion of " 6 coats, 10 blankets, 1 
kettle, besides a number of hoes, 
knives, hatchets, and glasses." The 
Indians made a reservation of 20 
acres in the town, which was sold 
by them, in 1661, for 6 coats, 2 
blankets, and a pair of breeches. 

Milford is bounded W. by Housa- 
tonick river, and S. E. by Long 
Island Sound. The Indian name 
of the place was Wepawcntg. The 
town is generally level, and the 
soil productive. There is a quarry 
of beautiful serpentine marble in 
the town, and a harbor for small 

Poconock or Milford point is a 
noted place, where are a number of 
huts on the beach, occupied by 
persons engaged in the oyster and 
clam business. 

Milford village is very pleasant, 
and the scenery variegated and in- 
teresting. Population, 1837, about 

JUillbury, Mass. 

"Worcester co. Millbury was 
taken from Sutton, in 1813. It lies 
42 miles W. S. W. from Boston, 
and 6 S.E. from Worcester. Branch- 
es of the Blackstone river rise in 
the town, and the Blackstone canal 
passes through it. It is a very 
pleasant manufacturing place, with 
a valuable water power. There 
are 1 paper, 6 woolen, and 1 cotton 
mills ; and manufactures of boots, 
shoes, leather, hats, scythes, spades, 
forks, hoes, ploughs, muskets,trying 
squares, levels, trowels, machinery, 
black lead, tin ware, sashes and 
blinds : total value, the year ending 
April 1, 1837, $566,150. Popula- 
tion, 1837, 2,153. 

Miller's Rivers. 

Miller* 8 River, in Vermont* rises 
in Sheffield, Caledonia county, and 
passing through a part of Wheelock 

falls into the Passumpsick at Lyn- 

Miller'' 8 River ^ in Massachusetts, 
rises in ponds in Ashbarnham, 
and Winchendon ; it has many trib- 
utaries, and passes through Athol, 
Orange, and Wendell, and falls into 
the Connecticut at Erving. This 
is a noble mill stream. 

Miilinolcet lAke, Me. 

This is a large body of water in 
the county of Penobscot, the re- 
cipient of many rivers. It is an 
important source of the west branch 
of Penobscot river. Its outlet is a 
river of the same name, and unites 
with the waters of Pemadumcook 
lake, near the Great falls at the out- 
let of the Pemadumcook. 

Mill River, Mass. 

See Springfield, 

MUlsfleld, IV. H., 

Coos CO., is 7 miles W. from Um- 
bagog lake, and about 35 N.from the 
White mountains. Clear stream 
waters its N. extremity, and Phil- 
lip's river with several small 
streams the other parts. Here are 
several ponds, the largest is about 
300 rods long, 140 wide. Millsfield 
was granted in 1774, and was nam- 
ed after Sir Thomas Mills, a gran- 
tee. It had but 83 inhabitants in 

Milo, Me. 

Piscataquis co. This is a beau- 
tiful township on the fertile banks 
of Sebcc and Pleasant rivers, at 
their union with the Piscataquis. 
It lies 103 miles N. E. from Augus- 
ta, and 15 N. E. from Dover. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 381; 1837, 640.— 
Wheat crop, 1837, 4,514 bushels. 
Incorporated, 1823. 

Milton, Me* 

Piscataquis co. Population, 1837, 
352. Wheat crop, same year, 1,323 


bushels. 94 miles from Augusta. 
See ** Down East." 

MUton, X. II. 

Strafford co. The Salmon Fall 
river washes its whole E. bounda- 
ry, a distance of 13 miles , and a 
branch of the same river crosses 
from the S. part of Wakefield, and 
unites near the centre of the E. 
boundary. Teneriffe, a bold and 
rocky mountain, extends along the 
E. part of Milton, near which lies 
Milton pond, of considerable size, 
connecting with the Salmon Fall 
river. This town was formerly a 
part of Rochester, from which it 
was detached in 1802. It lies 40 
miles N. E. from Concord, and 20 
N. W. by N. from Dover. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 1,273. 

MUton, Vt. 

Chittenden co. Milton is bound- 
ed on the W. by lake Champlain, 
and is finely watered by the river 
Lamoille. It lies 12 miles N. from 
Burlington, and 40 N. W. from 
Montpelier. Population, 1830, 2,- 
100. The soil of the town is gen- 
erally good, and about 9,000 sheep 
graze in its pastures. There are 
some places in Milton worthy of the 
traveller's notice. A little distance 
from the neat and flourishing vil- 
lage are the Great falls, on the La- 
moille. In the course of 50 rods 
tbe whole river falls 150 feet. — 
About the middle of the rapid is a 
gmall island, by which the water 
passes on each side, with great vi- 
olence and loud roaring. The scen- 
ery on the banks of the river is 
wild and beautiful. There are 
some mills on the river, and consid- 
erable trade on the lake. 

Milton, Mass. 

Norfolk CO. This interesting and 
pleasant town, the Uncataquissit 
of the Indians, li^s 7 miles S. from 
Boston, and 6 E. from Dedham. 
Neponset river washes its northern 
border and affords numerous valua- 

ble mill sites. This town was takeo 
from Dorchester, in 1662. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 1 ,772. A large part of 
the land is a gravelly loam, strong 
and very productive. The manu- 
factures consist of paper, granite, 
leather, hats, chairs, cabinet ware, 
playing cards, &.c. : total annual 
amount, about $100,000. The man- 
ufacture of paper from beach grass 
has recently been commenced, and 
promises to be a good substitute for 
rags, for the more common kinds. 

The village called the " Mills," 
comprising a part of Dorchester, at 
the head of navigation, on the Ne- 
ponset, is a wild, romantic place, 
and ever since the first settlement 
of the country, has been the seat of 
considerable trade and manufacture. 

The village at the rail-road, near 
the granite quarry, in Quincy, 
about a mile S. E. of the " Mills," 
is very pleasant and flourishing.— 
By a new and beautiful bridge, 
called the " Granite bridge," across 
the Neponset, the distance to the 
city is reduced to 6 miles. 

Milton contains some elegant 
country seats, and much delightful 
scenery. The views from " Milton 
Hill," near the head of the Ne- 
ponset ; and " Blue Hill," a cele- 
brated land mark for sailors, 710 
feet above the sea, in the south part 
of the town, 12 miles from Boston, 
are among the most admired in our 

Minot, Me. 

Cumberland co. Minot is a large 
and excellent township of land with 
three very pleasant villages. The 
Androscoggin passes its eastern bor- 
der and Little Androscoggin sepa- 
rates it from Poland, on the S. This 
is one of the most flourishing towns 
in the state. Altliough agriculture 
is the chief business of the people of 
Minot, yet its water power is so val- 
uable, that manufactures of various 
kinds are springing up with promis- 
ing success. Minot is connected 
with Lewiston, across the Andros- 


coggin, b^ a bridge. It lies 33 
miles S. W. from Augusta, and 35 
N. from Portland. Population, in 
1830, 2,908; 1837, 3,326. Incor- 
porated, 1802. Wheat crop, 1837, 
7,266 bushels. 

Misslsque River, Vt. 

This crooked river is about 76 
miles in length. It rises in Orleans 
county, and passes N. into Canada, 
about 5 miles ; it then returns to 
the state at the N. £. corner of 
Franklin county, and after mean- 
dering through the north part of 
that county, it falls into Missisque 
bay at Highgate. There are sev- 
eral falls on this river, which afford 
numerous mill sites ; but it is gen- 
erally sluggish in its course, and 
being wide, is rather shallow. Its 
waters fertilize a large portion of 
country, and it is navigable for small 
vessels, six miles from its mouth. 

BfoIeclLiuikaiuaiik lAtke, Me* 

This is one of a number of large 
lakes extending northwest from 
Umbagog lake, and which empty 
through the Umbagog into the An- 
droscoggin. These lakes lie in the 
counties of Oxford and Franklin : 
their borders are but little settled, 
but those who have visited them 
report that the soil is exceedingly 
fertile, and that the beauties of 
these little inland seas, equal that 
of the celebrated Winnepisiogee. 
The Molechunkamunk lies about 80 
miles N. by W. from Portland. 

Alolumkus nivcr, 

A large tributary to the Mata- 
wamkeag from the north. It unites 
with that river about 8 miles above 
its mouth. 

Monadnook Moantaln, X. H., 

Usually called the Ghrand Mo- 
nadnock, is situated in the towns of 
Jafifrey and Dublin, in Cheshire 
county, about 22 miles E. from Con- 
necticut river, and 10 N. of the 
southern boundary of this state. — 

The direction of the ridge is N. E. 
and S. W. The mountain is about 
5 miles long from N. to S., and 3 
miles from £. to W. Its summit is 
3,718 feet above the level of the sea. 
Thirty years since, Monadnock was 
nearly covered with evergreen 
wood of considerable growth. By 
the repeated ravages of fire, it now 
presents to the distant beholder, 
nothing but a barren and bald rock. 
But on ascending, we find plats of 
earth sufficient to give growth to 
the blueberry, cranberry, mountain 
ash, and a variety of shrubs. Some 
caves are discovered, which excite 
curiosity. They appear to have 
been formed by large fissures, and 
by extensive strata being thrown 
from their primitive state, and form- 
ing different angles with each other 
and with perpendicular precipices. 
The mountain is composed of talc, 
mica, slate, distinctly stratified.— 
Garnet, schorl, feldspar and quartz 
occur in various parts. On the E. 
side, plumbago is found in large 
quantities. Crucibles and pencils 
have been manufactured from it, 
but for the latter, it proves not very 
good. The summit, when seen at 
a distance of 4 or 5 miles, appears 
rounded and destitute of those high 
cliffs and mural precipices belong- 
ing to granitic mountains. The 
prospect from the pinnacle is very 
extensive ; thirty ponds of fresh 
water, some of which are so large- 
as to contain islands of 8 or 10 
acres, may be seen from it, in the 
immediate vicinity. Near the base 
of the mountain, in Jafirey, is the 
" Monadnock Mineral Spring." 

Hlonkton, Vt. 

Addison co. This town lies 27 
miles W. from Montpelier, 16 N. 
from Middlebury, and 18 S. by E. 
from Burlington. This is a good 
farming town, and the products of 
wool, cattle, and of the dairy are 
considerable. Iron ore is found in 
abundance, and a bed of porcelain 
earth. By mixing this earth with 


common clay, in different propor- 
tions, yarious kinds of pottery are 
produced. This earth is very pure, 
and it is said might be manufactur- 
ed into the best china ware. The 
bed is inexhaustible. The black 
oxide of manganese is also found 
here. There is also a curious cav- 
ern in the town : after descending 
about 16 feet, you arrive at a room 
30 feet long, and 16 wide. From 
this is a passage leading to a second 
apartment, which is not quite so 
large, but more pleasant. Monk- 
ton is a pleasant town, 3 miles E. 
from Ferrisburgh, and is frequent- 
ly visited by the curious. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,331. 

Alonmoutli, BXe* 

Kennebec co. This is a fine 
township, and beautifully watered 
by some of the sources of the Cob- 
bessecontee. It lies 15 miles S. 
W, from Augusta. The village is 
very plca:«ant, and is the seat of a 
flourishing academy. Wheat crop, 
1837, 5,236 bushels. Population, 
same year, 1,347. Incorporated, 

Monroe, Me. 

Waldo CO. This town is watered 
by Marsh river, a branch of the Pe- 
nobscot. It lies 59 miles N. E. from 
Augusta, and 14 N. from Belfast. 
Population, 1337, 1,365. Wheat 
crop, same year, 5,897. 

Bloiiroe, Mass. 

Franklin co. This is anclevatc<l 
township, bounded E. by DeerlielJ 
river. It lies 105 miles W. N. W. 
from Boston, and 23 W. by N. from 
Greenfield. Incorporated, 1322. — 
Population, 1837, 232. 

Monroe, Ct. 

Fairlield co. This town was 
jtaken fi-om Huntington in 1323. 
The soil is good, and well adapted 
for grazing, but the surface is rough 
and stony. Agriculture is the prin- 
cipal business of the inhabitants. 


There are excellent orchards of va- 
rious kinds of fruit in the town, a 
pleasant village on elevated ground, 
and a classical school. It lies 15 
miles W. by N. from New Haven, 
and 12 E. by S. from Danbury. 
Population, 1S30, 1,522. 

A rich variety of mineral sub- 
stances have been discovered here. 
Among them, are tungsten, telluri- 
um, native bismouth, native silver, 
magnetical and common iron py- 
rites, copper pyrites, galena, blen- 
de, tourmaline, &c. 

Monsouy Me* 

Piscataquis co. This town is 
watered by Piscataquis river and 
Wilson's stream. Monson compris- 
es a fine tract of land, and is settled 
by a worthy class of people. In- 
corporated, 1822. Population, in 
1837, 565. Wheat crop, same year, 
2,267 bushels. It lies 83 miles N. 
by E. from Augusta^ and 20 N. W. 
from Dover. A stage runs betweei> 
this town and Bangor, three times 
a week. Distance from Monson to 
Bangor, 60 miles; to Moosehead 
lake, 15. 

Monson, Mass. 

Hampden co. Monson was tak- 
en from Brimlield in 1760. It Ires 
73 miles S. W. by W. from Boston, 
and 13 E. from Springfield. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 2,179. This is a pleas- 
ant town of variegated surface, 
good soil and well watered by Chick- 
opee river. It contains a flourish- 
ing acjidemy. There are 3 cotton 
mills in Monson, and other manu- 
fiictures. The value of cotton goods 
manufactured in the year ending 
April 1, 1SS7, was $67,500. 

Montague, Mass. 

Frnnklin co. This town is on 
the E. bank of Connecticut river, 
opposite to Decrfield, and united to 
that town by a bridge. Turner's 
Falls, at the northerly part of the 
town, are more interesting than 
any in the state, and probably as 


much so as any in New England. 
The canal for passing these falls, 3 
miles in length and 75 feet lockage, 
with an immense dam across the 
river, greatly facilitates the naviga- 
tion on Connecticut river. This 
place has a great water power, and 
promises peculiar advantages to the 
manufacturing interest. The scene- 
ry around this place is romantic and 
beautiful, and to the lovers of anti- 
quarian lore, full of interesting as- 

It lies 80 miles W. by N. from 
Boston, and 7 S. E. fi-om Greenfield. 
Incorporated, 1753. Population, in 
1837, 1,260. 

Moiktgonkeryf Vt. 

Franklin co. This town lies in a 
mountainous country, but it has a 
valuable tract of land on Trout riv- 
er, a good mill stream, a branch of 
the Missisque. It lies 42 miles N. 
from Montpelier, and 27 £. N. £. 
from St. Albans. First settled, in 
1798. Population, 1830, 460. 

The Rev. Joel Clapp was the first 
child born in this town, September 
14, 1793. He preached the first 
fast-day sermon, the first thanks- 
giving sermon, and the first mcf h- 
er's funeral sermon, which were 
preached in the town. 

Monts^omery-y Mass* 

Hampden co. This is a moun- 
tainous township on the N. side of 
Westfield nver, and has a good wa- 
ter power. It lies 100 miles W. by 
8. from Boston, and 12 N. W. from 
Springfield. Incorporated, 1780. 
Population, 1837, 497. This is a 
good town for grazing, and it pro- 
duces considerable wool and some 
bfeef cattle. 

Montpeliery Vt. 

The capital of the state and shire 
town of the county of Washington. 
It lies in N. lat. 44° 17', and W. 
Ion. 72° 36'. It is 182 miles W. 
from Augusta, Me. ; 97 N. N. W. 
from Concord, N. H. ; 160 N. W. 

by N. from Boston, Mass. ; 200 N. 
by W. from Providence, R. I.; 
203 N. from Hartford, Ct. ; 148 N. 
E. from Albany N. Y. ; and 624 
miles from Washington. First set- 
tied, in 1786. Population, 1880, 
2,985. Montpelier became the seat 
of government in 1805, and the 
shire town of the county, in 1811. 
It is finely watered by Onion river 
and by several branches of that 
stream. These streams afford a 
good water power, on which are 
manufacturing establishments of va- 
rious kinds. The surface of the 
town is very uneven and hilly, but 
not mountainous. The soil is very 
good along the streams, and the 
highlands produce excellent pas- 
turage. The agricultural products 
are various and valuable. In 1837 
there were between 8,000 and 9,000 
sheep in the town. 

This township was granted Octo- 
ber 21, 1780, and chartered to Tim- 
othy Bigclow and others, August 
14, 1781, containing 23,040 acres. 
It was rechartered February 6, 
1804. In the spring of 1786, Joel 
Frizzle erected a log house on the 
bank of Onion river, in the south- 
west corner of this township, and 
moved his family into it from Cana- 
da. This was the first family in 
town. Early in the month of May, 
17»7, Col. Jacob and Gen. Parley 
Davis, from Worcester county, Mass. 
began improvements near the place 
where tlie village now stands, and 
erected a log house, into which 
Col. Davis removed his family the 
winter following. 

The village of Montpelier is sur- 
rounded by hills of considerable el- 
evation; and although it is too low 
to command an extensive prospect, 
is very pleasant, and quite roman- 
tic in its appearance. It is located 
very near the centre of the state : 
it is a great thoroughfare from all 
directions, and commands a large 
and valuable interior trade. The 
buildings are in good style ; some 
of which are very handsome. 


■ We take pleasure in presenting to the public a well executed en- 
gfaving of the Vermont State House, at Montpelier ; designed by A. B. 
Touif 6, Esq., a native of New England, and executed under his imme- 
diate superintendence. 

The engraving represents a southeast front view of the building, which 
stands on an elevated site, about 825 feet from State street, on which it 
fronts, and is alike beautiful in design and execution. The yard and 
grounds pertaining to it are large and spacious, and, in the manner they 
are laid out, give great importance to the building. Through the whole 
design, a chaste architectural character is preserved, which, combined 
with the convenient arrangement of the interior and the stability of its 
construction, renders this edifice equal in every respect to any in New 
England, and probably to any in the United States. The building is in 
the form of a cross, showing in front a centre, 72 feet wide, and two 
wings^ each 89 feet, making the whole length 150 feet. The centre, in- 
cluding the portico, is 100 feet deep ', the wings are 50 feet deep. The 
six columns of the portico are 6 feet diameter at their base, and 86 feet 
high, supporting an entablature of classic proportions. The dome rises 
86 feet above the ridge, making the whole height from the ground 100 
feet. The order of architecture used is the Grecian Doric, and is made 
to conform to the peculiar arrangement necessary in this building. The 
walls, columns, cornices, &c., are of dark Barre granite, wrought in a 
superior manner : the dome and roofs are covered with copper. 

In the interior, the lower story contains an Entrance Hall, rooms for 
the Secretary of State, Treasurer, Auditor, and numerous Committee 
Tooms. The second or principal story, contains a Vestibule, and stair- 
ways, a Representatives Hall, 57 by 67 feet, with a Lobby, and Galleries 
for spectators ; a Senate Chamber, 30 by 44 feet, with Lobby and Gallery ; 
a Governor's room, 24 by 20 feet, with an ante-room, and a room for his 
Secretary adjoining ; a Library room, 18 by 36 feet ; rooms for the several 
officers of the Senate and House of Representatives, and several com- 
mittee rooms. The cost of this building, including all expenses, was 
ahoat $132,100 ; of which the inhabitants of Montpelier paid $15,000. 

At the first session of the Legislature of Vermont, within this building, 
in October, 1838, the following resolution was unanimously adopted : 

" Resolved, by the General Assembly of the State of Vermont, that 
the thanks of this Legislature be presented to Ammi B. Youm^o, Esq., 
as a testimonial of their approbation of the taste, ability, fidelity and 
perseverance which he has manifested in the design and execution of the 
new capitol of this state ; which will abide as a lasting monument of the 
talents and taste of Mr. Yovitg as an Architect." 


Montrllle, Me. 206. Mohegan w«s thon included 

xtr ij Ti.:« 5« « T^^o»f;^.l1 »» the limits of that town. At the 

Waldo CO. This is a oeautiiul *• *i. • ox • ^ 

J «^ . v 4 ^ „„x^ ,j u„ same time there were in Stoninetoa 

M»d flounshmg 'o^". 7»'?™'' by 33 .„ g^^^^ .^ Lyme IMJ 

wmeoftheheadbranchesof Sheep- i„ jj'orwich 61, and in Preston 80 

.cot river. 26 miles E. N. L Jrom .^ ^^^ ^ ^^ 

Augusta and 15 W. from Belfast .^^^j^^^j ,, descended from ^ose 

Zo7^' 837' 1^87 Wheat "''° ""<='' °^''<» =»•"« ^^^ "^ *>»«■ 

Sl^'t! 8.0^ bushels giancetoUncas. Dr Holmes, who 

ww^*, xwvi, w,v,^ »/w visited Mohegan m 1S03, says that 

MontvUle Ct. " there were not more than 80 per- 
sons of this tribe remaining, and 

New London co. Montville was that John Cooper, the richest man 
taken from New London in 1786. in the tribe, possessing a yoke of 
The surface is hilly and stony ; the oxen and two cows, was then their 
soil a dry, gravelly loam, strong and religious teacher." Four years af- 
fertile. It lies on the W. side of ter, they were reduced in number 
the river Thames, 35 miles S. E. to sixty nine, these being for the 
from Hartford, 8 N. from New most part aged persons, widows, and 
London, and 7 S. from Norwich, fatherless children. 
The town has a good water power Within the course of a few years 
and contains 3 cotton and 2 woolen past, an effort has been made to el- 
factories, and an oil mill. Popula- evate and rescue the remnant of 
tioD, 1830, 1,964. this tribe from extinction. A small 

This, and a large tract of country house for divine worship has been 

lying north and east of it, formerly erected, and also a house for a teach- 

belonged to the Mohegans, a tribe er ; towards erecting this last build- 

of Indians once celebrated for their ing the United States government 

warlike prowess and friendship to appropriated 500 dollars; they have 

the English. In Montville is a also allowed, recently, 400 dollars 

tract reserved by the state, for the annually for the support of a teach- 

maintenance of a remnant of that er. The school, consisting of up- 

tribe, " on the land of their fathers." wards of 20 scholars, at this time is 

The Mohegan reservation consists under the care of Mr. Anson Glca- 

of about 2,700 acres. It was hold- son, who also officiates as a religious 

en by them in common till the teacher at the Mohegan Chapel, 

year 1790, when it was divided to Mr. Gleason commenced his labors 

each family by the legislature of among this people in 1832, and it is 

Connecticut. The Mohegans are firmly believed that his efforts to 

under the care of guardians, or over- promote the welfare of this people 

seers, appointed by the legislature, will be attended with lasting and 

A part ot the lands are occupied by beneficial effects. Mr. Gleason 

the Indians themselves, and a part says, " that he can say for a certain- 

by white tenants, of which there ty, that the native children are as 

are as many as Mohegans living on apt to learn as any children he ever 

the reservation. The rents go into taught, and bid lair for intelligent 

a common fund, from which the men and women." He also says, 

Mohegans derive, individually, a " This tribe had well nigh run out 

small sum annually. by indulging in the use of ardent 

In 1774, when a census of the in- spirits ; but of late there is a change 

habitants of Connecticut was taken, for the better, a number of r«!for- 

there were in the colony 1,363 In- mations having taken place. Most 

dians. The number in the township of the youth are opposed to strong 

of New London was stated to be drink, and are members of the tern- 


perance reform. The greater part 
of the working men follow the whale 
trade, and come home only now and 
then. . . . We are on the increase, 
and hope in the course of a few years, 
through the mercy of God, to rise 
in point of virtue and respectabili- 

The Mohegan church is between 
three and four miles from Norwich 
city, a few rods east of the public 
road from Norwich to New London. 
It is beautifully situated on an em- 
inence commanding a fair view ef 
Norwich at the north, and New 
London at the south. It was built 
in 1831, at an expense of between 
six and seven hundred dollars, con- 
tributed for the purpose mostly by 
benevolent ladies in the cities of 
Norwich, Hartford and New Lon- 
don. 1 his house is designed for the 
use of the Mohegans, and the white 
inhabitants who reside on the re- 
servation. The Mohegan school- 
house is 40 or 50 rods south of the 
chapel, at the foot of the hill, near 
by which is the house for the teach- 
er. About 100 rods west of the 
chapel, on the summit of a com- 
manding eminence, was situated a 
Mohegan fort, some traces of which 
remain ; they also had another fort 
near the river. 

«* Lo ! where a savage fortress frowned 
Amid yon blood-cemenied ground, 
A hallowed dome, with peaceful claim. 
Shall bear the meek Redeemer's name ; 
And forms like those that linc^ering stayed 
Latest »r:eaih Calvary's awful shade, 
And eatUeat pierc'd the gathered gloom 
T^ watch the Savior's lowly tomi) — 
8acb gentle forms the Indian's ire 
Hare sooth'd and bade that dome aspire. 
And now, where rose the murderous yell, 
The tuneful hymn to God shall swell- 
Where vengeance spread a fatal snare, 
Shall breathe the red man*4 contrite prayer." 

moose Rirers. 

Jifoose river y'ln Maine, is a large 
tributary to Moosehead lake. It 
rises in the western part of Somer- 
set county, and after receiving the 
waters of several large ponds in 
that quarter, it passes through Bras- 

sua lake, 4 or 5 miles W. of the 

Moose river, in New Hampshire* 
has its source on the N. side of the 
White Mountains, and unites with 
the Androscoggin in Shelburne. — 
Its source is very near that of Is- 
rael's river, which passes W. into 
the Connecticut. 

Moose river, in Vermont, is a 
branch of the Passumpsic ; it rises 
in Granby and East Haven, and 
falls into thi^t river at St. Johnsbury. 
This, in many places, is a rapid 
stream, about 25 miles in length. 

Moose Head laJme, Me* 

This lake, the outlet of which is 
the source of Kennebec river, lies 
in the county of Piscataquis. Its 
form is very irregular. Its length 
is between 40 and 50 miles, and its 
breadth, in the widest part, about 
12 miles. The tributaries are nu- 
merous, and flow from almost every 
direction. It contains a number of 
islands, the largest of which is Su- 
gar island, containing 5,440 acres, 
and Deer island, containing 2,000 
acres. These islands are fertile, as 
is the whole country surrounding 
the lake, except in some places 
where the banks are high and pre- 
cipitous. The waters are deep and 
abound in trout of an extraordinary 

It is remarkable that the territory 
surrounding this inland sea, possess- 
ing in rich abundance all the ne- 
cessary requirements for the uses 
and comforts of man, and within 
three hundred miles of the capital 
of New England, should be left a 
wilderness garden, uninhabited and 
almost unexplored; while thous- 
ands of New Euglaifd men are press- 
ing to distant regions, less health- 
ful, Siud less productive, when mar- 
kets for surplus produce are consid- 

The only settlement, of any con- 
sequence, on the borders of this 
beautiful lake, is HaskelVs Planta' 
Hon, at the southern boundary. — 



This place lies 15 miles N. from 
Monson, from which town stages 
pass to Bangor, 60 miles. A steam- 
boat plies up and down the lalce, 
for the purpose of transporting pas- 
sengers, more particularly those 
who are engaged in felling timber ; 
and for the purpose of towing the 
timber down to the Kennebec out- 

The lumber business on this lake 
is very extensive, and doubtless lu- 
crative ; but the time is not very 
distant when this and other sections 
of Maine, will be as much valued 
for the fruits of the soil ; and, under 
the wise system of geological ex- 
ploration, adopted by the legisla- 
ture, for the quarries of slate, lime, 
granite, marble, and even coal, as 
they are now for their forests of 

This lake may be divided into 
two bays. A little above the cen- 
tre of it, is a narrow pass of rath- 
er less than a mile across. At 
this place, on the western side, is 
Mount Keneo,an elevation of five or 
six hundred feet projecting over the 
water. From this height a pictur- 
esque view of the lake, its islands, 
and a boundless wilderness, is pre- 
sented. When the wind blows fresh 
from the north, the waters of the 
north bay press through this strait 
with considerable force, and cause 
the south bay to rise two or three 

A dam has been erected at the 
outlet, for the purpose of raising 
the lake 3 or 4 feet, so as to let the 
the water off as occasion may re- 
quire, to facilitate the passage of 
lumber on the river. We hope, 
for the benefit of our friends down 
stream, that the dam is of solid ma- 
terials and well constructed. 

MootelUlloclc Mountain^ N. H., 

Is a noble and lofty eminence 
In the S. E. part of Coventry, and 
ranks among the highest mountains 
in New England, The altitude of 

the north peak abore tid^ water, U 
4,636 feet — that of the south peak, 
is 4,536 feet, fiaker's river has id 
source on its eastern side. 

Mooselttckmagmatte lAlcey Me* 

A large sheet of water which 
empties into the Molechunkamunk, 
about 2 miles south. 

Moretoiirny Vt« 

Washington co. Mad river, a 
branch of the Onion, waters this 
town and gives it good mill seats. 
The surface is nM>untainous, and a 
great part of the soil unfit for culti- 
vation. First settled, 1790. Pop- 
ulation, 1S30, dl6. It lies 8 miles 
S. W. from Montpelicr. 

Orleans co. First settled, 1800. 
It lies 50 miles N. E. from Montpe- 
licr, and 15 N. N.E. from Irasburgh. 
Population, 1830, 331. Knowlton*8 
lake, a handsome sheet of water, 
containing a variety of fish, lies in 
this town. It is 4 miles in length, 
and 2 in breadth, and empties into 
Clyde river. 

Morristo'wiiy Vt. 

Lamoille co. This town lies 20 
miles N. by W. from Montpelier, 
and 6 S. from Hyde Park. First 
settled, 1790. Population, 1830, 
1,315. The surface of the town is 
diversified by hills and valleys; 
the soil is good, particularly on the 
banks of Lamoille river, which af- 
fords some water power. Here is 
a neat village, and considerable 
business. The people are general- 
ly farmers, and produce cattle, but- 
ter, cheese, and a large quantity of 
wool for market. 

MoscoTT, Me. 

Somerset co. Moscow is water- 
ed by a pond, and by a beautiful 
stream, a branch of the Kennebec, 
and lies on the east side of that 
river. It is 80 miles N. from Nor- 



ti J^ wock, and 68 N. from Augusta. 
This town ha9 a ffood soil and a 
pleMant village. It was incorpo- 
rated in 1816. Population, 183^, 
477. Wheat crop, same year , 4,273 

Moultonborougliy N. H.y 

Straflbrd co., is situated on the N. 
W. shore of Winnepisiogee lake. 
This interesting town lies 45 miles- 
N. from Concoi3,and 20 E. from Fly* 
mouth. This town is broken by 
mountains and ponds. Red Hill, ly- 
ing wholly within this town, com- 
mands notice from the east, south, 
and west; and extends about 8 
miles from £. to W., between Red 
Hill river on the N., Great Squam 
on the W., Great Squam and Long 
pond on the S., terminating S. £. 
by a neck of fine land extending 
into the Winnepisiogee. Its sum- 
mit is covered with the uv4B ursi 
and low blueberry bush, which in 
autumn eive the hill a reddish hue, 
from which circumstance its name 
was probably derived. A number 
of oval bluiSs rise on its summit, 
from each of which the prospect 
on either hand is extensive and de- 
lightful. The north bluff is sup- 
posed to consist of a body of iron 
ore. Bog ore it found in a brook 
descending from this bluff. Ossi- 
pee mountain extends its base into 
this town, and is a commanding 
elevation. On the south part of 
this mountain, in Moultonborough, 
is a mineral chalybeate spring, Uie 
wateiv strongly impregnated with 
iron and sulphur, and efficacious 
in cutaneous eruptions. About a 
mile north is a spring of pure cold 
water, 16 feet in diameter, through 
the centre of which the water, con- 
taining a small portion of fine white 
sand, IS constantly thrown up to the 
height of two feet — the spring fur- 
nishing water sufficient for mills. 
On Uie stream nearly a mile below, 
is a beautiful waterfall of 70 feet 
per^ndicular. Descending on the 
left of this fall, a cave is found, con- 


taining charcoal and other eviden- 
ces 01 its having been a hiding 
place for the Indians. Red Hill 
river originates in Sandwich, and 
passes through this town into the 
Winnepisiogee. Long popd is a 
beautiful sheet of water, and con- 
nects with the lake by a channel 
sixty rods in length. Squam and 
Winnepisiogee lakes lie partly in 
Moultonborough. The soil of this 
town is fruitful, though in some 
parts rocky. Moultonborough was 
eranted in 1763, to Col. Jonathan 
Moulton and others. Settlements 
commenced in 1764. 

Many Indian implements and rel- 
ics have been found indicating this 
to have been once their favorite 
residence. In 1820, on a small isl- 
and in the Winnepisiogee,was found 
a curious gun barrel, much worn by 
age and rust, divested of its stock, 
enclosed in the body of a pitch pine 
tree 16 inches in diameter. Its butt 
rested on a flat rock, its muzzle el- 
evated about 80O. In 1819, a small 
dirk, 1 1-2 feet in length from the 
point to the end of the hilt, round 
blade, was found in a new field, one 
foot under ground, bearing strong 
marks of antiquity. 

On the line of Tuflonborou|^, on 
the shore of the lake, at the inKith 
of Melvin river, a gigantic skeleton 
was found about 80 years since, bu- 
ried in a sandy soil, apparently that 
of a man more than seven feet high 
— the jaw bones easily passing over 
the face of a large man. A tumu- 
lus has been discovered on a piece 
of newly cleared land, of the length 
and appearance of a human grave, 
and handsomely rounded with 
small stones, not found in this part 
of the country ; which ptones are 
too closely placed to be separated 
by striking an ordinary blow with 
a crow-bar, and bear marks of being 
a composition. The Ossipee tribe 
of Indians once resided in this vi- 
cinity, and some years since a tree 
was standing in Moultonborough, 
on which was carved in hieroglyph* 



ic8 the history of their expeditions. 
Population, 1830, 1,422. 

Mount Deserty Me. 

Hancock co. This town com- 
prised the whole island of the same 
name, lying between Frenchman's 
bay and the waters of Blue Hill 
bay, and Union river, until 1795, 
when the north part was set off and 
called Eden. It lies 110 miles £. 
from Augusta. Incorporated, 1789. 
Population, 1837, 1,783. 

This town has an extensive coast, 
and a number of excellent harbors. 
The people of Mount Desert own 
considerable navigation employed 
in the coasting trade ; and the shore 
fishery, is a lucrative branch of 
business. The soil of the town is 
good, and abundantly able to supply 
the inhabitants with breiid stuffs. 
In 1837, the ocean towns of Mount 
Desert and Eden, produced 674 
bushels of good wheat. We men- 
tion this fact, to show that there 
must be something, other than sea 
air, which causes that valuable 
grain to blight on the coast of Mas- 

Motuit UoUy, Vt. 

^■fland CO. A pleasant town 
lying 60 miles S. from Montpelicr, 
and 17 S. E. from Rutland. First 
settled, 1781. Population, 1830, 
1,318. The surface of the town is 
elevated, and in some parts moun- 
tainous, but the soil is well adapted 
for grazing, and produces consider- 
able quantities of wool, beef, but- 
ter, and cheese. 

Mounts Holyoke dc> Tom, Mass. 

See JVorthampton. 

Mount Hope, 

And MouKTT Hope Bay. See 
Bristol, R. L 

Mount Tabor, Vt. 

Rutland co. Otter Creek rises in 
this town, by a branch on each side 
of a mountain. Most of tho land 

is unfit for cultivation, it beinj^ m 
high on the Green mountain range. 
It lies 66 miles S. by W. from Mont- 
pelicr, and 19 S. by £. from Rut- 
land. Population, 1830, 210. 

Mount Vernon, Me. 

Kennebec co. This town lies 
W. of Belgrade, E. of Vienna, and 
15 miles N. W. from Augusta. In- 
corporated, 1792. Population,1837, 
1,503. There are three pleasant 
villages in the town : the soil is re- 
marubly good, and is watered by 
a number of beautiful ponds and 
small streams. Wheat crop, 1837, 
5,888 bushels. 

Mount Vernotti N. H., 

Hillsborough co., is 3 miles N. 
W. from Amherst, and 28 S. W. 
from Concord. There is but one 
stream of any note, and this was 
called by the Indians Quohquina- 
passakessananagnog. The situa- 
tion is elevated, and towards the E. 
and S E. there is a considerable 
prospect. There is a flourishing 
village situated near the highest 
point of elevation. This town was 
originally a part of Amherst, from 
which it was detached in 1803. 

Dr. Daktiei. Adams, who com- 
menced and conducted the Medical 
and Agricultural Register, and is 
author of a popular system of arith- 
metic, school geography, and a 
number of useful schOo) books, has 
his residence in this place. Popu- 
lation, 1830, 763. 

Mount VFaslUngfton, Mmmu 

Berkshire co. This town lies in 
the S. W. corner of the state, bor- 
dering on Ct. and N. Y. It is 135 
miles W. by S. from Boston, 22 S. 
S. W. from Lenox, and 26 S. E. 
from Hudson, N. Y. Incorporated, 
1779. Population, 1837, 337. 

These people seem to enjoy a 
more elevated situation than any of 
their neighbors : one of their hilla 
is 3,150 feet above the sea. They 
keep 600 sheep, and manufacture 


ikbout 100,000 bushels of charcoal, 
annually. A mountain stream af- 
fords them a water power for an axe 
factory and forge. These people, 
likewise, appear to be more inde- 
pendent of the common wants of 
mankind than other folks ; for they 
have no minister, physician, law- 
yer, post office, or tavern, yet they 
are remarkably healthy ; and as far 
as we can judge, intelligent and 

Miuleonffii* Rl-ver and Bajr^ Me. 

Lincoln co. Muacongui' rivers 
rises in large ponds in the interior 
of the county, and on the border of 
Waldo county : it passes through 
Waldoborough, and separating Bre- 
men and Friendship, it forms the 
head waters of Muscongus hay. — 
This bay has a number of islands 
and lies between St. George's isl- 
ands off* the town of St. George, 
on the E., and Pemmaquid point, 
in Bremen, on the W. 

Naluuity Mass* 

This celebrated watering place, 
is a part of the beautiful town of 
Lynn. It is a peninsula, jutting 
out about 5 miles into Massachu- 
setts bay, and forms Lynn bay on 
the south. From Boston to Nahant 
hotel, on the eastern point of the 
peninsula, by land, is 14 miles; 
from the centre of Lynn, 5; and 
from Salem 9 miles. On the N. £. 
side of this peninsula is a beach of 
great length and smoothness. It is 
wo hard that a horse's foot-steps are 
scarcely visible ; and, from half-tide 
to low water, it affords a ride of su- 
perior excellence. Much may be 
said in praise of Nahant without 
exaggeration. Its formation, situa- 
tion, and rugged shore, excites the 
curiosity of all, and many thou- 
sands annually visit it for health, or 

It is only 10 miles N. £. from 
Boston,by the steam-boats, continu- 
ally plying in summer months : at 
this place are good fishing and fowl- 

ing, excellent accommodations: the 
ocean scenery is exceedingly beau- 
tiful in fair weather, and truly sub- 
lime in a storm. 

Nantaskety Mass* 

See HvU. 

Naatnolcet Co. Mass. and To'vrau 

An island in the Atlantic ocean- 
town and county. It lies £. of 
Dukes county, and about 30 miles 
S. of Cape Cod, or Barnstable coun- 
ty. This island is about 15 miles in 
length, from east to west, and about 
4 miles average breadth. It con- 
tains 50 square miles. The town, 
formerly called Shelbume, is in 
about tiie centre of the island, on 
the north side, in lat. 41^ !& 42", 
W. Ion,, 70° 7' 42". It is 100 miles^ 
S. £. by S. from Boston, 55 S. £. 
from New Bedford, 30 S. £. from 
Falmouth, and 500 from Washing ^ 
ton. Population, 1837, 9,048. 

Nantucket has a good harbor, 
with 7 1-2 feet of w'ater, at low tide, 
on the bar at its mouth. This island 
was formerly well wooded, but for 
many years it has not had a single 
tree of natural growth. The soil is 
light and sandy ; it however affords 
pasturage for about 7,000 sheep, 500 
cows, and other cattle. Ilk 1659, 
when this county was incorporated, 
the island contained 3,000 Indians, 
but now, not one. 

The whale fishery commenced 
here in 1690 ; and this place is, 
perhaps, more celebrated than 
any other, for the enterprize and 
success of its people, in that spe- 
cies of nautical adventure. Indeed 
Nantucket is the mother of that 
great branch of wealth in America, 
if not in the world. In the year 
ending April 1, 1837, Nantucket 
employed 74 vessels in that fishery, 
the tonnage of which was 25,875 
tons 1,277,009 gallons of sperm 
and whale oil was imported, the 
value of which was $1,114,012. 
The number of hands employed, 
was 1,897. The capital invested. 


was (2,620,000 ; this includes the 
diips and outfits only ; yet many of 
tiie manufactories of the place, are 
appendages of the whale fishery ; 
altogether, employing a capital of 
over five millions of dollars. There 
are manufactures on the island, of 
vessels, whale hoats, bar iron, tin 
ware, boots, shoes, oil casks, and 
candle boxes. The whole amount 
of the manufactures, for that year, 
including oil and candles, was $2,- 
624,907. Total tonnage of the dis- 
trict of Nantucket, in 1837, 29,960 

Great attention is paid to educa- 
tion on this island. The men are 
noted for their sedateness and daring 
•pirit, and the women for their in- 
telligence and beauty. 

J^antiicket Shoah is a danger- 
ous place, where many a sailor has 
found a watery grave. They lie 
S. E. from the island, and cover an 
area of about 60 by 46 miles. 

Saplesy Me* 

Cumberland co. This town was 
formed from Otisfield and Raymond, 
and incorporated in 1884. It is wa- 
tered by Sebago and Songo ponds, 
and Crooked and Muddy rivers. It 
has good mill privileges, and a pro- 
ducttve soil. Population, 1837, 722. 
Naples lies 68 miles W. S. W. from 
Augusta, and 27 N. N. W. from 

Narmgaiftset Bajr, R* I* 

This delightful bay lies wholly 
within the limits of Rhode Island : 
its entrance extends from Point Ju- 
dith on the west, to Seaconnet 
Rocks on the east, and terminates 
at Bullock's point, about 6 miles 
below the city of Providence. The 
leng^ of this bay is about 28 miles : 
Its breadth varies from 8 to 12 miles. 
It receives the waters of the Taun- 
ton, Providence, Pawtuxet, and 
other rivers, and on its borders are 
Newport, Bristol, Warren, and oth- 
er large and flourishing towns. It 
is decked with many islands of great 

fertility and beauty ; the principal 
of which are Connanicut, Prudence, 
Patience, Block and Hope. This 
bay is near the ocean ; is accessible 
at all seasons ; is well protected by 
powerful forts, and aflbrdi some of 
the best harbors in the world. The 
board of naval commissioners have 
recently reported to Congress tiiat 
the waters of Narraganset Bay af- 
ford greater advantages for a naval 
depot, than any other unoccupied 
poeitioii on the coast of the United 

Washington co. The river rises 
in several ponds in Beddington, and 
passing in a southeastern direction, 
falls into a bay of the same name, 
between Harrington and Steuben. 
The bay contains a number of isl- 
ands, between which is a good pas- 
sage into Pleasant bay, on the ewt 

mmahmrmfn lalaady Mmmu^ 

And NASHAWsirirA. BeeElix* 
abeth Islands, 

A beautiful stream on the S. part of 
Hillsborough co. N.H. has its aouree 
in Worcester countv, Massachu- 
setts. It is formed of twobranchM 
called the north and south branchM. 
The north branch is formed of two 
streams, one from Ashbumham, the 
other from Wachuset ponds. The 
south branch is composed of Slfll 
river, issuing from the E. side of 
Wachuset mountain, and a small 
stream from Quinepoxet pond in 
Holden. These branches are uni- 
ted in Lancaster, from which the 
main river proceeds in a N. S. 
course to Harvard, Shirley, Groton, 
and Pepperell in Massachnaetts ; 
and from thence into New Hamp- 
shire through Hollis, and nearly 
the centre of the town of Nashua, 
where it falls into the Menimeck 


Billsborougb CO. This tawn 
origlntlly embraced a large extfnl 
of lerritoiy, and was called Dun- 
stable until IS36. It lies 34 miles 
' S. by E. from Cooconl, 13 S. E. 
from Amhent, and 12 N. W. Thotn 
Lowell. The populationof DuDaU- 
ble, in 1880, was 2,414. Popalation 
of Nashua, in 1S36, 6,06S; IS3T, 
S,S18; 183S, 6,691. 

In the N. E. part of the tonn, 
on Nashua river. Is the Qoiirishing 
Villagt of JVaihua, the centre of 
a caosiderable trade, and the seat 
of important manufactures. Thia 
Tillage contains 8 beautiful church- 
es, a large number of elegant dwctl- 
hig-houses, 50 atiirei, and 10 tav- 

The JVaakaa Jtfani^acturiTig 
Ctimpany waa incorporated in 1833. 
Ithas three cotton mills, ISB feet in 
length, 45 in breadth and six stories 
Inhelght. They contain 22, GOO spin- 
dles, 710 looms, and manufacluio 
9,890,000 yards of clotb per annum. 
Their canal Is 3 miles Ions, 60 feet 
Widfa, and S feet deep. Head and 
Jail, S3 feet. Capital, $760,000. 

The Jackion Manufacturing 
Company fta» incorporated in 1834. 
Capiul, *600,0O0. Theyhavelwo 
cotton mills, 166 feet long, 47 wide. 
and 4 stories high. These mill; 
contain 11,G00 spindles, and K^S 
looms. They manufacture B,6S4,- 
(HM.yaids of cloth uioiially. Thi-ir 
eanal Is half a mile in length, ?nr< 
■ ■ L liie 

facturesoD Nashua river and Oi* 
n-Blera of Salmon brook. 

Tha Nashua and Lowell nU- 
rond was opened for travel on tfao 
Bth of October, 1838. 

The soil of Nashua has coiisidei^ 
able variety. II is easy of culti- 
vation, and is generally productive. 
The east part of the town, lying on 
the river, presents avery level sur- 
face. The west parts are divided 
lata hills and valleys, but the whole 
township may be considered far 
from being hilly or mountainous. 
"■ —■----' by the Nashua river. 

,448 :- 


the stale of Massi 

Salninnbrook, a small stream which 
originates from several pondt In 
Grnlan. Both of these empty Into 
Merrimack river, the former at 
Nashua viUare, the latter about one 
and a half mile below. 

This was for a long time a frtm- 
tier town, and the finC settlers were 
many times annoyed by the Indians, 

. this 

river. Head and fall, 

The volume of water afforded hj 
the Nashua river, at the lirjeifsea 
•on of the year, is ISO cubic fffi 
per second. 

The number of operatives in al. 
the mills at Nashua is 1 
mates, 1,238', males, li 
number of pounds of cMi 
14,600 perday, ar4,6S8,I! 

There are other valuable manu- 

na; much exposed, and some of 
Die inhabitants fled to the older set- 
tlements. InLovewell'awtr, the 
eompmy in this town under the 
liE-in: Copt. John Lovewell, acquir- 
ed ^in imperishable name. Their 
'-uioesBGs at first, and misfortunes 
iiltPi wards, have been ofteji i«peat- 
ed »nd ai* generally known. 

DiiDstable belonged to Massa- 
rlui'otts litl the divisional line be- 
Tivc!>n the two provinces of Massa- 
cbiiieds and New Hampshire was 
srt1l<<d, in 1741. It was Incorpora- 
ted by New Hampshire, April I, 
1746, and the name was altered to 
Nashmin December, 1836. 
Natollmng RivBr, Ct> 

This is the largest branch of the 
^etuckel. It rises in Union and 
nvooilsfock, and joins the Shetncket 
near the line of Chaplin and M ana- 

Ml town, of good Mii]; it U wdlered I «»"» * P^' "^■'"^ ^«^ 

•^ deUgbtful pouU, .til AH«4 , •»«•. ^ ,''»*:^ ^Sli^!!*";~ 
With fiih. Thi. w« > broriU «- — ■■«' Tdnc. Jbwitgiwy». ^ 
Kft of th. iDdiuu. There » fri?^'""- '>~'?*^/"n> 
■omc inod«nte <l«T>t><«. in the y?" J^f^J"™" 'i^.l S*? £■ 
town: the lDd>u» oMd to «U it W. fr«n D.rfh«. yd 11 W. 8^y. 
"tbeplueof hUh." tom Bortoo, hy the Bo*o Md W«»- 

Undor the odrice uid direetiim **"*■' ™|.ro«id. 
•r the spoitle Elliot, the fint In- i 
dian church in New England wu 
fiMmed here Id 16S4, and comptiicd I . 
" Torkhirboi. " 

A rocky, barren hlnff, inhatdtod 

The maaufaclnrea of the town 
eoiuiit principallj' of ihoea. Dur- 
ing the year eikdiiig April 1, 1B37, 
SH.SM pain were made, valued 

-n-,«v „«„ w... n,«.e, „,uc>, « . P^^*'^'7 ^'^^'^'^^J^ 
*2ia.0S«: employing 452 handt 1 '"'B'" ?' ij™" >*T"" '^"^ 
ThtatownwaiiQCorporatedinlTSI. , "' ™ "T,'™?"" "V!^ 

p,.i.a„, i>«.Z. iMT.iOT. I IJ^-^.'-r'i.'iit'T'bSl^^K 

the AahnelotriTerriaet; and bon 

It liei 18 mile* W. S. W. bomBoo- 
(on, and 12 S. (rom CoDcord. 


Thia importaol mill iCream if 
about 60 milei in leogth. It rises 
In the north part of Litchfield coun- 
ty, and after traveraiijg a 6. cour» 
■early the whole length of that 
caun&, it erowes the weitpartof 
New Haven eoDnty, and (alli Into 
Ibe Housatonick at l)erby. 

Keia'a Bnek awdl Pud, Tt. 

Naal'i brook, or branch, ri»a ia 
Lunenbnrgb and the border of 
Guildhall, and ruDning aouth falli 
Into a pond of the lamB name. It 
continues it! coune ■oDthand meets 
the CoonecticuL This is a short 
■traam, but raluabla on account of 
Its water power. 

JVeors pond, a mile in length, 
Md a half mile in width, Is i 
bandaome aheet of water, and cod- 
laUia a variety of fish. 

NorfUk eo. This town Is neai# 
~ >dby the water* of Charies 

cock, ixuea a branch of Cl 
river. The beat mill privilegHai« 
fumiibed by streams issuing from 
pondi in this town, of which than 
are four, coolaiaing ■ (urfaCe ef 
1,800 aeies. There la a eollan and 
other mannhctoriea. The Inhabit- 
ants are priDdpally bnuera at lo- 
dnstriooa bahlis. It was chartend 
Feb. 22, 1TT4, by the name sf 
Packenfitld. In June, 1814, the 
name wu altered to NelMn. The 
Nelson lies 40 tnilea 8. W. fi«aa 
Concord, and 8 N. E. fraan Keen*. 
Population, 18S0. 8TS. 

Heponaat Blver, Mmmm. 
NorMk CO. The sODrcea tA tUs 
river are in Cantim, Stonghton, and 
Sharon. It receirea a trflmtary 
from Charlea river. Mother break, 
M called, and meet* the Ude oT Boa- 
ton harbor at Milton Mills, 4 allM 
trom Dorchester bay. TUa la a 
noble mill stream : on Its BaTi|;ahla 
waters is the depository ti the QnlB- 
cy gnnite rail-road c 


at its mQQtliii Commereitl Point, in 
Dorchester, a beautiful place, with 
an excellent harbor. 

Vevmggvmf Gapey Me. 

This cape is a part of the town of 
Boothbay. It extends about 5 miles 
into the sea, and forms the eastern 
boundary of Sheepscot's bay. 

Ne-warlKy Vt. 

Caledonia co. The Passumpsic 
river is formed in this town by a 
collection of streams issuing prin- 
cipally from ponds. The town is 
not mountainous, but the soil is cold 
and generally unproductive. It 
lies 44 miles N. £. from Montpe- 
lier, and 19 N. W. from Guildhall. 
First settled, 1800. Population, in 
1880, 257. 

Netv Ashfordy Mass. 

Berkshire co. This is a moun- 
tainous township, but the soil is 
Ipood for grazing. In 1837, the val- 
ue of 2,708 fleeces of wool, pro- 
duced in this town, weighing 7,785 
pounds, was worth ^8,898. New 
Asl^ford produces fine white and 
variegated marble, and is the source 
of Green river. It lies 130 miles 
W. by N. from Boston, and 18 N. 
Irom Lenox. Incorporated, 1801. 
Population, 1837,253. 

Netv Bedford, Mass. 

This is ahalf shire town of Bristol 
county, and port of entry, pleas- 
antly ntuated on the W. side of the 
Acnshnet, a river, or more proper- 
ly an estuary, connected wiUi Buz- 
zard's bay. The ground on which 
the town stands rises rapidly from 
tlie river, and affi>rds an interesting 
Tiew from the opposite side. 

The upper part of the town is 
laid out into beautiful streets, which 
contain many costly and superb 

This harbor, though not easy of 
recess, is capacious and well secur- 
ed from winds. A wooden bridge, 
Moar the centra of the town, con- 

nects it with the village of Fair- 
haven. A ferry has also been es- 
tablished, on which it is proposed to 
run a steam boat. 

New Bedford was incorporated 
in 1787, previous to which it con- 
stituted a part of the town of Dart- 
mouth. In 1812, the eastern part 
was set off as a separate township 
by the name of Fairhaven. 

The almost exclusive business of 
the place is the whale fishery, 
which commenced before the war 
of the revolution, and has gradual- 
ly grown to its present importance. 
The increase, however, within the 
last 12 years has been more rapid 
than during any former period. — 
The number of ships and brigs now 
employed is 169. Tonnage of the 
district, in 1837, 85,130 tons. 

There are 16joil manufactories, at 
which a large amount of oil and can- 
dles is made. A considerable quan- 
tity of the oil imported is, however, 
sold in the crude state to other pla- 

The manufactures of the town 
consist of leather, boots, shoes, hats, 
iron castings, axes, chairs, tin and 
cabinet wares, vessels, salt, cord- 
age, soap, Prussian blue, paper 
hangings, carriages, looking-glass 
frames, and carpenter's tools : the 
total value, for the year ending 
April 1, 1837, including oil and can- 
dles, amounted to $690,800. There 
were imported, during that year, 
2,472,785 gallons of oil, and 805,170 
pounds of whale bone, the value 
of which was $1,750,882. The 
capital invested in the whale fish- 
ery was $4,210,000. The num- 
ber of hands employed was 4,000. 

Few places in Massachusetts have 
increased in population more rapidly 
than this. By the census of 1790, 
the population of the village was 
about 700. In 1830, the township 
contained 7,592 ; in 1833, 9,200, 
and in 1837, 14,804. 

Within a few year8,the inhabitants 
of this town have manifested a com- 
mendable liberality in providing the 


means of education. There is a 
flourishing academy in the town, and 
large sums are annually appropria- 
ted lor the maintenance of public 
and private schools. 

A rail-road will soon be construct- 
ed from this placo, to meet the Bos- 
ton and Providence, at Seckonk, 
by the way of Fall River; or to 
meet the Taunton rail-road at Taun- 
ton. By either of those routes, a 
trip to Boston or New York, would 
be very pleasant. A large and 
wealthy town, highly flourishing 
in its commerce and manufactures 
like this, with the neighboring isl- 
an<ls of Nantucket and Martha's 
Vineyard, seem to require it. 

New Bedford lies 52 miles S. 
from Boston, 52 N. W. from Nan- 
tucket, 14 E. by S. from Fall River, 
20 S. S. E. from Taunton, and 214 
N. E. by E. from New York. 

Neiv Boston) N. II.) 

Hillsborough co., is 9 miles N. 
N. W. from Amherst, and 22 S. 
by W. from Concord. It is water- 
ed by several streams, the largest 
of which is the S. branch of Piscat- 
aquog river, having its source in 
Pleasant pond, in Francestown. — 
This town consists of fertile hills, 
productive vales, and some valuable 
meadows. The soil is favorable for 
all the various productions common 
to this section of the state, and there 
are many excellent farms, under 

good cultivation. In the S. part of 
Tew Boston, there is a considerable 
elevation, called Jo English hill, on 
one side of which it is nearly per- 
pendicular. Its height is 572 feet. 
Beard's pond, and Jo English pond, 
are the only ponds of note. New 
Boston was granted, 1736, to inhab- 
itants of Boston. It was incorpora- 
ted, 1763. The first settlement 
commenced about the year 1733. 
The first minister was Rev. Solo- 
mon Moor, from Ireland, who re- 
ceived his education at Glasgow. 
In Feb. 1767, he arrived at New 
Boston, and was ordained Sept 6, 

176S ; died May 28, 1803, aged 07. 
Population, 1880, 1,680. 

Neiir BralAtreey BlaMi. 

Worcester co. Ware riTer and 
other streams Water this town, and 
afford it good mill privileges. The 
soil of the town is good, particular- 
ly for grazing : it has become cele- 
brated for its good farmers, and for 
its excellent beef cattle, butter and 
cheese. There is a cotton mill in 
the town, and manufactures of 
leather, pal m-leaf hats, &c. it lies 
60 miles W. from Boston, and 18 W. 
N. W. from Worcester. Incorpo- 
rated, 1751. Population, 1887, 780. 

Ne-lrb1lrgl^ Me. 

Penobscot co. This is a good 
township of land, 54 miles N. E. 
from Augusta, and 14 S. W. from 
Bangor. Incorporated, 1819. Pop- 
ulation, 1830, 626 ; 1887,867. Wa- 
tered by a branch of the Sowadabs- 
cook. Wheat crop, 1837, 5,041 

Ne-vrbnry, N. H. 

Merrimack co. This town was 
originally called Dantzick ; it was 
incorporated by the name of Fish- 
ersfield, in 1778, and took its pres- 
ent name, in 1837. It lies 40 miles 
N. W. by W. from Amherst, and 
30 W. by N. from Concord. The 
S. part of Sunapee lake lies in the 
N. W. part. Todd pond, 500 rods 
in length, and 60 in width, affords a 
small branch to Warner river. — 
From Chalk pond issues a small 
stream communicating mth Suna- 
pee lake. The land is generally 
mountainous, and the soil hard ai^ 
rocky. The first settlement in this 
town was made in the year 1762, 
by Zephaniah Clark, Esq. Popula- 
Uon, 1830, 798. 

NeTTburyy "VU 

Orange co. This is a beautiful 
town on the W. side of donnecfi- 
cut river, and supplied with mfll 
privileges by Wells river^ and 


Hariman's and HUl'g brooks. These 
brooks have their sources in ponds 
of considerable size. Newbury 
comprises the tract commonly call- 
ed the Great Oxbow, on a bend in 
Connecticut river. This tract is of 
great extent, and celebrated for its 
luzuriance and beauty. The agri> 
cultural productions of the town are 
very valuable, consisting of beef 
cattie, wool, and all the varieties of 
the dairy. The town contains a 
number of mineral springs, of some 
celebrity in scrofulous and cutane- 
ous complaints. 

The villages of JVewbury and 
JVeU$ River are very pleasant : 
they command a flourishing trade, 
and contain manufacturing estab- 
lishments of various kinds. Some 
of the buildings are very handsome. 
The scenery of the windings of the 
liver through this fine tract of al- 
luvial meadow, contrasted with the 
abrupt acclivities in the north part 
of Uie town, is very striking and 

The town is connected with Ha- 
Terbilly N. H., by two bridges. It 
lies 27 miles S. £. from Montpelier, 
and 20 N. £. from Chelsea. Popu- 
lation, liBdO, 2,262. First settled, 
1764. The first settlers endured 
many hardships. For some years 
ibey had to go to Charlestown to 
mill, 6Q miles distant, carrying their 

Sin in eanoes down the river, or 
wing it on the ice. 
Cteneral Baxi«kt, a patriot of the 
■ roTolutien, distinguished himself in 
ifae settleaient oi the town. 

The state legislature held their 
sessions in Newbury, in the years 
1787, and 1801. 

HTe-wbnryy Mass. 

Essex CO. This ancient and re- 
spectable town, lies on Merrimack 
river, opposite tolSalisbury. It for- 
merly comprised the territory of 
Newburyport and West Newbury. 
The soil is of an excellent quality, 
and in a high state of cultivation. 
barker and Artiehoke rivers are 

pleasant streams; the former fidls 
nearly 50 fnet in the town, and aC> 
fords it good mill seats. A part of 
Plum island, is attached to this town. 
This island, about nine miles in 
length and one in breadth, extend- 
ing from Ipswich river to the mouth 
of the Merrimack, is comprised of 
sandy beach and salt meadow ; and 
is noted for the beach plum, which 
ripens in September. 

A curious cavern, called the 
*< Devirs Den," contains specimens 
of asbestos, limestone, marble, ser^ 
pentine and amianthos. The scene- 
ry on the high grounds is rich, va- 
riegated and beautiful. 

Dummer academy, founded in 
1756, is a flourishing institution : it 
is situated in the parish of " By- 

The manufactures of Newbury 
consist of cotton goods, leather, 
boots, shoes, carriages, cordage, 
fishing nets, bed coMs and cotton 
lines : annual value about $75,000. 
A large number of vessels are built 
in the town, and some navigation 
is owned and employed in the coast- 
ing trade and fishery. 

This town is celebrated as the 
birth place of many distinguished 
men. Thbophiltts Parsoi^s, 
LL. D., an eminent jurist, was bom 
in Newbury, February 24, 1760. 
He died in Boston, October 6, 1818. 

Newbury was first settled, in 
1685. Its Indian name was Qu4^- 
cacunquen. It lies 81 miles N. by 
£. from Boston, 17 N. from Salem, 
and 8 S. from Newburyport. Pop 
ulation, 1887, 8,771. 

Nevrbnrjrporty Mass* 

One of the shire towns of Essex 
county. This is considered one of the 
most beautiful towns in New Eng- 
land. It lies on a gentle acclivity, 
on the south bank of the Merri- 
mack, at the union of that river 
with the ocean. In point of terri- 
tory, it is the smallest town in the 
commonwealth, being only one mile 
square. It was taken from New- 


bury in 1764. Population, in 1837, 
6,741. This place has been and 
now is considerably noted for its 
commerce and ship building. Some 
of the old continental frigates were 
built here ; and in 1790, the ton- 
nage of the port was 11,870 tons. 
Of late years the foreign commerce 
of the place has diminished, in con- 
sequence of a sand bar at the mouth 
of the harbor. This place has con- 
siderable inland and foreign com- 
merce. It has four whale ships, 
and a large amount of tonnage en- 
gaged in the freighting business 
and the cod and mackerel fisheries. 
Tonnage of the district, in 1837, 
22,078 tons. 

The manufactures of Newbury- 
port consist of cotton goods, boots, 
shoes, hats, bar iron, iron castings, 
chairs, cabinet and tin wares, combs, 
spirits, vessels, snuff, segars, or- 
gans, soap and candles: annual 
•mount about $350,000. The pro- 
duct of the whale fishery, the year 
ending April 1, 1837, was $142,982. 
During the same period, this town 
and Newbury had 128 vessels em- 
ployed in the cod and mackerel 
fishery, employing 1,000 hands: 
product that year, $177,700. 

Newburyport lies 34 miles N. by 
E. from Boston, 20 N. from Salem, 
24 S. by W. from Portsmouth, N. 
H., and 2 miles S. £. from Essex 
bridge. Lat. 42° 47' N. ; Ion. 70° 
47' W. From the mouth of this 
harbor. Plum Island, extends to the 
mouth of Ipswich river. 

The Hon. William Bartlett 
and Moses Brown, Esq., distin- 
guished for their enterprise and in- 
tegrity as merchants, were natives 
of this town. 

The celebrated George White- 
field, one of the founders of the 
sect of the Methodists, and one of 
its most eloquent preachers, died in 
this town, Sept. 21, 1770. 

A handsome monument has been 
erected to his memory, by the Hon. 
William Bartlett, the fol- 
lowing is a part of the inscriptioa : 

This Cenotaph 

Is erected, with affectionate 

veneration, to 

The memory of the 


Born at Gloucester, England, 

December 16, 171^ 

Educated at Oxford University; 

Ordained 1736. 

In a ministry of thirty-four years. 

He crossed the Atlantic thirteen tioiM| 

And preached more 

Than eighteen thousand Bermoni. 

As a Soldier of the 

Cross, humble, devout, ardent, 

He put on the 

Whole armor of God ; Preferring 

The honour of Christ 

To his own interest, repoee, 

Reputation, and life. 

Keiv Canaan, Ct« 

Fairfield co. This town was tak- 
en from Norwalk and Stamford in 
1801. It lies 5 miles N. W. from 
Norwalk, 37 W. S. W. from New 
Haven, and 50 N. E. from New 
York. Population, 1830, 1,826.— 
The surface of the town Is rough 
and mountainous; the soil is a hard, 
gravelly loam, but generally pro- 
ductive. The manufacture oi shoes 
is carried on to a considerable ex- 
tent: the annual value is about 

An academy was established here 
in 1815, and has acquired a high 
reputation. It stands on an eleva- 
ted and commanding situation, hav- 
ing a fine prospect of Long Island 
Sound and the intervening country. 
Pestles and other Indian implements 
have been found at the north part of 
the town, which probably was the 
resort of the natives. Ezcavatioos 
in solid rock, one large enough to 
contain eight gallons, are found: 
these were doubtless Indian mor^ 

Neiv Castle^ Me* 

Lincoln co. New Castle lies on the 
W. side of Damariscotta river, about 
15 miles from its mouth. It is 
36 miles S. E. from Augoste, and 
8 N. £. from Wiscasset. Inooipo- 


rated, 1T53: Population, in 1837, 
1,545. This is a pleasant town, and 
flourishing in its trade and naviga- 

Heir Castle, N. H., 

Rockingham co., is a rough and 
rocky island, situated in Portsmouth 
harbor, and formerly called Great 
Island. A handsome bridge, built 
in 1S21, connects this town with 
Portsmouth. Here is an ancient 
church. Rev. Samuel Moody 
preached here previous to the com- 
mencement of the 18th * centary . 
New Castle was incorporated in 
1693, and contains 458 acres. This 
island was the seat of business, 
when ancient Strawberry Bank 
was the mere germ of the town of 
Portsmouth. Fishing is here pur- 
sued with success; and the soil 
amon^ the rocks, being of good 
quality, is made to produce abund- 
antly. Fort Constitution and the 
light-house stand on this island. — 
Population, 1830, 850. 

Nevr Fairfield, Ct* 

Fairfield co. This is a small town- 
ship, rough and hilly, with a hard 
and gravelly soil. It lies 64 miles 
S. W. from Hartford, and 7 N. from 
Danbury. Incorporated, in 1740. 
Population, 1830, 940. 

Neir Durbaniy N. H* 

Strafibrd co. The surface of this 
town is very uneven, a portion so 
rocky as to be unfit for cultivation. 
The soil is generally moist, and 
well adapted to grazing. There 
are 5 ponds in New Durham, the 
largest of which is Merrymecting 
pond, about 10 miles in circumfer- 
ence, from which a copious and 
perpetual stream runs into Merry- 
meeting bay, in Alton. Ela's river 
flows from Coldrain pond into Parm- 
ington, on which is a fine waterfall. 
The Cocheco also has its source 
here. Mount Betty, Cropple-crown 
and Straw's mountains are the prin- 
cipal eminences. On the N. £. side 

of the latter is a remarkable cave, 
the entrance of which is about 9 
feet wide and 10 feet high. The 
outer room is 20 feet square ', the 
inner apartments become smaller, 
until at the distance of 50 feet they 
are too small to be investigated. — 
The sides, both of the galleries and 
the rooms are solid granite. They 
bear marks of having been once 
united, and were probably separat- 
ed by some great convulsion of 

There is a fountain, over which a 
part of Ela's river passes, which is 
regarded as a curiosity. By sinking 
a small mouthed vessel into this 
fountain, water may be procured 
extremely cold and pure. Its depth 
has not been ascertained. Near the 
centre of the town is Rattlesnake 
hill, the S. side of which is almost 
100 feet high, and nearly perpen- 
dicular. Several other hills in this 
town contain precipices and cavi- 
ties, some of considerable extent. 
New Durham was granted in 1749. 
It was incorporated Dec. 7, 1762. 
Elder Benjamix Raxdall, the 
founder of the sect of Freewill 
Baptists, commenced his labors here 
in 1780, and organized a church. 
He died in 1808, aged 60. 

New Durham lies 30 miles N. £. 
from Concord, and 32 N. W. by N. 
from Dover. Population, in 1830, 

NevFfaney Vt* 

Windham co. County town. — 
Newfane lies about 100 miles S. 
from Montpelier, and 12 N. W. 
from Brattleborough. First settled, 
1766. The town is watered by a 
branch of West river, and several 
other streams. The surface of the 
town is diversified by hills and val- 
leys; the soil is good, and produces 
white oak and walnut in abundance. 
There is but little waste land in the 
town : the uplands are inferior to 
none for grazing, and the intervales 
afibrd excellent tillage. Newfane 
exhibits a great variety of minerals. 

among which are some of value. Now caovoeeter, Mo« 

Perhaps no town in the state pre- ^^ , i j rwi.. . 

•ents a more inviting field for the ^'^i^^^f*™ <^; This U a pleasant 

mineralogist than thU. ".f Aj^unshmg farming town, 23 

There are two pleasant villages E?^®! N. from Portlami, and 88 S. 

in the town. The centre village Jl* Z'®™ Augusta. Ineorporated, 

contains the county buildings : it is P^^'„ Population, 1^7, 1361. It 

on elevated land, and commands a '« ^®" watered by Royal's river, 

very extensive and delightful pros- 2S ^ ., J"^^""'" «' various kinds, 

pect. Population, 1830, 1,441. ^he soil of the town is very fertile, 

contaimng larse tracts of intervale. 

Neiv«i>uiid Pond and Rlver,N.H. The first settlers were compelled 

See Bristol. to build a block bouse for their pro- 

Newlleldy JHe. tection against tlM Indiana. In this 

York CO. This town is watered huilding the people attended pub- 

by Little Ossipee river, and lies 99 he worship for a number of years, 

miles S. W. by W. from Augusta, ^his town has an abundant water 

and 16 N. W. from Alfred. It is I*®^®5» a school fund of f 4,000, and 

a good farming town and produces * society of about 800 of those neat 

considerable wheat and wool. It V\\ >?dustnous people, «« whose 

was incorporated in 1794. Popula- ^^^^\ **^® *?^ whose practice is 

lion, 1837, 1,822 ®*®* See Canterbury, JV. H. 



ThU attie is bounded north 1ij Lower Canada, east by Maine, south- 
eart by the Atlaattc and Ihe State of Maaaacbuietts, >outh by Massa- 
Chusett*, and west and north-west by Vermont. Situated between 43° 
4iy and 46'> 16' N. lat., and 72= 27' and 70= 35' W. Ion. Its length l» 
168, and its greatest breadlh about 90 miles, and it comprises an area of 
about 9,3S0 square miles. 

The first discovery of New Hampshire was in 1614, and the first set- 
flementa made by Europeans were at Dover and Portsmouth, In 1623; 
only three years aRer the landing of the Pilgrims Bt Plymouth. The 
next settlements were at Exeter and Hampton, in 1638. The inhabit- 
ants of these and a]l the early settlements, until after the cession of Can- 
ada to England by France, were greatly annoyed by the Indians, who 
eiiated in large and powerful bodies in this then wilderness. In the re- 
peated and general wars with the Indians, New Hampshire suSered more 
thsn any other of the colonies. This cotony was twice united with that 
of Massachusetts, and the final separation did not take place until 17-tl, 
when the boundaries of Ihe two colonies were settled. In the revolu- 
tionary contest. New Hampshire bore a distinguished and honorable part 
The blood of her sons was freely shed on most of the battle fields of the 
revolution. As early as June 16, 1776, New Hampshire made a public 
DeClaratioit or Imdefbndehce, andin Decemberof that year, the 
delegates of the people adopted a temporary form of Government, which 
was continued until 1784, when the brst constitutkia wts adopted. This 


being found deficient in some of its provisions, a new constitution was 
adopted in 1792, which is now in force. 

The executive power is vested in a Governor and five Counsellors, chos- 
en annually by the people. The legislature consists of the Senate, com- 
prising twelve members, chosen in twelve districts, and the House of 
Representatives, chosen annually in the month of March, every town 
having 150 rateable polls being entitJed to send one, and an additional 
representative for every 300 additional polls. The legislature assembles 
annually at Concord, on the first Wednesday of June. 

All male citizens, of 21 years and upwards, except paupers and per- 
sons excused from taxes, have a right to vote for state i^cers — a resi- 
dence of at least three months within the town being required to entitie 
the person to vote. 

The judiciary power is vested in a Superior Court of Judicature, and 
Courts of Common Pleas. The four Judges of the Superior Court, hold 
law terms once a year in each of the counties; and Judges of the Supe- 
rior Court are ex officio Presiding Judges in the courts of Common Pleas, 
holden semi-annually in each county, by one of the Superior Judges 
with the two Associate Justices of the Common Pleas for each county. 
The Judges hold their offices during good behavior, until 70 years of age ; 
but are subject to removal by impeachment, or by address of the two 
houses of the legislature. 

Saccession of Goremors* 

Meshech Weare,* 1776 — 1784. John Langdon, 1785. John Sullivan, 
1786, 1787. John Langdon, 1788. John Sullivan, 1789. Josiah Bart- 
lett, 1790—1793. John Taylor Oilman, 1794—1804. John Langdon, 
1805—1808. Jeremiah Smith, 1809. John Langdon, 1810,1811. Wil- 
liam Plumer, 1812. John Taylor Gilman, 1813—1815. William Plumer, 
1816—1818. Samuel Bell, 1819—1822. Levi Woodbury, 1823.— 
David Lawrence Morril, 1824 — 1826. Benjamin Pierce, 1827. John 
Bell, 1828. Benjamin Pierce, 1829. Matthew Harvey, 1830. Samuel 
Dinsmoor, 1831—1833. William Badger, 1834, 1835. Isaac Hill, 1836 
—1838. John Page, 1839— 

Saccession of Chief Justices of the Superior Court. 

Meshech Weare, 1776—1781. Samuel Livermore, 1782—1789. Jo- 
siah Bartlett, 1790. John Pickering, 1791—1794. Simeon Olcott, 1795 
—1801. Jeremiah Smith, 1802—1308. Arthur Livermore, 1809—1812. 

* The Chief Magistrates were styled President, until the adoption of tbt 
Constitution of 1792, when the titie of Governor was sqbstitated. 


Jeremiah Smith, 1813—1816. William Merchant Richardson, 1819-* 
1837. Joel Parker, 1838— 
New Hampshire is divided into eight counties, as follows : — 


\No.qf PopuLatUm 
\towM. in 1830. 

8hir€ TovmB, 


























Portsmouth, Exeter. 

Dover, Gilford, Rochester. 





Haverhill, Plymouth. 


New Hampshire is more mountainous than any of her sister states, yet 
she boasts of large quantities of luxuriant intervale. Her high lands 
produce food for cattle of peculiar sweetness ; and no where can be found 
the necessaries, conveniences, and luxuries of life, united, in greater 
abundance : cattle and wool are its principal staples. This state may be 
said to be the mother of New England rivers. The Connecticut, Mer- 
rimack, Saco, Androscoggin and Piscataqua, receive most of their waters 
from the high lands of New Hampshire : while the former washes the 
western boundary of the state 168 miles, the Merrimack pierces its cen- 
tre, and the Piscataqua forms the beautiful harbor of Portsmouth, a depot 
of the American navy. 

These majestic rivers, with their tributary streams afford this state an 
immense water power, of which manufacturers, with large capitals, avail 

The largest collection of water in the state is Lake Winnepisiogee, 
(pronounced Win-ne-pe-sok'-e.) It is one of the most varied and beau- 
tiful sheets of water on the American continent. Lakes Connecticut, 
Osslpee, Umbagog, Squam, Sunapee, and Massabesick, are large collec- 
tions of water, and abound with fish and fowl. 

New Hampshire is frequently called the Granite State, from the vast 
quantities of that rock found within its territory. The granite is of a su- 
perior quality, and much of it is quarried and transported to other states* 
The geological structure of the state is highly interesting. Iron and cop- 
per ore and plumbago, of excellent qualities, are found ; and coal and 
other valuable minerals are supposed to exist. 

This state is also called the Switzerland of jSmeriea, on account of 
the salubrity of its climate ; its wild and picturesque landscapes ; its 
lakes and rapid streams. The celebrated White Mountains, in the north- 



ern part of the state, are of great elevation, and afford the grandest dis- 
play of mountain scenery in our country. See JVinnepisiogee Lake, and 
White Mountains — also Register. 

NeTT Hampton, N. H., native town, in the year 1777. 

Strafford co., lies 30 miles N. Th« ff^'f'^H'^.uTi ^f^'^S^" 

by W. from Concord, and about 20 callnstitutton, inH^ town, is fine- 

N.W. from Gilmanton. Popula- ^T located and in a very prosperous 

tion, 1830, 1,904. Pemigewasset condition. The avertce number of 

river, which washes the W. bound- "fj® aj^ female Bcholars is about 

ary, is the only stream of magni- 875. This is one of the best semi- 

tude; and over it is thrown the naries of learning in our country, 

bridge which unites the town with ^^^ Register. 

Bristol. New Uartfbrd, Ct« 

There is a remarkable spring on Litchfield co. This town was fiwt 

the W side of Kelly's hill in tiis ^^^^^^^ j^ 1733^ ^ y^ggO miles N. 

town, from which issues a stream ^r ft,om Hartford, and 11 N. E. 

sufficient to supply several mills. ^^^ Litchfield. Population, 1830, 

This stream is never affected by ^^jqq^ jhe gurface of the town is 

rains or droughts, and falls into the j^jHy ^nd mountainous. The lands 

river after running about a mile, ^re best adapted for grazing. It is 

Pemigewasset pond lies on the bor- watered by Farming^on river and 

der of Meredith. There are 4 other ^ther streams, on which are several 

ponds in this town. The sou 01 jqHIs 

New Hampton, though the surface „ {j, the eastern part of thb town 

is broken and uneven, is remarka- ^here is a rough and mountainous 

bly fertile, producing m abundance district, formerly designated Sa- 

most kinds of grain and grass. The tan* s Kingdom; and the few in- 

industry of the inhabitants has en- habitants who lived here were in a 

abled them in years of scarcity to measure shut out from the rest of 

supply the wants of other towns, mankind. An inhabitant of the 

In the S. part of the town there is ^^^^ invited one of his neighbors, 

a high hill of a conical form which ^^^^ y^^^^ ^-^^^^ t,,e Umits of this 

may be seen in almost any direc- district, to go and hear Mr. Marsh, 

tion from 10 to 50 miles ; the pros- ^^ g^st minister who was settled in 

pect fj-om the summit of which is ^y^e town. He was prevailed upon 

very pleasant. ^ go ^o church in the forenoon. In 

In 1763, Gen. Jonathan Moulton, the course of his prayer, Mr. Marsh, 

of Hampton, having an ox weigh- among other things, prayed that iSo* 

ing 1,400 pounds, fattened for the tan^ s kingdom might he destroyed, 

purpose, hoisted a flag upon his It appears that the inhabitant of 

horns and drove him to Portsmouth this district took the expression in 

as a present to Gov. Wentworth. a literal and tangible sense, having 

He refused to receive any compen- probably never heard the expres- 

sation for the ox, but requested sion used but in reference to the 

and received a charter of a small district wherein he resided. Being 

gore of land of 19,422 acres. This asked to go to meeting in tibe after- 

small gore received the name of noon, he refused, stating that Mr. 

J^ew Hampton, in honor of hts Marsh had insulted him ; < for blast 


him,' said he, ''when he prayed 
for the destruction of Satan's king- 
dom, he very well knew all my in- 
terests lay there.'* 

New Haven, Vt. 

Addison co. The soil of this town 
is various, consisting of marl, clay 
and loam, and is generally produc- 
tive. The waters of Otter creek, 
Middlebury river, and Little Otter 
creek give the town a good water 
power. There are some manufac- 
tures in the town, but agriculture 
is the chief pursuit of the inhabi- 
tants. New Haven lies 30 miles 
W. S. W. from Montpelier, and 7 
N. W. from Middlebury. First set- 
tled, 1769. Population, 1830,1,834. 

New Haven Connty, Ct. 

Chief town, JVew Haven. New 
Haven county is bounded N. by 
Litchfield and Hartford counties, 
£. by Middlesex county, S. by 
Long Island Sound, and West by 
Litchfield county and the Housa- 
tonic river, which separates it from 
Fairfield county. Its average length 
from east to west is about 26 miles, 
and its width from north to south 21 
miles ; containing 540 square miles, 
or 345,600 acres. This county, ly- 
ing on Long Island Sound, has a ve- 
ry extensive maritime border, but 
its foreign trade is chiefly confined 
to New Haven harbor. Its fishe- 
ries of oysters and clams, and other 
fish, are valuable. It is intersect- 
ed by several jstreams, none of them 
of very large size, but of some val- 
ue for their water power and fish. 
Of these the principal are the Pom- 
peraug and Naugatuc, on the west ; 
Quini^piac, Menunkatuc, West and 
Mill rivers, on the east. The Quin- 
nipiac is the largest, and passes 
through extensive meadows. The 
county is intersected centrally by 
the New Haven and Northampton 
canal, which passes through this 
county from north to south. There 
is a great variety of soil in this 
county, as well as of native vege- 


table and mineral productions. The 
range of secondary country which 
extends along Connecticut river as 
far as Middletown, there leaves 
that stream, crosses into this county, 
and terminates at New Haven. 
This intersection of the primitive 
formation, by a secondary ridge, af- 
fords a great variety of minerals, 
and materials for different soils. 

The population of this county in 
1820, was 39,616; 1830, 43,847:— 
81 inhabitants to a square mile. 
The manufacturing business is quite 
extensive in the county, and in 
1S37 it contained 23,895 sheep. 

Nevr Haven, Ct* 

New Haven, city and town, the 
chief town of New Haven county, 
and the semi- capital of the state of 
Connecticut, is 76 miles N. £. from 
New York, and 300 from Washing- 
ton city, in latitude (Yale College 
Observatory) 41° 18' 30" N., and 
W. longitude 72° 55'. It is situa- 
ted on a large and pleasant plain, 
around the head of a bay which 
sets up four miles from Lon^ Isl- 
and Sound. This plain is nearly 
level, and is partially enclosed by an 
amphitheatre of lofty hills, and by 
two bold eminences called East and 
West rocks, which vary in height 
from 330 to 370 feet. These rocks, 
which consist of trap, terminate in 
naked precipitous fronts, and are 
conspicuous and beautiful objects 
in the landscape. On the west, the 
plain is limited by a small stream 
called West river, and on the east , 
by the Quinnipiack, which is navi- 
gable for several miles. Another 
stream, called Mill river, passes 
through the eastern part of the city 
and enters the harbor in union with 
the Quinnipiack. 

New Haven was planted in April, 
1638, by a company from London, 
under the direction of Theophilus 
Eaton and John Davenport. These 
two men, in the language of Ma- 
ther, were " the Moses and Aaron" 
of this new settlement ; and whit* 


ever there was of good or evil, of 
wisdom or iblly, in laying the foun- 
dations of civilized society in tliis 
part of New England, must be as- 
cribed in a great measure to them. 
Though the government which 
was established was extremely pop- 
ular in its form, these men with- 
out doubt were looked up to for 
devising and executing the most 
important measures. Their '* com- 
pany," as It was called, appear to 
have had entire confidence in their 
sound judgment, ability and integ- 
rity ; and they did notning to for- 
feit the good opinion of their fol- 
lowers. Their influence in all the 
concerns of the colony, especially 
in what respected the form of gov- 
ernment, the means of education, 
and the institutions of religion, 
must have been constant and com- 

In 1784, New Haven was incor- 
porated as a city, the limits of which 
on the northwest fall within those 
of the town, so that Westville, a 
settlement on the foot of West Rock, 
is excluded from the former. About 
one half of the village of Fair Ha- 
ven, in the eastern portion of the 
town, lies within the bounds of the 
city. The area of the town is about 
eight, and that of the city about six 
square miles. The harbor is well 
protected and spacious, but the wa- 
ter is shallow. A wharf extends 
into the harbor about three quar- 
ters of a mile. 

The original town is a square, 
half a mile on each side, and subdi- 
vided by streets four rods in width, 
into nine squares, the central one 
of which is reserved for public uses. 
Most of the squares are further di- 
vided by intern>3diate streets. At 
the present day, this original plot 
comprises less than half of the in- 
habited part of the city. Streets 
and avenues have been opened on 
every side, and many of them have 
become thickly settled. The streets 
nre in general, spacious and regu- 

lar) very many of them adorned 
with lofty elms, which in the sum- 
mer season contribute much to the 
beauty and comfort of the place. 
The number of shade trees through- 
out the city is uncommonly large, 
and they constitute one of its most 
attractive features. Most of the 
dwelling houses are distinguished 
for simplicity and neatness. With- 
in a few years the style of build- 
ing has greatly Imprcrred, and many 
private houses have been erected 
and are now going up, which dis- 
play much elegance and architectu- 
ral taste. The houses are com- 
monly detached, and supplied with 
court yards and gardens ornament- 
ed with trees and shrubbery, and 
the eye is thus gratified with a de- 
lightful union of the counti*y and 
the city. 

There are two principal public 
squares. The first, commonly call- 
ed the Ghreen, is in the centre of 
the original town, and comprises 
in all a little more than sixteen 
acres. It is divided into two sec- 
tions by Temple street, which is 
lined with raD|ges of stately and 
over-arching elms, and is considered 
one of the finest streets in the city. 
The eastern section of the Green is 
entirely free from buildings. On 
the western section, facing the S.E., 
stand 3 churches, two Congregation- 
al, built of brick, and one Episco- 
pal, of stone: all of these build- 
ings are of excellent appearance. 
In the rear of the centre church 
stands the state house. These four 
buildings, taken in connexion with 
the line of college edifices on the 
next square beyond, and with the 
surrounding scenery, constitute a 
group not often equalled in this 
country. The state house is a 
structure of great size and admira- 
ble proportions. The porticos are 
modelled from those of the temple 
of Theseus, at Athens, and the 
building, viewed at a short distance, 
has an air of uncommon beauty 


and majesty. On the northern 
corner of this section stands the 
methodist church. 

Wooster 8qtiare, yrhich lies in 
the eastern part of the city, com- 
prises five acres, and has recent- 
ly been planted with a large num- 
ber of native ornamental trees of 
various kinds. 

The Public Cemetery is situated 
opposite the northern angle of the 
original town plot, and encloses 
seventeen acres vndtwo thirds. It 
is divided by avenues and alleys 
into family lots, S2 feet in length 
and 18 in breadth. There is a grave 
and silent grandeur in this place ; 
hut it would appear more beautiful 
were it shaded by native trees in- 
stead of Lomhardy poplars. 

The State Hospital is located at 
New Haven. It is a large and 
commodious building of stone, very 
favorably situated on elevated 
ground, in the western part of the 

One daily and four weekly news- 
papers, and one religious weekly 
sheet, are published here. The 
Daily Herald was the earliest daily 
paper issued in this state, it having 
been commenced here November 
26, 1832. The other periodical 
publications of the place, are the 
Yale Literary Magazine, edited 
by the students of Yale College ; 
the Quarterly Christian Spectator, 
a work of established reputation, 
which began as a monthly in 1819, 
and after ten volumes of that series 
had been completed, adopted its 
present form, in which it has reach- 
ed its tenth volume ; and the 
American Journal of Science and 
Arts, edited by Professor Silliman. 
This important periodical was com- 
menced in 1819, and has arrived at 
the 35th volume, having outlived 
many of its early European con- 
temporaries. It is a work which has 
done much for the advancement of 
science, and reflects great honor on 
the nation and city of its birth, as 
well u on its distinguished editor. 

The population of the town, in- 
cluding the city, was in 1820, 
8,326; in 1830, 10,678; in Decem- 
ber, 1833, 12,199, of whom 11,567 
were within the city. The num- 
ber of inhabitants in 1887, was esti- 
mated at 14,000. 

As a seat of education. New 
Haven is justly celebrated. At a 
moderate estimate, one thousand 
persons from abroad are constantly 
here for the purposes of receiving 

Yale College is one of the most 
ancient and celebrated institutions 
of learning in the country, and num- 
bers among her academical gradu- 
ates, 4,824 persons. 

The Mineral Collection, well 
known as the most extensive in the 
country, occupies a spacious and 
well lighted apartment. 

The Telescope belonging to the 
college was made by Dolland, and 
presented by Mr. Sheldon Clark, 
of Oxford. It is an achromatic of 
five inches aperture and ten feet 
focal length, and is considered an 
instrument of great excellence. 
See Register. 

Besides the College libraries, there 
are in the city several libraries of 
considerable extent and importance. 
Among them, that belonging to Mr. 
Ithiel Town deserves to be particu- 
larized. This is a large and precious 
collection of books, principally on 
architecture and the other fine arts, 
together with many volumes of 
great antiquity and rarity. It is 
the most complete architectural li- 
brary in the United States. It is 
placed beyond the reach of fire, in 
an elegant building on Hillhouse 
avenue. In 1837, there were in 
New Haven 43 well conducted 
academics and private schools, 
some of which were of an elevated 
character for females. The public 
schools are well sustained. The 
annual expenditure for schools is 
about $80,000. The whole number 
of p\ipilsis about 2,500. 
There are in New Haven several 


institations for the promotion of the 
science, industry and comfort of its 

The Connecticut Academy of Arts 
and Sciences was incorporated in 
1799. It has published one volume 
of Memoirs, (8 vo. 1810—1813, pp. 
412 ;) but since the establishment of 
Prof. Silliman*s Journal of Science, 
their Memoirs have appeared in that 

The American Geological So- 
ciety was incorporated in 1819. — 
Its collection of specimens is con- 
nected with the mineral cabinet of 
Yale College. 

The Yale Jfatural History So- 
ciety has existed four years, and 
has a considerable collection of 
birds, shells, minerals, plants, &c. 
Its transactions have hitherto been 
made public through Prof. Silli- 
man's Journal of Science. The 
MutucU Aid Association is an insti- 
tution of great utility. The JV*tfio 
Haven Horticultural Society and 
the Orphan Asylum are well sup- 
ported and highly beneficial. 

The mechanics of New Haven 
have long been distinguished for 
their industry, intelligence and love 
of knowledge. As early as 1807 
they established the Mechanics^ So- 
ciety, for the promotion of the use- 
ful arts, and the encouragement of 
industry and merit. The society 
is in a prosperous condition. The 
young mechanics have, moreover, 
established for their mutual im- 
provement, the Young Mechanics^ 
Institute. The plan has been pro- 
secuted with zeal and success. 
The Institute has a cabinet of min- 
erals ; a collection of philosophical 
apparatus, and several hundred vol- 
umes of books. The manufactures 
of New Haven are numerous; 
ftmong which are boots, shoes, car- 
pets, and rugs of a superior quality, 
stoves, locks, paper, books, hats, 
tin and cabinet wares, muskets, 
iron castings, machinery, sashes, 
window blinds, &c. 

The manufacturing interest of 

New Haren emplo]^ an eztensive 
capital, and a large number of per- 

The foreign commerce of New 
Haven is principally confined to 
the West India Islands, with which 
a considerable trade is carried on. 
Tonnage of the district, in 1837, 
9,559 tons. 

A line of packets plies between 
this and New York city, and an ex- 
cellent line of stetm-boats furnish- 
es daily commonicatioa with that 

The New Haven and Northamp- 
ton Canal connects the waters of 
Connecticut river at the latterplace, 
with the harbor of this city. This 
great work, having surmounted 
many difficulties and embarrass- 
ments, is now in a fair way to give 
a new impulse to the business of 
the city. A line of packet boats 
runs daily between Northampton 
and New Haven, and promises to 
be well sustained. 

The New Haven and Hartford 
Rail- Road is now in the course of 
construction, and will probably be 
completed during the present year. 
When finished it must prove of 
great importance to the interests of 
the place. 

The village of jPVitr Haven is 
built on both sides the Quinnipiack, 
and about one half of it lies within 
the limits of the city of New Ha- 
ven. This village has grown to its 
present importance with great rapid- 
ity, and now carries on an exten- 
sive and thriving business. It has 
two churches, and a large and pros- 
perous high school, known as the 
Fair Haven Institute. 

The village of Westville contains 
about 700 inhabitants. Manufac- 
tures and agriculture constitute the 
chief business of the place. 

New Haven ra^y justly boast of 
many distinguished men who made 
that city their favorite residence. 
The names of David Wooster, 
of Nathaw Whitixg, of RoG« 
ER Sherman, of James HiXiX** 


HOT781:, and many others, will nev- j 
er be forgotten. 

How large a part of the United 
States is indebted for its prosperity 
to the inventive genius of Eli 
Whitw lY, late a citizen of New 
Haven? "The commerce, the 
business of the world, has been es- 
sentially modified and increased 
through the operation of his princi- 
pal invention, the cotton gin; and 
the substantud convenience and en- 
joyment of mankind have, by the 
same means, been extended and are 
extending, to a degree which no 
man can calculate." 

This City of Oroves is a very 
delightful place : it probably con- 
centrates more charms than any 
city of its age and population in the 

Rockingham co. The soil is gen- 
erally sandy and unproductive ; ex- 
cepting near the waters, where it 
yields good crops of grain and grass. 
At Fox point, in the N. W. part of 
the town, Piscataqua bridge is 
thrown over the river to Goat isl- 
and, and thence to Durham shore. 
The bridge was erected in 1793, is 
2,600 feet long, and 40 wide ; cost 
1(65,401. Newington was origin- 
ally a part of Portsmoifth and Dover, 
and was early settled. It was dis- 
annexed, and incorporated in July, 


Newington was among the set- 
tlements early exposed to the rava- 
ges of the Indians. In May, 1690, 
a party of Indians, under a saga- 
more of the name of Hoophood, at- 
tacked Fox point, destroyed sever- 
al houses, killed 14 persons, and 
took 6 prisoners. They were im- 
mediately pursued by the inhabit- 
ants, who recovered some of the 
captives and a part of the plunder, 
after a severe action, in which 
Hoophood was wounded. 

Newington is 42 miles E. S. E. 
from Concord, and 6 W. from Ports- 
mouth. Population, 1880, 649. 

Ne-ir Ipawlebi H* II« 

Hillsborough co. This town la 
60 miles S. S. W. from Concord, 70 
W. S. W. from Portsmouth, and 50 
N. W. by W. from Boston. The 
town is watered by many rivulets, 
but principally by the Souhegan 
river, which is formed by the junc- 
tion of two streams; the W. issu- 
ing from a small pond on the Pas- 
ture mountain, so called ; the S. 
from two ponds in Ashburnham, 
Mass., near the base of Watatick 
hill. Over this river is a stone 
bridge, built in 1817. It is 156 feet 
long, 22 feet wide and 42 feet high, 
resting on a single arch of split 
stone ; cost $3,500. The first cot- 
ton factory in the state was built in 
this town, in 1803. There are now 
4 cotton factories, and in other re- 
spects New Ipswich has become an 
important manufacturing town. — 
Pratt's and Hoar's ponds contain 
About 50 acres each. Here is fine 
pasture land, and under cultivation, 
Indian corn, rye, oats, barley, pota- 
toes, beans, turnips, &c., are pro- 
duced in abundance. 

The New Ipswich academy was 
incorporated June 18, 1789. Its 
funds are large. 

The principal village is in the 
centre of the town, in a pleasant 
and fertile valley. Many of the 
dwelling-houses are of brick, and 
are elegant in appearance. 

New Ipswich was first settled 
prior to 1749, and was incorporated 
by charter, Sept. 9, 1762. 

The first minister was the Rev. 
Stephen Farrar, a native of Lin- 
coln, Mass., wherf he was bom 
Oct. 22, 1738. He was ordained 
Oct. 22, 1760 ; died June 23, 1809, 
aged 71. 

New Ipswich has produced ma- 
ny who have become eminent as 
patriots, merchants, and men of 
science. Population, 1830, 1,678. 

New JjimerielKy Me. 

Washington co. In 1887, this 


town was incorporated ; it then had 
124 inhabitants and produced 1,780 
bushels of wheat. See *' Down 

Heir iKimdom, N. H. 

Merrimack co. It is 30 miles W. 
N. W. from Concord, and 12 E. 
from Newport. Population, 1830, 
913. Lake Suna^e separates this^ 
town from Wendell, and is the* 
pnncipal source of Sugar river. — 
There are three considerable ponds. 
Little Sunapee pond, 11-2 miles in 
length and 3-4 of a mile in width, 
lies in the W. part, and empties its 
waters into lake Sunapee. Har- 
vey's and MessePs ponds, near the 
centre of the town, are the princi- 
pal sources of Warner river. They 
are about a mile in length and 3-4 
of a mile in breadth, and are sepa- 
rated by a bog, many parts of which 
rise and fall with the water. Pleas- 
ant pond, in the N. part of New 
London, is nearly 2 miles long and 
1 wide. The settlements of New 
London are formed principally on 
three large swells of land. The 
soil is deep and generally good. — 
In the N. part are several eleva- 
tions. In some parts the land is 
rocky, but there b little not capable 
of cultivation. New London was 
incorporated in 1779. Its first name 
was Dantzick. 

The damage sustained by the in- 
habitants of this town, by the vio- 
lent whirlwind of Sept. 9, 1821, was 
estimated at ^9,000. A large rock 
lying out of the ground, 100 feet 
long, 60 wide and 20 high, was 
rent into two pieces, and thrown 
about 20 feet asunder. 

TSvw Ijondon Conntyy C^« 

JVew London and JVorwich are 
the county towns. New London 
county is bounded N. by Windham, 
Tolland and Hartford counties, E. 
by Windham county and the state of 
Rhode Island, S. by Long Island 
Sound, and the county of Mid- 
dlesex. Its average length from £. 

to W. avenigM about 2$ miles, and 
it baa a awdium breadth of about 20 
miles. This county possesses supe- 
nor maritime advantages, having an 
extensive border on Long Island 
Souiid»which affi>rds numerous bays, 
inleta and harbors. Excepting a small 
section, principally in the town of 
Lyme, no portion of the county can 
be considered as mountainous, but it 
is generally hiUy and elevated, and 
comprises a smaU proportion of allu- 
vial. The hills and elevated tracts 
are considerably rough and stony. 
The lands in general are not adapted 
to grain culture, although upon the 
intervales and other tracts Indiaa 
com is raised to advantage, and to • 
considerable extent Tne princi- 
pal agricultural interests depend 
very much upon grazing. The wa- 
ters of the county are abundant and 
valuable. On the south it b washed 
more than thirty miles by Long Isl- 
and Sound, part of its western bor- 
der by Connecticut river, and the 
interior of the county b watered and 
fertilized by the Thames and its 
branches. The fishing business u 
more extensively carried on in thb 
county than in any other section of 
the state, and b an important branch 
of industry. The manufacturing 
business is carried on to consider- 
able extent in the northern part of 
the county, and is increasing. 

In 1837, this county contained 
41,387 sheep. Population, in 1820, 
35,943 ; 1830, 42,201 : 81 inhabit- 
ants to a square mile. The tonnage 
of the district of New London, in 
1837, was 41,626 tons. 

Ne-vr I^mdon, Ct« 

One of the shire towns of New 
London county. The first Englbh 
settlement in New London com- 
menced in 1646. It is situated on 
the west bank of the river Thames. 
In its territorial limits it is much 
the smallest of any town in the 
state, being about 4 miles in length 
from north to south, and averages 
about 3-4 of a mile in breadth.— 


The city of New London is situated 
3 miles from Long Island Sound, 
and is a port of entry. It is 42 
miles southeast from Hartford, 13 
south from Norwich, and 53 east 
from New Haven. Population, in 
1830, 4,366. Lon. 72° 9i W., lat. 
410 0' 25" N. The city is princi- 
pally built on a declivity, which 
descends to the east and south. On 
the summit of the high ground, 
back of the most populous part of 
the city, the observer has a fine 
prospect of the surrounding coun- 
try. The city is irregularly laid out, 
owing to the nature of the ground 
4>n which it is built, being much 
incumbered with granite rocks. — 
The houses are not so handsome in 
their outward appearance, as might 
be reasonably expected, considering 
the wealth of the inhabitants. In 
the course of a few years past, how- 
ever, a spirit of improvement in this 
respect has taken place, and many 
buildings have been erected which 
are elegant in their appearance. 
Some of the streets have been strait- 
ened and leveled, by blasting the 
granite rocks with which they were 
disfigured. These rocks afford an 
excellent material for the construc- 
tion of buildings, and it is believed 
that no city in this country has the 
advantages of New London, in this 
particular, where the materials for 
erecting houses can be found in 
their streets. The harbor is one of 
the best in the United States, being 
large, safe, and commodious, hav- 
ing five fathoms of water. It is 3 
miles long, and rarely obstructed 
with ice. During the extreme cold 
in January, 1835, while the navi- 
gation of the harbor of New York 
was closed by the ice, the harbor of 
New London remained open and 

From the excellent maritime lo- 
cation of New London, the naviga- 
tion, commercial and fishing busi- 
ness, has ever been the principal 
pursuit of the inhabitants. Their 
fine harbor has served in a great 

degree as the port of Connecticiit 
river, the impediments in which 
frequently prevent its being naviga- 
ble for large vessels fully laden. The 
whale fishery and sealing business is 
an important branch of commerce. 
About a million of dollars is devot- 
ed to its prosecution. In 1834, up- 
wards of thirty ships and 900 men 
and boys were employed in this 

The city is defended by two forts. 
Fort Trumbull and Fort Griswold. 
Fort Trumbull stands on the New 
London side of the Thames, about 
a mile below the city. It is situa- 
ted on the rocky extremity of a pen- 
insula extending eastward into the 
river. This fort is a station for 
United States soldiers. Fort Gris- 
wold is on the £. side of the Thames, 
on a commanding eminence oppo- 
site the city, in the town of Gro- 

New London has been rendered 
conspicuous for its sufferings during 
the revolutionary war, and the the- 
atre of hostile operations. On the 
6th of September, 1781, a large 
proportion of this town was laid in 
ashes by Benedict Arnold. The 
following account of this transaction 
is taken from the Connecticut Ga- 
zette, printed at New London, Sept. 
7, 1781. 

"About daybreak on Thursday 
morning last, 24 sail of the enemy's 
shipping appeared to the westward 
of this harbor, which by many were 
supposed to be a plundering party 
after stock ; alarm guns were imme- 
diately fired, but the discharge of 
cannon in the harbor has become so 
frequent of late, that they answer- 
ed little or no purpose. The defence- 
less state of the fortifications and 
the town are obvious to our readers; 
a few of the inhabitants, who were 
equipped, advanced towards the 
place where the enemy were 
thought likely to make their land- 
ing, and manoeuvred on the heights 
adjacent, until the enemy about 9 
o'clock landed in two divisions, and 


about 800 meo i 
■t Brown's fan 

t Ud 

i Poin 

keeping up large ftankiog parlies, 
who were atlscked in diflcrent pla- 
ces on their march by the inhabit- 
ants, who had spirit and resolution 
to oppose their progress. The 
maiD body of the enemy proceeded 

■lores on the beach, and immediate- 
iy after to the dwelling-houses lying 
on the Miil Cove. The scattered 
fire of our little parlies, unsupported 
by our neighbors more distant, gall- 
ed them so thai they soon began to 
reliro, setting £re promiscuously on 
their way. The fire from the stores 
communicaled to the shipping thai 

the It 


:, they began to quit 

jed by oi 

■8 elt- 

erSDS, and driven on board their 
boats. Five of the enemy were 
killed, and about tnenly wounded ; 
. among Ihe latter is a Hessian cap- 
Iain, who is a prisoner, as are seven 
others. We lost four killed and ten 
or twelve wounded, some mortally. 
" The most valuable part of the 
town is reduced lo ashes, and all 
the stores. Fori Trumbull, not be- 
ing tenable on Ihe land side, was 
evaeualed as Ihe enemy advanced, 

river to Fort Griswotd, an Grolon 
Hill, which was soon after invested 
by the division that lauded at the 
poinl. The forthaving in itonly 
dboul 120 men, chiefly militia hast- 
ily collected, they defended it with 
the greatest resolution end braveiy, 
■nd once repulsed the enemy: hut 
the fort being out of repair, could 
not be defended by such a haniiful 
of men, though brave and deter- 
mined, against so superior a nuro- 
li«r; and aOer having a number of 

they foUDd that further re^stance 
would be in vain, and resigned the 
fort." See Grotan, Ct. 

The following is tlic inseriptiDii 
on BUbop Scabury's moDumenl : 

Here lyeth the body of SAHcrL 
Seabuby, D. D. Biahop of Connecti- 
cut and Rhode Island, who departed 
from this transitory scene, Febniarr 
2Mh, Anno Domini, ITtW, in the 6BtJi 
year of bis ago, and the I£th at hit 

Ingenious without pride, leamed 
without pedantry, good without aeia- 
ity, ho W3,s duly qualified to dischuxt 
the duties of the ChriaUan and tEa 
Bishop. In the pulpit he enforced IU> 
ligion: in bis conduct be eiemplJBal 
it. The poor he assisted with his cbw 
ity ; the Ignorant he bleased with hil 
inatruction. The friend ofmen, b« 
ever designed their good: the enemj 
of »ice, be ever opposed it. Chris- 

Seabury has shown the way mat Issdi 

"An epitaph on Captaine Richud 
Lord, deceased May 17, 1662.-' 
.£ talis svffi 51. 

. . Bright stane of ovi cbiTallrit 

Adventrtns dangers r 


Kcw Market, S. H. 

Rockingham CO. ItUes36 mile) 
E. fiom Concord, and 12 W. by 
from Portsmouth. Populatioo, 
30. 2,013. 

Piscassick river paases through 
is town into Durham. The Lam- 
prey river washes its N, E. bound- 

E. The soil is good, aud agricul- 
tural pursuits are here crowned 
with much success. There an 


MVenl plewant and thriying Tilla- 
ges, in wbfeh are large and valua- 
ble manufactures. 

New Market was originally a 
part of Exeter, and was detaehed 
and incorporated, 1727. 

Mrs. Fanny Shute, who died in 
this town September, 1819, was re- 
spected not only for her excellent 
qualities, but the adventures of her 
youth. When 13 months old, she 
was taken by a party of Indians, 
carried to Canada, and disposed of 
to the French— educated in a nun- 
nery, and after remaining 13 years 
in captivity, was redeemed and re- 
rtored to her friends. 

Daniel Brackett recently died in 
Alls town. He weighed 560 lbs. 

Heur Slarlboroitgliy M a«s* 

Berkshire co. There is a large 
pond in this town, and a branch of 
Housatonick river. The surface is 
uneven, and the soil best adapted 
for grazing. It was incorporated in 
1759, and lies 135 miles S. W. by 
W. from Boston, and 20 S. by £. 
from Lenox. Population, in 1837, 

There are two caverns in this 
town, containing stalactites. The 
manufactures consist of leather, 
boots, shoes, chairs, cabinet ware, 
and a -variety of sawed lumber. — 
The products of the dairy are con- 
riderable, and about 1,600 sheep are 

Ne-vr Mllibrd, Ct* 

Litchfield co. This township is 
hilly and broken, several mountain- 
ous ridges extending through it. 
The soil is much diversified, and 
where susceptible of cultivation, it 
is generally good ; but on the whole 
more distinguished for grain than 
grass. There are, however, large 
quantities of excellent meadow 
g^und, but the pasturage is, on the 
whole, not abundant. It is essen- 
tially a farming town. For some 
time after the white people come 
here, an Indian chief, or sachem, 


named Werauhamaug, had t pal- 
ace standing near the Great falls, 
where he resided. On the inner 
walls of this palace, (which were 
of bark with the smooth side in- 
wards,) were pictured every known 
species of beast, bird, fish and in* 
sect, from the largest to the small- 
est. This was said to have been 
done by artists whom a friendly 
prince at a great distance sent to 
him for that purpose, as Hiram did 
to Solomon. The town of New 
Milford was purchased of the Col- 
ony of Connecticut by a company of 
individuals chiefly belonging to Mil- 
ford, and was first settled in 1707. 
The first bridge that was ever built 
over the Housatonick river, from 
the sea to its source was built in this 
town in 1737. The village of New 
Milford is very handsome ; the 
streets are wide and well shaded. 
It lies 36 miles N. W. from New 
Haven, and IS S. W. from Litch- 
fiild. Population, 1830, 3,979. The 
territory of this town is larger than 
any other in the state : it is 18 by 6 
1-2 miles. The town is well water- 
ed, and has some manufactures. 
Xhere are large quantities of gran- 
ite and marble, and the town pro- ^ 
duces large quantities of grain and 
wool for market. 

Neifvport, Me* 

Penobscot co. This is a fine farm- 
ing town, and watered by a large 
and beautiful pond which empties 
into Sebasticook river. It lies 56 
miles N. £. from Augusta and 24 
W. from Bangor. Population, 1837, 
1,088. Wheatcrop same year, 5,173 
bushels. This town contains a pleas- 
ant village and some mills. 

NeTirport, N. H« 

Shire town, Sullivan county. Its 
central situation and its water pow- 
er, together with the enterprising 
spirit of its inhabitants, has render- 
ed Newport a place of considerable 
business. It is 40 miles N.from 
Concord, about 35 N. fiY>m Keener 


IZli :* I. ?. E. i-XL "^JLLK^ T-. 

iTL,":-* I-*-* v' *ir*-' r.T*" Liii ^-t 

▼"—tr* I- C"t2it."i^ lit Ml. i« r.ii 
ijijI >->:iriT*. ^irt- r.Tsr f :■■# 

^ T. • • * f iz-i* :>*kr lit T-" L,r -*. 

W r. * l-t » -T ; k*«-» 'JuT^iri Ci. LTr =I»1T 

ir,'> v_* f '•' '-*■ "^ CT t. '1*1 nt •■LS- 

fc k--. -f ic: - .- r.r t 'lii 1-vin t- ji. — 

frVT* '.f ::.* liWTi- Tr.*.-* tre & 
few ':e*irji".ci uBild. 
Ox: li: Em: zr.ryizi'jkiL.'. i^i B:::e- 
l^fcrry JjI.:. N^wjrjrt wis rri:::ei 
Lt charurr in 1761. Tst nrsi ef- 

in ih.t fill of 1763. Tbt tr?: s«:- 
tierv w«re p.-iccipftllv froza Kill* 
in^, Ct. This town U noted 
for it« e<>»d s?h>'j!f and it? various 
chariuMe societies. Popalatiaa. ' 
1930, 1^13. > 

Xewport, Vt. | 

Orleans co. Tbts town is sepa- | 
rated from Derby by Mempbrema- - 
frog; lake, and i« watered by a branch ; 
of MiMiitque river. It lie9 4S miles 
N. by E. from Montpelier, and 10 
N. from Irasburgh. Population, 
1830, 2S4. 

If et^rport Connty, R« I. 

Newport is the chief town. This 
county comprises seven towns and 
a number oi i^ilands; but the roost 
interentinf^ section of it is the isl- 
and of Rhode Island, from which 
the state derives its name. This 
island iH about 15 miles in length, 
and ban a mean breadth of two miles 
and a half. 

The surface presents an Interesting 
variety of inrxlcrate eminences and 
declivities, which render the scene- 
ry very pleasing. Valuable mine- 
rals are found on the island, and 
fossil coal, diflicult of ignition, is 
found In Urge quantities. The 

T*rT lick, aid 
-tas'c/ scltol 
fr>i zct in great 
iei£Tie:s c: craiss, 
rle*. ir^s arJ iow- 
fr» «aBU!i:c i: :is liiir?k2«. 
It If re£.LrA.i':-l£ zix oclr this 

itk-.fzLit* toitr±lt, Ta* poorMt 
:L::fi» -Ji. N*w Er^'irii are gener- 
t..T :c ie sei ^*34ri : c::: as i: re- 
ftris lii* ci-irTy. few sc-caocs <tf 
li* is:t."v:c ^Tt*^z.i a b*n*r soil. 

Frc^ :he exrJe^ setilement of 
:ht c>.::.Lry. this coanry has been 
€r.rtrt-i izi c>rizi*rpe aac the nsh- 
»ry. Tifi^ inieriE^ti ir>e iiow in a 
fi'j'i'T.iiilz^.z c->r:ii:ixk; and mana- 
it.c\\Lr.z.z eft^: lisiiri^e&tf a£« in- 
cr>cuin£, hy :Le «ii of steam pow- 
er. In 1?37 :he7« were S7|540 
sheepin the county. 

Newport county is boand X. by 
Msunt H-^s biy. and Bristol coun- 
ty, Mass. ; E. by said county of 
Bristol : S. by the Atlantic ocean, 
and W. bv Xarra?an<et bav. Area, 
136 square miles. Population, 1S20, 
15,771 : 1<J30, 16,535. Population 
to a square mile, 122. 

SevrpMrtf R. I. 

I Chief town of Newport comity, 
j and one of the seats of the state leg- 
islature. It is in N. latitude 41<> 2S' 
20", and W. longitude 71» 21' 14": 
5 miles from the sea, 30 miles S. 
by E. from Providence, 70 S. S. W. 
from Boston, and 153 from New 
York, by water. The township lies 
in an irregular and somewhat of a 
semicircular form, about 6 miles in 
length and 1 in bread ih. In com- 
mon with the whole island of Rhode 
Island, on which Newport is situa- 
ted, the soil is remarkably fertile 
and under good cultivation. The 
surface is undulating, presenting a 
great variety of delightiful scenery. 
The waters of Narraganset bay at 
this place are unrivalled for beauty 
and convenience. The harbor of 
Newport is considered one of the 
best OQ the coast of America : it 


hu sufficient depth of water for the 
largest class of vessels, is exceed- 
ingly easy of access from the ocean, 
and sufficiently capacious to con- 
tain whole fleets. This harbor is 
admirably defended by forts Wol- 
cott, Green and Adams, and will 
probably soon become a naval de- 
pot. Newport was first settled by 
William Codington and his associates 
in 1638. The growth of the town 
was so rapid for the first hundred 
years, that in 1738 there were 7 
worshipping assemblies, and 100 sail 
of vessels belonged to the port. 

Newport suffered severely dur- 
ing the revolutionary war, and was 
' for a long time in possession of the 
enemy. After the war it revived 
again, but the more favorable loca- 
tion of Providence for an interior 
commerce, deprived it of a large 
portion of its original business. 

Newport however retains its 
former character for foreign com- 
merce and the fishery. A number 
of vessels are now engaged in the 
whaling business, and manufactur- 
ing establishments have recently 
been put into operation by steam 
power, which promise success. — 
Ship and boat building and the man- 
ufacture of cordage are carried on 
extensively. The domestic fishe- 
ry is to Newport an important re- 
Murse. There is probably no place 
in the world where a greater varie- 
ty of fish, or of a better quality, are 
found. About sixty different kinds, 
comprising almost every species of 
fin and shell fish, fit for the ta- 
ble, are taken in great abundance 
around the shores of Narraganset. 
The tonnage of the district of New- 
port, in 1837, was 11,498 tons. 

The compact part of the town is 
built on a beautiful site, facing the 
harbor in a southeasterly direction. 
The main street extends more than 
a mile in length. The buildings 
on this and other streets and on 
W&shington square are neatly built, 
and some of them nro very hand- 
tome The marks of age which 

some of these buildings bear, with 
the excellent state of preservation 
in which they appear, give them a 
grace not found in many of those 
of more modern construction. 

Although this ancient town has 
passed through many vicissitudes 
and changes of fortune, still it con- 
tinues to advance in the number of 
its people. Population, in 1820, 
7,319; 1830,8,010. 

Newport is celebrated for its 
beauty and the salubrity of its cli* 
mate. From these circumstances, 
and from the numerous inviting 
objects which surround it, it has 
become a favorite ref>ort for visitors 
from warmer climates ; and in no 
place can the summer season be 
more enjoyed than amid the charms 
of Newport. 

Oliver Hazzard Perrt, the 
Tictor on Lake Erie, Sept. 10, 1813, 
was bom at Newport, in 1786. — 
He died in the West Indies, in 1820. 
A monument is erected to his mem- 

Ne-vr Portland^ Me* 

Franklin co. This town is finely 
watered by two branches of Seven 
Mile brook. This is one of the 
finest farming towns in the coun« 
ty. It produced, in 1837, 10,451 
bushels of wheat. Population, 
same year, 1,476. This town has a 
pleasant village, a number of saw 
mills and other manufactories. It 
lies 48 miles N. N. W. from Augus- 
ta, and 18 N. by £. from Farming- 
ton. Incorporated, 1808. 

NeTvry-y Bfe* 

Oxford CO. A branch of Andros- 
coggin river waters this town, and 
affords it good mill privileges. It 
lies 63 miles W. from Augusta, and 
25 N. W. from Paris. Population, 
1837, 412. Incorporated, 1805. 

Nevr Salem, Mass. 

Franklin co. This town is bound- 
ed N. by Miller's river, and has a 
good water power. It lies 74 miles 


W N. W. from Boston, and 17 E. 
8. £. from Greenfield. This is a 
pleasant town of elevated surface, 
and good soil for grazing. Popula- 
tion, 1887, 1,266. The manufac- 
tures of the town, consist of palm- 
leaf hats, hoots, shoes, leather, 
atraw bonnets, and ploughs. In- 
corporated, 1753. 

Ne'w Sharon, Me* 

Franklin, co. This town is water- 
ed on the northwest side by Sandy 
liver, and is bounded south by Vi- 
enna. The soil is admirably adapt- 
ed to agricultural purposes. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 1,771. Wheat crop, 
same year, 8,132 bushels. It lies 
26 miles N. W. from Augusta. In- 
corporated, 1794. 

Ne'w Slioreluuay R« I. 

Newport co. This town com- 
prises the island of Block Island. 
The island lies in the open sea, 
about 14 miles S. S. W. from Judith 
Point, and 13 N. E. from Montauk 
Point, on Long Island, N. Y. It is 
about 8 miles in length, and varies 
iiMB 2 to 4 miles in width. It has 
several ponds, which cover about a 
seventh part of the island. The 
surface of the town is uneven ; in 
some parts elevated. The soil is a 
sandy, gravelly loam, and quite 
productive. This island was once 
famous for its cattle and good dai- 
ries. The people are mostly fish- 
ermen : they have no harbor, and 
peat is their only fuel. Population, 
1880, 1,185. Incorporated, 1672. 
Its Indian name was Manisses, 

Neivton, Mass. 

Middlesex co. A very beauti- 
ful, agricultural and manufacturing 
town, the JVonantwn of the In- 
dians, 7 miles W. by S. from Boston, 
12 S. £. from Concord, and 7 N. 
from Dedham. Charles river wash- 
es the borders of this town 15 miles, 
and, by two falls of considerable ex- 
tent, affords it a great and valuable 
water power. Nine bridges cross 

CharlM river in this town. Th« 
soil if genwally very good, and 
highly culdvated. There are 2 
cotton, 1 woolens and 5 paper 
mills in the town, and manufactures 
of naUs, rolled iron, candles, vit- 
riol, barilla, chaises, harnesses, mo- 
rocco, leather, boots, shoes, ma- 
chinery, chairs, and cabinet ware ; 
the value of which, the year end- 
ing April 1, 1837, amounted to 
$815372. Newton was incorpo- 
rated in 1691; It formerly com- 
prised the town of Cambridge, and 
is noted as the birth place and resi- 
dence of many distinguished men. 
Population, 1830, 2,877 ; 1887, 
8,037. A Theological Semifuury 
was established in this town, in 
1825. See MegUter. 

Rockingham co., lies 40 miles S. 
E. from Concord, and 27 8. S. W. 
from Portsmouth. Country pond 
lies in Newtown and Kingston, and 
two other small ponds connect by 
outlets with its waters. The soil 
produces good crops of grain, or 
grass. Joseph Bartlett first settled 
in this town, in 1720. Bartlett was 
taken prisoner by the Indians at 
Haverhill, in 1708, and remained a 
captive in Canada about 4 years. 
Population, 1880, 510. 

H e-vrtavniy Ct« 

Fairfield co. This town was in- 
corporated in 1708. It is watered 
by Patatuek river, the Indian name 
of the place. It lies 25 miles W. 
N. W. from New Haven, 10 £. 
from Danbury, and 22 N. from Fair- 
field. Population, 1830, 8,100.— 
The surface of the town is hilly ; 
many of the eminences are exten- 
sive and continuous. The soil U 
principally a gravelly loam, gener- 
ally fertile and productive. It .is 
well adapted to the culture of grain, 
and is also favorable for fruit, there 
being many valuable orchards in the 
town. The borough of Newtown 
is beautifully situated on iUgh 


ground ; it commands an extensive Worfolk Catunty, Msmu 

prospect, and contaiM some hand- chjgf ^^n^ Dedham. ThU 

some buildings. ^ « ^ county is bounded N. E. by Boston 

The flounshing village of fifan^y harbor, N. by Suffolk county, W. 

Hook is situated about 1 1-2 miles ^y the S. E. corner of Worcester 

N. E. of the central part of New- county, S. by the N. E. comer of 

town, at the foot of a rocky emin- ^he state of Rhode Island, and S. 

ence or bluff, from the top of which g ^ ^nd E. by the counties of Bris- 

is a fine prospect of the surround- ^1 and Plymouth. Area, about 

ing country. A fine mill stream 400 gquare miles. Population, in 

(the Patatuck) runs m a northerly 1320, 36,452 ; in 1830, 41,901 ; in 

course through the village, at the 1837,50,399. Taken from Suffolk 

base of the cliff, which rises almost county in 1793. 

perpendicular to the height of 160 j^is county has a maritime coast 

feet. Near a cotton factory, at the ^^ Boston harbor of about 12 miles, 

northern extremity of the village, ^^ich is indented with many small 

•ome traces of coal have been dis- bays and navigable rivers. Its sur- 

covered. The village contained, in f^ce is uneven, and in some parts 

1834, 1 cotton, 1 hat, 1 comb and hilly. Its soil is generally strong 

2 woolen factones. There was also ^nj rocky. Much of the dark col- 

1 machine shop, and 1 establish- ^^^^ granite, or sienite, is found 

mcnt for working brass. here. A large part of Norfolk 

NewVinejrardyBfe. county, particularly those towns 

•n !_!• mv nesLV Boston, is under a high state 

Franklin co. This town " wa- ^f cultivation, and affords fruits and 

*®''®? ^l.^ ^^^^^ °\ ^f^^^ '^ vegetables in great abundance.— 

brook. The surface of the town is ^he proximity of this county to 

oncven,but the soil, generally, w the capital gives it many facilities ; 

productove. It produced, m 1837, ^nd the towns in this, and in the 

7,063 bushels of wheat. Popula- county of Middlesex, that bof«er 

tion, same year, 870. Incorporat- ^^ Boston harbor, may be called the 

cd, 1802. It lies 40 miles N.W. Gardens of Boston' It contains 

from Augusta, and 8 N. by E. from 22 towns, and 126 inhabitants to a 

Farmmgton. square mile. The Charles, Nepon- 

Nobleborougliy Me« set, and Manatiquot are its chief 


Lincoln co. This town lies on j^ ^gg^^ ^jg county contained 

the east side of the upper waters 2,054 sheep. The value of the 

of Damariscotta river. It is a manufactures in the county, the 

place of considerable trade. Many y^^r ending April 1, 1887, was 

ships are built here, and a large *6,466,010. The value of the 

number of vessels are employed in gghery, the same year, was $244,- 

the coasting trade. The soil of the 927. v ^ 

town is generally good, and consid- w rT lie Ct 

erable attention is paid by the in- 00,. 

habitants to agricultural pursuits. Litchfield co. The settlement 

It lies 38 miles S. £. from Augusta, of Norfolk began in 1744. It lies 

and 11 E. from Wiscasset. Popula- 35 miles W. N. W. from Hartford, 

tion, 1837, 1,999. Incor., 1788. and 17 N. from Litchfield. Popu- 

N-M«u-I-tnd, Mass. ^^^°°.' 1^^^' h^' , , ^ 

x^» iuiu»-.a^»Eu, xiu»». Yjj.^ ^^^ .g elevated and moun- 

Dukes CO. A ledge of rocks, tainous. The soil is a primitive, 

the most southern part of the state, gravelly loam, generally cold and 

It lies 7 miles S. from Gay Head. stony, but has considerable deptib* 


•nd aiSirdf good grazing. Former- 
ly laree quantities of sugar were 
made From the maple : more than 
SO,(M)0 lbs. have been manufactured 
in a single season ; but since the 
land has been cleared by progres- 
■ivesettlementSyand in consequence 
of the destruction of the maple 
trees by some tornadoes, the busi- 
ness has greatly declined. The 
dairy business comprises the prin- 
cipal interests of the town. A 
stream, called Blackberry river, 
runs near the centre of the place, 
and a little westward of the con- 
gregational church falls over a ledge 
of rocks SO feet in height. This is 
an excellent site for mills, of which 
there are several near this spot 

There is a handsome village, with 
an open square or green in front of 
the church, which is uncommonly 
neat and beautiful in its appearance. 
About half a mile north is another 
village, in which are two woolen 
and Uiree scythe factories. 

Norrldi^evroelcy Me* 

Chief town of Somerset co. This 
town is situated on both sides of 
the Kennebec river, 28 miles N. 
from Augusta. Incorporated, 1788. 
Population, 1837, 1,955. Its sur- 
face is diversified with hills of a 
moderate elevation, the soil various, 
but generally good and well culti- 
vated. Wheat crop, 1837, 10,299 
bushels. This town was formerly 
the site of the celebrated tribe of 
Norridgewock Indians. Their vil- 
lage was situated at the foot of Nor- 
ridgewock falls, in the N. W. part 
of the town, and the border of Mad- 
ison. The tribe had a church, the 
bell of which was dug up a few 
years since, and placed in the cabi- 
net at Bowdoin college. The tribe 
was destroyed by a party of 168 
men,~sent out from Massachusetts 
for that purpose, commanded by 
Capt Moulton, on the afternoon of 
August 28, 1724. Among the kill- 
ed was the noted Jesuit missiona- 
ry^Ralle. A mooument was erect* 

ed the 8td of Ao^iut, 1838, by 
Bishop Fenwi^, to nis memory.— 
It is a plain granite pyramidal shaft, 
standing on a square base of the 
same material, having the fiaUow- 
ing inscription : — 

Sebastianus Rasles natione Gal- 
luse Societate Jean miasionius, per 
aliquot annos Illinois et Huronibvs 
primum evangelanns, deinde per 
S4 annos Abenaquis, fide et chari- 
tate Christi verus Apostolus, pericu- 
lus armornm intenitus se pro suis 
oribus mori paratum soepina te^ifi- 
cans, inter anna et cocdes ac Pagi 
Nanarantsouak Norrideewock, et 
Ecclesiae suae minas, noc in ipso 
loco, cecidit tandem optimus pastor, 
die 23 Augusti, A. D. 1724, ipsiet 
filius in Christo defunctis Monu- 
mentum hoc posuit Benidictua Fen- 
wick, Espiscopus Bostoniensis dedl« 
cavitque 23 Augusti, A. D. 188S. 
A. M. D. G. 

Norridgewock village is ritnafed 
on the north side of the river, di- 
rectly in the bend, five miles west 
of Skowhegan falls. It is one of 
the most pleasant and delightful 
villages, especially in the summer, 
in the state. The main street is 
lined with ornamental trees, some 
of them venerable for age and mag- 
nitude, extending their long anna 
quite across the street, forming a 
beautiful avenue from east to west. 
On the south side of the river, con- 
nected by a bridge, is a pleasant and 
rapidly increasing village. 

The public buildings consist of 
a church and court bouse, on the 
north side of the river, and on the 
south, a female academy, and a free 
church at ^Oak Hill,'* about 6 
miles from the village. 

This section of country is remark- 
able for its luxuriant growth of the 
white pine. A few years since, one 
of these trees was cut for a canoe 
Its length was 154 feet and measor 
ed 4 1-2 feet in diameter. 

N ortb. Hampton, V» H., 

Rockingham co.» formerly 


stitutiiig the ptrish called ^orth 
Sill, in Hampton, lies on fhe sea 
coast 60 miles 8. E. bj E. from 
Concord, and 9 8. by W. uom Ports- 

Little river rises in the low 
grounds in the north part of the 
town, and after running southeast 
one or two miles, takes an east 
course, falling into the sea between 
Little Boar's head, in this town and 
Great Boar's head, in Hampton. 
Winnicut river rises near the cen- 
tre of the town, and passes north- 
west into Great bay. In 1742, the 
town was incorporated. Population, 
1880, 767. 

Nortluuaaptony BlaM* 

Chief town of Hampshire co. This 
Is a very beautiful town, delightful- 
ly situated on the west bank of Con- 
necticut river, and united to Hadley 
by a bridge. Since the first settle- 
ments on the Connecticut basin, 
this town has been an important 
point of attraction. This was the 
third town settled on Connecticut 
river in this state. Its Indian name 
was JVonatiick, The soil of the 
town is alluvial and its products ex- 
uberant. Bodi before and since the 
division of the old county into three, 
this place has been the seat of jus- 
tice. The buildings are handsome, 
•ad the most important county offi- 
ces are fire proqf. A fine stream 
passes through the centre of the 
town, possessing a good water pow- 
er, on which are manufactories and 
mills of various kinds. 

The manufactures of Northamp- 
ton consist of woolen and silk goods, 
boots, shoes, leather, paper, brooms, 
chairs, iron, tin, and cabinet wares, 
8cc. ; total value the year ending 
AprU 1, 1837, about $860,000. The 
manufacture of sewing silk, rib- 
bons, &c., is on a large scale, and 
the most flourishing establishment 
of the kind in this country. In 
1887, there were 8760 sheep shear- 
ed in the town ; the value of the 
wool was $7,076. 

This place has considerable river 
and inland commerce, which will 
be increased by the Hampshire and 
Hampden canal, which meets the 
Connecticut river here and termi- 
nates at New Haven. 

This town was incorporated, in 
1664 ; population, 1820, 2,864, and in 
1837, 3,676. It b 91 miles W. from 
Boston, 67 E. from Albany, 89 N. 
from Hartford,22 S.lrom Greenfield, 
17 N. by W. from Springfield, and 
876 from Washington. 

There are many institutions of a 
literary and religious character in 
this town, and its schools are of the 
first order. The country around 
the town is enchanting, and those 
who visit Mount Holyoke, 830 feet 
above the river, on the east side, or 
Mount Tom, 1,200 feet above the 
river, on the west side, will find 
a wonderful variety of landscape 
scenery, probably unsurpassed in 
beauty by any in the New Eng- 
land States. 

North. Bervrlelcy Me* 

York CO. This town was incor- 
porated in 1831, and was taken from 
the east side of Berwick. It com- 
prises a fine tract of land ; it is well 
watered and very pleasant. Popu- 
lation, 1837, 1,493. It lies 91 miles 
S. W. from Augusta, and 13 N. W. 
from York. 

Hortliborougby BIjuw* 

Worcester co. This is a pleasant 
farming town, of good soil, and wa- 
tered by Assabet river. It was in- 
corporated in 1766, and lies 82 miles 
W. from Boston, and 10 N. E. from 
Worcester. Population, 1830, 994 
—1837, 1,224. 

The manufactures of the town 
consist of cotton goods, boots, shoes, 
leather, children's wagons, &c.; an- 
nual amount about $76,000. 

Hortli BmnTordy Gt« 

New Haven co. This town was 
incorporated in 1881, and was taken 
from Bran£»rd. A range of numa- 


tiins from tho southwest to north- 
east passes through the central part 
of the town. The inhabitants are 
generally substantial farmers, and 
property is very equally distributed. 
The face of the township is gene- 
rally hilly, but the soil is strong and 
fertile. It lies 9 miles £. from 
New Haven. Population, 1832, 

About a mile southeast of the 
Nortliford church,on Tetoket moun- 
tain, there is the appearance of hav- 
ing been, at some remote period, 
some violent convulsions in nature; 
the rocks appear to have been rent 
asunder, and are thrown about in 
great disorder. Lead is said to have 
been found near this spot, a mass 
of it being discovered by a person 
who was hunting, at the time of 
the first settlement of the parish : 
he hung up a pair of buck's horns 
to designate the spot, but the place 
could not be found afterwards. 

Nortlibrldge, Mass. 

Worcester co. The Blackstone 
river and canal pass through this 
pleasant manufacturing and agri- 
cultural town. It has some excel- 
lent intervale land, and the soil of 
the uplands produces grass, grain, 
and vegetables in abundance. The 
river here is beautiful, and produces 
a great hydraulic power. The 
lAanufactures of the town consist 
of cotton and woolen goods, cotton 
machinery, boots, shoes, &c. : val- 
ue, the year ending April 1, 1S87, 

Northbridge lies 85 miles S. W. 
by W. from Boston, and 13 S. E. 
from Worcester. Incorporated, 
1772. Population, 1830, 1,053; 

Hortli Bridge'vrater, Umis. 

Plymouth co. This town lies 20 
miles S. from Boston, 24 N. W. from 
Plymouth, and 10 S. S. W. from 
Weymouth Landing. Population, 
1830, 1,953; 1837, 2,701. It is 
well watered by Salisbury river 

and other small streams which emp- 
ty into the Taunton. The surface of 
the town is uneven, but the soil is 
of a good quality, particularly fiM* 
grazing. Incorporated, 1821. 

The manufactures of the town 
consist of cotton goods, boots, shoes, 
hats, chairs, shoe tools, forks, hoes, 
cabinet and wooden wares, &c.: 
total amount, the year ending April 
1, 1837, $236,700. 

We regret that this very pleas- 
ant town was not called TiUeut 
or ^unketest, one of the Indian 
names of the ancient territory. 

This town was the first of the 
three Bridgewaters that have sprung 
from Old Bridge water, named after a 
celebrated English Duke. We can 
see no good cause for attaching a 
cardinal point of the compass to tha 
name of any town, particularly one 
of foreign derivation, when ■one 
beautiful Indian name meets the ear 
on the bank of almost every itreaD. 
Had the noble Duke bequeathed to 
good old mother Bridgewater and 
her three handsome daughters, (is 
he did to the city of Manche8ter,)t]ie 
perpetual privilege of obtaining 140 
pounds of coal for four pence, mere 
would appear some reason forpe^ 
petuating and extending the name. 

Some just remarks on the namei 
of towns appeared in the Provi" 
dence Journal, which are worthy 
of repetition. 

"Indian Namss. The new 
state of Michigan has passed one 
of the most sensible laws that was 
ever enacted. Its object is to pre- 
serve the noble n&d harmonious old 
Indian names, which have been giv- 
en to every river and lake and for- 
est and mountain in our country, 
and which, by a bad taste, have in 
many instances, been displaced by 
the hackneyed names of European 
cities, or of distinguished men. The 
law provides that no town shall be 
named after any other place or af- 
ter any man, without first ob- 
taining the consent of the Legisla^ 
ture. The consequence is, that 


Michigan is destitute of London, 
Paris and Amsterdam ; unlike her 
sister states, she boasts neither 
Thebes, Pa]myra,Carthage or Troy. 
No collection of log huts, with half 
a dozen grocery stores, has been 
honored with the appellation of Liv- 
erpool, nor has any embryo city, 
with a college or an academy, re- 
ceived the appropriate name of 
Athens. She has no Moscow and 
Morocco, in the same latitude ; and 
noEdinburgh and Alexandria within 
thirty miles of each other. Baby- 
lon, Sparta and Corinth, though they 
have been transplanted to other 
parts of the Union, are destined ne- 
ver to flourish on the soil of Mich- 
igan. No Franklin or Greene or 
Jefierson, no Wac^ingtou, ie to be 
fiiund in her borders. On the con- 
trary, her rivers and lakes still re- 
tMn ^e full, rich, swelling names 
which were bestowed upon them by 
the red men of the forests, and her 
towns bear the names of the sturdy 
chiefii who once battled or hunted 
in their streets. Strange, when we 
have auch a noble nomenclature as 
the Indians have left us, that we 
■hottld copy from the worn out 
Barnes of ancient cities, and which 
awake no feelings but ridicule, by 
•the contrast between the old and the 
new. Mohawk, Seneca, Massasoit, 
Ontario, Erie, how infinitely supe- 
rior to Paris, London, Fishville, 
Vnttertown, Bungtown, &.c. The 
feeling whieh prompts us to perpet- 
nate the names of our revolutionary 
heroes by naming towns after them, 
Is highly honorable ; but it should 
not be forgotten that frequent rep- 
etition (especially in cases where 
flie town is utterly unworthy of its 
namesake) renders the name vulgar 
.tpad ridiculous. It seems, that not 
content with driving the Indians 
from the soil, we are anxious to ob- 
Uterate every trace of their exist- 

We are glad to see a better taste 
beginning to prevail upon this sub- 
Jeety and we hope that the example I 

of Michigan will be followed. If not 
by legal enactments, at least by the 
force of public opinion.'* 

North Broolcileldf Bfass. 

Worcester co. This town is on 
elevated ground : it is of good soil, 
well cultivated, well watered and 
very pleasant. It has a fine fish 
pond, and lies 68 miles W. from 
Boston, and 18 W. from Worcester : 
taken from Brookfield in 1802. 
Population,18a0, 1,241 ; 18S7, 1,609. 
The agricultural products sent to 
market are very considerable. The 
manufactures of the town consist 
of boots and shoes, woolen cloth, 
leather, &.C., the value of which for 
the year ending April 1,1887, was 
f 625,224 ; of which $470,816 was 
for boots and shoes. 

HortlLlleldy Vt. 

Washington co. This town lies 
10 miles S. S. W. from Montpelier, 
and 86 £ from Burlington. Popu- 
lation in 1880, 1,412. First settled, 
1785. The principal stream in this 
town is Dog river, which runs 
through it in a northerly direction, 
and aflbrds a great number of valu- 
able mill privileges. The surface 
is uneven, but the soil is generally 
good and easily cultivated. In the 
centre of the town is a neat, pleas- 
ant and flourishing village, contain- 
ing a number of saw mills and other 
mechanical operations by water. 

TfortbJLtlAf Me* 

Incorporated 1838. See '* Down 

Northfleldy V, H.y 

Merrimack co., is bounded N. by 
Winnepisiogee river, and W. by 
the Merrimack. It is 14 miles N. 
from Concord, and 10 W. by S. of 
Oilmanton. The soil here is in 
some parts good — that of the best 
quality lies on the two ridges ex- 
tending through th? town. Ches- 
nut pond lies in the east part of the 
town, and its waters flow into die 


the a^cultural productions, of 
grass, hay, corn, some rye, pota- 
toes, vegetables and fruits, many of 
which are sent to Providence. 

The waters of the town consist 
of the Scekonk river, which wash- 
es its eastern border ; the Wanas- 
quatucket, which forms its western 
boundary; and the Mashasuck, 
which intersects the interior of the 
township. These streams afibrd 
numerous sites for hydraulic works, 
some of which are almost unrival- 
led. There are some valuable 
shad and herring fisheries in the 

This town is distinguished for its 
manufactures, particularly those of 
cotton, which form an important 
interest. The extent of this busi- 
ness, having concentrated a large 
capital, and an immense aggregate 
of industry, has, within the last fif- 
tv years, given rise to a large and 
nourishing village. The village of 
Pawtucketis situated in the north- 
east section of the town, four miles 
northeast from Providence, on the 
border of the Seekonk river ; its site 
being principally the declivity of a 
hill, and it is highly romantic and 
picturesque. The river here affords 
numerous natural sites for manu- 
facturing establishments, mills and 
hydraulic works of almost every 
description, which are scarcely ri- 
valled, and which are occupied to a 
great extent. The rapid march of 
manufacturing and mechanical in- 
dustry, which the short annals of 
this place disclose, has few exam- 
ples in our country, and has pro- 
duced one of the most considerable 
and flourishing manufacturing vil- 
lages in the United States. The 
river here forms the boundary line 
between Massachusetts and Rhode 
Island, and the village is built upon 
both sides of it ; being partly in 
each state. That part oi the village 
which is in this state is principally 
built on four streets ; and compris- 
es a large number of handsome 

Besides the cotton busiiieMytiien 
are in the town furnaces for cast- 
ing, slitting mills, anchor shopti 
cut nail factories, screw manafao" 
tones, &c. &c. See Pawtucket, 

JSorUx Stonlnctomy Ct« 

New London co. This town wti 
taken from Stonington in 1808. It 
is watered by the Pawcatuck and 
its branches, which aflbrd good mill 
sites. The surface is uneven, hilly 
and abounding in granitic rocki. 
The soil is a gravelly loam, and 
generally productive of good pas- 
turage. Agriculture is the princi- 
pal employment of the iahabit- 

MiUtown is a pretty village wifli 
some trade : it lies 60 milei 8. E. 
from Hartford, 18 N. E. from New 
London, and 7 N. by £. from Stoi^ 
ington Borough. Population of tin 
town in 1830, 2,840. 

N«Mrt]mna1»erlM&dy N. H*» 

In Coos county, on Conneetieat 
river, is 180 miles N. from Coneord, 
and 7 N. £. from Lancaster. The 
soil along the Connecticut- la very 
productive,perfectly free from atoiie 
and gravel, and originally covered 
with a growth of butternut. A 
portion of the upland is also good, 
and covered with pine, ipnice, fir, 
ash, maple, &c. Cape Horn, an 
abrupt mountain of 1,000 feet in 
height, lies near the centre of the 
town. Its north base is separated 
from the Connecticut by a narrow 
plain, and the upper Amonoosuck 
passes near its east base, as it falls 
into the Connecticut. Here the 
meadows are extensive, and are an- 
nually covered by the spring floodi, 
presenting Ifhe appearance of an 
inland sea. At the falls in the Con* 
necticut, below the mouth of the 
Amonoosuck, a handsome bridge 
connects Northumberland with 
Guildhall, in Vermont. A dam if 
also thrown across the river tt fUe 
place, at both ends of which in 


pleasant Tillages and mills of vari- 
ous kinds are erected. Northum- 
berland was incorporated in 1779. 
First settled, 1767. Population, 
1880, 852. 

Near the river a small fort was 
erected during the revolutionary 
war, and placed in the command of 
Capt. Jeremiah Eames, afterwards 
well known for his usefulness, wit 
uid pleasantry. 

JSorthrwood, N. H. 

Rockingham co. There are a num- 
ber of ponds in this town, and ex- 
cellent fishing. Suncook pond, 
750 rods long, 100 wide ; Jenness' 
pond, 300 rods long, 150 wide ; Long 
pmid, ahout 800 rods long, 60 wide ; 
Hanrey's pond, 200 rods long, from 
40 to 80 wide ; a part of Great Bow 
pond is also in this town, and a part 
ofNorth river pond ; Pleasant pond, 
and Little Bow pond. Thfe north 
brancb of Lamprey river has Its 
rise in this town near Saddleback 
mountain, a high ridge between 
this town and Deerfield. On the £. 
side of diis ridge are found crystals 
and crystalline spars of various col- 
ors and sizes. This town has an 
elevated site, and commands a distant 
and varied prospect. The waters 
flowing from the farm of the late 
Jonathan Clarke, Esq., one of the 
first settlers, fall into three different 
livers, the Suncook, Lamprey and 
Isinglass. The soil of this town is 
generally moist, and well suited to 
rrazing. Northwood was original- 
Ty a part of Nottingham, and was 
settled in 1763. Northwood is 20 
miles £. from Concord, 20 N. W. 
from Exeter, and about the same 
distance W. from Dover. Popula- 
tion, 1830, 1,342. 

Hortli Yam&onthy Me. 

Cumberland co. This is a pleasant 
town on Casco bay, 10 miles N. from 
Portland, and 42 S. £. from Augus- 
ta. Population, 1837, 2,782. The 
town was first settled in 1640. In 
l$87 it was attacked by the Indians, 


and deserted by the whites; and 
was not re-settled by them until 
1725. It was incorporated in 1713. 
About 4000 tons of navigation is 
owned here, employed in the trans- 
portation of lumber and the fishery. 
There is a fine stream of water in 
the town, on which are a paper and 
saw mills, and other manufactories. 
The academy in North Yarmouth 
is well founded and is in a flourish- 
ing condition. See Register. 

Norton^ Mass. 

Bristol CO. Norton was taken 
from Taunton in 1771. It lies 30 
miles S. from Boston, 17 N. E. from 
Providence, and 8 N. W. from 
Taunton. Population, 1837, 1,580. 
It is well watered by Rumford, Co- 
casset and Canoe rivers, which 
empty into the Taunton. The manu- 
factures of the town consist of sheet 
copper and copper bolts, cotton 
goods, boots, shoes, leather, iron 
castings, ploughs, shuttles, straw 
bonnets and baskets: — ^total value, 
the year ending April 1, 1887, 

Winnicunnit pond, in this town, 
was a great resort for the Indians, 
some of whom resided in natural 
caves, on its shores, and lived on fish 
and clams. 

NorwallK, Ct. 

Fairfield co. This pleasant town 
lies on Lone Island Sound, 32 miles 
W. S. W. from New Haven, 22 S. 
from Danbury, and 48 N. £. from 
New York. Population, 1880, 

Norwalk originally included part 
' of the present towns of New Cana- 
an and Wilton, and part of West- 
port. In the ancient record, the 
bounds are stated to be *< from Nor- 
walk river to Sauhatuck river, from 
sea, Indian one day walk into tho 
country." For this tract the fol- 
lowing articles were given, viz ; *' S 
fathom wampum, 6 coats,* 10 hatch- 
ets, 10 hoes, 10 knives, 10 scissors, 
10 jewsharps, 10 fathom tobacco, S 


kettles, 8 hands- about, and 10 look- 
ing glasses." The following arti- 
cles were given to the Indians for 
the tract " from Norwalk river to 
Five mile river, from sea, Indian 
one day in country," viz. ** 10 
fathom wampum, 3 hatchets, 3 hoes 
when ships come, 6 glasses, 12 to- 
bacco pipes, 3 knives, 10 drillers, 
10 needles." The name of Nor- 
walk is derived from the above bar- 
gain, viz ; the northern bounds of 
the lands purchased were to extend 
from the sea one day's ^^north walk** 
into the country, 

The soil in this town is excel- 
lent. The surface is uneven, be- 
ing pleasantly diversified with hills 
and valleys. On the border of the 
Sound the hills are generally mod- 
erate, and in the interior more ele- 

" The valley which lies along 
Norwalk river, and in which the 
town is built, is beautiful. Few 
richer prospects of the same extent 
can be found than that which is 
presented from the neighbonng em- 
inences of this ground : the town 
built in its bosom, with ifs cheerful 
spires; the river flowing through 
the middle ; the farms on the bor- 
deiing hills; the rich plain that 
skirts the Sound, and a train of is- 
lands fronting the mouth of the riv- 
er, and extending eastward five or 
six miles ; together with an unlim- 
ited view of the Sound, and the 
Long Island shore." 

Norwalk contains two considera- 
ble and flourishing villages, Nor- 
walk Borough, and the village of 
Old Well. Norwalk Borough ^(con- 
stituted as such in 1S36,) is a vil- 
lage ofupwards of 130 handsome 
builflings, and an extensive pottery. 
Norwalk is a place of considerable 
activity and business, being a com- 
mercial depot and market for the 
northern part of the county ; a. con- 
siderable proportion of the staple 
products being brought here for 
sale, or to be freighted for New 

The village is built on both sides 
of a small river or creek, which is 
much contracted iq width at the 
biidge which connects the two parts 
of the village, and the buildings on 
each side of the stream are so near 
each other, that the passage of the 
river from the north is not readily 
perceived at a short distance. Ves- 
sels drawing six feet of water can 
get up to the bridge in the moist 
compact part of the village. 

The flourishing village of Old 
Well is situated about 1 1-2 miles 
south of the central part of Nor- 
walk Borough, on the west side of 
the creek. 

There are at present in this vil- 
lage six or seven hat factories, three 
potteries, and a carriage making 
establishment. This is the princi- 
pal landing place for steam-boats for 
Norwalk and the vicinity, there be- 
ing a daily line from and to New 
York. A boat every other day 
leaves Norwalk bridge for New 

There is a cotton factory* and t 
factory for manufacturing carpets 
in the town. This establishment, 
called the ** Patent Carpet Compa- 
ny," was commenced in 1834.— 
Their carpeting, of which they 
minufacturo at this time about 20O 
yards daily, is m^de without spin- 
ning or weaving, being made of- 
felting, the material of. which hati 
are composed. 

This town was burnt by the Brit- 
ish, under Tryop,on the 17th July, 
1779. iUghty dwelling houses, 2 
churches, 87 barns, 17 shops, 4 
mills, and 5 vessels were destroyed. 

Nonvayf Me. 

Oxford CO. This is a fine town- 
ship, well watered by several 
streams and ponds. One of the 
ponds is lai*ge, — very handsome, 
and discharges its'watera into Little 
Androscoggin river. Norway lief 
47 miles W. by S. from Augusta, 
and is bounded on*the £. by Paris. 
Incorporated, 1797. Population, 


1837, 1,791. Wheat crop, same 
year, 7,272 bushels. 

Norwtcli, Vt. 

Windsor co. This, town lies on 
the west side of Connecticut river, 
and is connected with Hanover, N. 
H. by a bndge. The surface of 
the town is uneven, but the soil is 
good for grain, pasturage and fruit. 
Oinponiponoosuck river and other 
streams water the town and afford 
it ^03d mill seats. First settled, 
1763. Population, 1830, 2,316.— 
It lies 40 miles S. S. £. from Mont- 
pelier and 19 N. from Windsor. 

JVorwick viilage is pleasantly 
situated on a plain, near Connecti- 
cut river, and contains a university 
and a number of handsome build- 
ings. See Register. 

TSorvrielik, Ma«s. 

Hampshire co. This mountain- 
ous town is watered by Westfield 
river. The soil in many parts is 
good for grazing, and many sheep 
are kept here. There is a cotton 
mill in the town, and manufactures 
of leather, boots, shoes, axes, and 
spirits. It lies 108 miles W. from 
Boston, and 12 W. by S from 
Korthampton. Incorporated, 1773. 
Population, 1837, 714. 

Norvrlol&y €jU 

One of the chief towns of New 
London county. Norwich city is 
situated at the head of navigation 
of Thames river, at the point of 
land formed by the junction of the 
Shctucket and Yantic rivers, whose 
united waters constitute the Thames. 
The main part of the city is built 
on the southern declivity of a high 
and rocky hill : the houses are built 
In tiers, rising one above another. 
The city, as it is approached fmm 
the Fouth, presents one of the most 
beautiful, interesting and romantic 
prospects in the state. The build- 
ings, which are mostly painted 
white, appear in full view for a con- 
siderable distance down the river ; 

these contrasted with the deep green 
foliage covering the rocky and ele- 
vated banks bf the river, give a 
picturesque variety to the scene, 
forming on the water a delightful 
avenue to the city. There are in 
this city, (or as it was formerly call- 
ed, Chelsea or Norwich Landing,) 
a court house and town hall. A 
high school for boys, and a female 
academy, in which the higher 
branches of education are taught, 
have been in operation for a consid- 
erable time, and are in. flourishing 
circumstances. About a mile east- 
ward of the landing is situated the 
flourishing village of Greenville, at 
the eastern extremity of which a 
dam has been constructed across the 
Shetucket,which will, it is calculat- 
ed furnish sufficient water power to 
carry 60,000 spindles : four or five 
large factories, and perhaps 40 or 
50 dwelling houses, are, or are 
about to be built. Among the fac- 
tories there is perhap^ the most ex- 
tensive paper mill in the state, own- 
ed, by the Chelsea Manufacturing 
Company. There are also two oth- 
er paper mills near the falls, which 
do an extensive business. The first 
paper manufactured in Connecticut 
was made in this town by Col. 
Christopher Leffingwell. There 
are at, and near the falls, 9 or 10 
establishments for manufacturing 
purposes. Besides these, and those 
at Greenville, there are some more 
in other parts of the town. The 
principal manufactures are those of 
cotton, paper and woolens. Nor- 
wich city is 13 miles N. from New 
London, 38 S. £. from Hartford, 88 
S. W. from Providence, and 50 N. 
E. from New Haven. Population 
of Norwich, in 1830, was 5,179 ; of 
which 3,144 were in the city limits. 
Above the cove, which sets up 
about a mile from the river, ** the 
bed of the river consists of a solid 
rock, having a perpendicular height 
of tien or twelve feet, over which 
the whole body of water falls in an 
entire sheet upo» a bed of rockt 


below. The river here is compress- 
ed into a very narrow channel, the 
banks consisting of solid rocks, and 
being bold and elevated. For a 
distance of 16 or 20 rods, the chan- 
nel or bed of tlie river has a gradual 
descent, is crooked and covered 
with pointed rocks.- The rock, 
forming the bed of the river at the 
bottom of the perpendicular fulls, 
is curiously excavated, some of the 
cavities being five or six feet deep, 
from the constant pouring of the 
sheet of water for a succession of 
ages." At the bottom of the falls 
there is the broad basin of the cove, 
where the enraged and agitated 
element resumes its usual smooth- 
ness and placidity, and the whole 
scenery about these falls is uncom- 
monly beautiful and picturesque. 

During the wars between Unci^ 
and the Narragansets, Uncas was 
closely besieged in his fort near the 
Thames, until his provisions be- 
came nearly exhausted, and he with 
his men were on the point of per- 
ishing by famine or sword. Fortu- 
nately he found means of giving in- 
telligence to the scouts who had 
been sent out from Saybrook fort. — 
By his messengers, he represented 
the great danger the English would 
be in, were the Narragnnsets suf- 
fered to overpower the Mohegans. 

" Upon this intelligence, one 
Thomas Leffingwell, an ensign at 
Saybrook, an enterprising, bold 
man, loaded a canoe with beef, com 
and peas, and under the cover of 
night paddled from Saybrook into 
the Thames, and had the address to 
get the whole into the fort. The 
enemy soon perceiving that Uncas 
was relieved, raised the siege. — 
For this service, Uncas gave Lef- 
fingwell a deed of a great part, if 
not the whole town of Norwich. — 
In June, 1659, Uncas vrith his two 
sons, Owaneko and Attawanhood, 
by a more formal Mid authentic deed, 
made over to said Leffingwell, John 
Mason, Esq., the Rev. James Fitch 
iiAd«thers» edniistiBg of thirty-five • 

proprietors, the whole of Norwich, 
which is about nine miles square. 
The company at this time gave Un- 
cas and his sons about J&70, as a 
further compensation for so large 
and fine a tract." 

Wotttngliafiiy H* H.» 

Rockingham co., is 25 miles £.^ 
S. £. from Concord, and 20 W. from' 
Portsmouth. Population, in 1880» 
1,167. There are several ponds in 
this town, mostly of small size. Lit- 
tje river and several other streams 
rise here ; and North river pa9se8 
through the town. The soil is in 
many parts good, though the sur- 
face is rough and broken. Sever- 
al mountains extend along the W. 
part of the town, forming parts of 
the range called Blue Hiiis. 

Nottingham Square is a pleas- 
ant village on an elevated site. Bog 
iron ore is found here in great quan- 
tities ; and it is said inexhaustible 
masses of mountain ore exist in the 
mountains. Crystals and crystal- 
line spars are found here ; and also 
ochres in small quantities. Not- 
tingham was incorporated in 1722, 
and settled in 1727. 

Gen. Joseph Cillet entered 
the army of the revolution at its 
commencement and commanded the 
1st N. H. regiment He was dis- 
tinguished for bravery and pat|:iot- 
ism during the whole contest. 

Hon. Thomas Bartlett was 
an active revolutionary patriot ; one 
of the committee of safety ; Lt. Col. 
under Stark at the capture of Bur- 
goyne, and commanded a regiment 
at West Point in 1780, when the 
treachery of Arnold betrayed tha$ 

Oen. Heutrt Butler was an 
officer in the army of the revolu- 
tion, and Major General of militia. 
Descendants of these revolutionary 
worthies now live in the town. 

Null&eflran River, Tt. 

This river rises by several brandi- 
es itt the highlands, at the norai 


part of Essex county. These 
branches unite and fall into the 
Connecticut at Brunswick. This 
river is in some pdirts rapid ; in oth- 
ers, (^eep and sluggish. It waters 
ahout 120 square miles, and is fiftj 
feet wide at its mouth. The head 
Witers of this and of the river Clyde, 
pass N. into Memphremagog lake, 
and are near each other.' This 
was formerly an Indian route be- 
tween Connecticut river and Cana- 

Oakluim, MaMS. 

Worcester co. The surface of 
this town is uneven ; some of the 
lands which border on the streams 
that fall into Chickopee . river are 
fertile. The highlands are not very 
good. There is a satinet factory in 
the town, and manufactures of 
straw bonnets, palm-leaf hats, leath- 
er, ploughs, boots and sho^s. 

Oakham lies 60 miles W« from 
Boston, and 15 N. W. from Worces- 
ter. It was taken from Rutland in 
1762. PopulaUon, 1837, 1,109. 

Oldto'Wtty Me* 

Penobscot co. See Orono. 

Oldtount Harbor^ Bljuw. 

See Edgartown. 

Olanunoity Ide* 
Penobscot co. See Greenhush. 
Chnponaponooane RlVer^ Vt* 

This good mill stream is about 20 
miles in length : — it rises near the 
centre of the county of Orange, 
and falls into Connecticut river at. 

Onion River, Vt. 

This is one of the largest and 
most valuable rivers in the state.— 
It is about 70 miles in length, and in 
its course fertilizes large tracts of 
land and produces a great hydraulic 
power. This stream rises in Cale- 
donia county: it passes nearly 
through the centre of the counties 
of Washington and Chittenden, and 


after passing « TVlnooski city" it 
falls into Champlain Iake,> five miles 
N. from Burlington village. 

Winooski is the beautiful Indian 
name of this river, and had the good 
people of Winooski poasessed the 
exquisite taste of their predecessors 
they would - probably have called 
their charming little city cabbage 


Onion river, so called, has nu- 
merous tributaries, and is one of the 
most romantic streams in the coun- 
try. The channels which have 
been worn in the rocks, by its cease- 
less current, are objects of great 
admiration. In its passage through 
the mountains are found 'tissures 
through solid rocks from 30 to 100 
feet |n depth, with smooth perpen- 
dicular sides, 60 or 70 feet in width. 
In many places on this stream are 
natural bridges, curious caverns, 
and delightful water-falls. 

The road near the banks of this 
stream, from Connecticut river to 
Burlington, is said to be the best 
passage across the mountains, in 
that direction : it is certainly highly 
picturesque and delightful. 

Oquossajc Iial(e, Me* 

Oxford CO. This large lake lies a 
few mites N. E. of the Mooseluck- 
maguntic. It is very irregular in its 
form, and contains many islands. 

Orange, N. H. 


Grafton co., is 16 miles £. from 
Dartmouth college, 10 S. W. from 
Plymouth, and 40 N. W. from Con- 
cord. Population, 1830, 405. In 
this town are found many mineral 
substances, such as lead ore, iron 
ore, &c. There is in the S. E. part 
a small pond, in which is found a 
species of paint resembling spruce 
yellow. Chalk, intermixed with 
magnesia, is said to he procured 
from the same pond. In 1810, a 
valuable species of ochre was dis- 
covered. It is found in great abun- 
dance, deposited in veins, and of a 
quality saperidr to the imported.-^ 


Large ifHantities of it are annually 
prepared for market. The surface 
of Orange is uneven, but the soil 
in many pai;t8 of it is productive. — 
Cardigan mountain lies in the E. 
part of the town. Orange was 
granted by the name of Cardigan, 
Feb. 6, 1769. Its settlement com- 
menced in 1773. 

Orange County, VU 

Chelsea, chief town. This coun- 
ty is bounded N. by Washington 
and Caledonia counties, E. by Con- 
necticut river, S. by Windsor coun- 
ty, and W. by Addison and Wash- 
ington counties. Area, 650 square 
miles. Population, 1820, 24,169; 
1830, 27,286. . Population to a 
square mile, 42. Incorporated, 
1781. The eastern range of the 
Green mountains extends along the 
northwestern part of the county. 
The principal rivers, besides the 
Connecticat, are the Ompomponoo- 
suc, Wait's, branches of the White, 
and Stevens' branch of the Onion. 
The lands in Orange county are gen- 
erally good for grazing, and supply 
many cattle and all the varieties of 
the dairy, of which a large amount 
is annually sent to market. In 
1837 there were 99,346 sheep with- 
in its limits. This county contains 
some excellent tracts of land on the 
banks of th^ Connecticut. Iron and 
lead ores, slate and granite, are 


Orange, Vt« 

Orange co. This town lies 12 
miles S. E. from Montpelier, and 12 
N. from Chelsea. First- settled, 
1793. Population, 1830, 1,016.— 
The soil is coId,and better suited for 
grazing than grain. Knox's moun- 
tein lies in this town : — it is quite an 
elevation*, and is composed princi- 
' pally of granite. Some of the 
Quarries in the town produce excel- 
lent granite Sn* building, and here 
' tfe found platet of beautiful white 
nfiei, several inches square. The 

products of the town ia cmttle aiild 
wool are considerable. 

Oraaife, Bbuui. 

Franklin co. Orange lies 73 
miles W. from Boston, and 20 E. 
from' Greenfield. Incorporated, 
1783. Population, 1830, 880 ; 1337, 
1,543. The manufactures of the 
town consist of iron castines, boots, 
shoes, palm-leaf hats, card boards, 
shoe pegs, chairs and cabinet ware : 
annual amount about $40,000. Mil- 
ler's river aflbrds the town a good 
water power, and Tully hill a fine 
prospect. The soili&uneven, aod 
better fitted for grazing than tillage. 
There is a pleasant village in the 
town, and a good fish pond. 

Oraaife, Ct. 

New Haven co. This town was 
taken from New Haven and A(il- 
ford in 1822. The name was adopt- 
ed in honor of William, Prince of 
Orange, in commemoration of the 
benefits received from him by the 
colony of Connecticut; particular- 
ly for the restoration of their char- 
ter after the usurpation and tyranny 
of Edmund Andres. 

Orange lies about 4 miles S. W. 
from New Haven an^is a pleasant 
town with a productive soil. The 
inhabitant^ are principally farmers. 
Savin Rock in this town is a roman- 
tic spot, and a place of resort in the 
summer. There are mines of sil- 
ver and copper in the town, and as- 
bestos is found in abundance in ser* 
pentine rocks. Population, 1830, 

Orford, V.H. 

Grafton co. It lies on Connecti- 
cut river, over which is a bridge, 
connecting with Fairlee. Orferd is 
11 miles below Haverhill, 17 N. of 
Hanover, and 64 N. W. from Con- 
cord. The soil is generally of a 
fertile character. The larg^ inter- 
vale farms, watered by the CoQ|iec- 
ticut, are particularly distingvUdi'ed 


for Quar betuty ind fertility. Tb«i« 
Kre two consider&ble eleratiaDi, 
called Houiit,Cub& >Dd Mount SuD- 
iaj, Ijioft near tlie centre of the 
. town. There are four or five ponds 
tit considerable size, one of which, 
called Baker's Qpper pood, lies with- 
in 3 or 1 miles of Connecticut river. 
This pond diKharges its waters in- 
to another pond, lying partly in 
Wentworlh, and the waters of both 
elDptjr into Baker's river. Indian 

KDd lies about I mile west Irom 
iker'a upper pond. Limestone 
ii found in great abundance. 
It is of the priniidve kind, coarse 
grained, andlDrms aslrong and hard 
BCment. It is found at the foot of a 
nountaiD, about 400 or 600 feet 
above Cnnnecdcyt river. Soap 
> found here in great 
A light grt 
rock, much used lor mill 
for buildiog, is found in various pla- 
cei. Galena, or lead ore, of a very 
fine texture, cootaiaing needles of 
crystallized quartz, or lead.hasbeen 
(bund, in considerable quantities in 
dnkiog a well. Orford contaius a 
pleasant village, situated on the 
main road. " It is built on a beau- 
tiful plain bordered by intervale on 
the W. The hills on both sides of 

pansion, approach 
to form a liind of neck ; and with 
MnilUr approximation at the two 
ends give the whole the appear- 
ance (rf' a double amphitheatre, oi 
of the numerical figure S. The 
greatest breadth of